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THE TARGUM TO CANTICLES ACCORDING TO 
SIX YEMEN MSS. COMPARED WITH THE 
'TEXTUS RECEPTUS' (Ed. de Lagarde) 

By Raphael Hai Melamed, New York. 

CHAPTER II 
AB 

8a. As stated above, the Yemen MSS. are not uniform 
in their texts. While forming a group in themselves, 
distinct from L, they nevertheless diverge one from the 
other in text, in orthography, and matters of morphology 
and syntax. Each of the manuscripts has features, dis- 
tinctive to itself alone, as the following analysis will 
endeavour to show. 

83. The most reliable and best preserved of these texts 
are AB. They contain the least number of textual and 
scribal errors, and seem to preserve the more original 
Yemen readings. A being the better written of the two, 
was used as the basis of this edition. 

TEXTUAL VARIANTS 

A. Independent Readings. 

84. The following independent readings are to be noted 

in AB: 1. 1 btnw "031 two -idk ntti xnvw mvi'bn Nrrvtr 
wnn? new tnra omnia Bir^o inns ; 1. 1 rb irae> nto "po ; 
1. 9 too ; 2. 13 wn pi ; 3. 14 -ptnoi ; 2. 17, 3. 6, 4. 6 wnSa ; 

VOL. XL I B 



2 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

3. 7 btrw rw mv^ ; 3. 10 epa jd pro ; 4. 3 mm tabm 
mw*ia lain ; 4. 4 n\a p»dji Nim ; 4. ia cnn mm ; 6. 4 pta 
na$a:{> rra>ri ; 8. 6 wrtal/i]. 

B. Fuller Readings. 

85. There are a few instances in AB, none of which, 
however, are of any material significance : 1. 1 bis [rro] aTD ; 
ibid. [N'vajn pan] ntwo; 123 4. a [tcpssmn] kWji djik 5>aD pani; 

4. 14 yp [i>a ov]; m 5. 7 xmix [5>i>] pwr. 

There are three instances where H are fuller than AB : 
1. 1 [M[*]*a3] rvabw; 1. 1 [ajroax na] p-01 ; 5. 16 eyipn [win] pi. 

C. Order. 

86. Several instances of transposition of words occur 
in AB: 5. 10 pD]n yaiKa; 6. 3 wsm wn; 1M 7. 6 s^pl 
xnom tv jptna." 6 

In A alone there is one instance of inverted order: 
2. 15 ktj Ninn. 

GRAMMATICAL VARIANTS 

A. The Orthography of AB. 

87. AB have a strong preference for D against b; thus 
we find "1DJ>, <mD$>, abno, but ptttrm. 

Likewise they express consonantal 1 by 11, thus: Nni13T, 
"iiiWn, nnjiD, but also by single 1 in tenia, nnoi. 

88. AB always write the Tetragrammaton thus: "•;), 
and abbreviate not infrequently mp, PtOB", DnXD. 

us l jpaj 'o 

124 AB were probably influenced by the recurrence of the phrase later 
in the verse. 

"» L writes 'DVni '»Tfl. "' Cf. Onk. Gen. 30. 37, 38. 



TARGUM TO CANTICLES — MELAMED 3 

B. Phonetics. 

89. While AB read in 1. 4 iwii and in 1. ia ktu, 
B change a to t, reading IttJ, alii. 

Patah is lengthened to Karnes in the pass. part, in 1. 8 
where A reads tf'jn, B tt'yi. 

In 1. a A writes aunn, B 3"arn; a. u A «|^n, B *p$fi; 
AB always write fil, cf. 1. 14, a. 6, a. 8, 3. 8, &c. 

In 1. 15 AB write ttpby, B Np'Dg ; 7. 9 A writes *8 ' if, 
B 'N. 

In i"i> verbs AB retain final i, which R change to e; 
cf. 3. 4, 5. 1 where AB write ''"iCtfi, B '•'iEW. But a. 3 
A writes ■toron, while B retain final i, ^jriNT. 

Shewa and patah change places in the beginning of 
a word : 8. 9 AB I^BNI, B l!>W ; cf. a. 15, 8. 4. 

In the group of nouns wtnpn, k-o*i», NrmD, kmw, and 
Ntjn~D AB generally use the patah over the prefix, except 
in the word NBT1D, where a hirek is usually found. 

AB usually write xrinco with a hirek over the "I ; cf. 
1. 1, 1. 9, a. 7, 7. 1, &c. 

C. Morphology. 
1. Verbs. 

90. Peal. The impv. form VtjDI occurs in a. 5, A, by 
the side of HltfDI of B. 

Pael. For the Pael pass. pt. in 2. 3, AB read ruwi r 
B nac'ci. 

Aphel. The Aphel pf. In a. 7, 3. 5, 5. 8, AB read 
rdto&k, while B read rvj/WK. In 2. 15, 8. 4, AB read for 
the inf. vxft&, while B have snjN^. 

Ithpaal. In 1. 14 AB have np^nN, while B have 

ripens. 

b 2 



4 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

Ithpe. and Ithpa. In 6. ia AB writes Ithpa. ^JnN, 
B Ithpe. ^Jrm. 

2. Nouns. 

91. A B have a strong preference for forms of -niy, 
'work', with surek; cf. 1. 6, 1. 12, 1. 15, 2. 10, &c, but 
also write pn^aiy; cf. %. 16. 

3. Prepositions. 

92. With a single exception, AB always write DipS 
with hatet kames. In 1. 1 B writes D"i'p. In 4. 13, AB 
write 'S'ri, while B have ^[njn. 

4. Adverbs. 

93. AB always write pJ3 ' in order that ', with hirek ; 
cf. 1. 14, 2. 6, 2. 8, 3. 8, &c. AB prefer to write the adv. 
|fira with patah ; cf. 1. 1, 1. 15, 2. 9, 4. 7, &c. ; but occasion- 
ally they write JDti with kames ; cf. 1. 1, 2. 3, 2. 7. AB 
prefer the adv. \ s 5fn with kames, which is the correct form, 
but sometimes write it prn with patah; cf. 1. 1, where 
both forms occur. In 1. 14 B writes J\D3 Nfi, while B have 
paa ah- 

5. Conjunctions. 

94. AB generally write conj. XD3 Ti 'as'; cf. 2. 3, 2. 6, 
2. 7, 4. 2, &c, but ND3 Nn is also found ; cf. 1. io, 3. 8. 

AB generally prefer 13, cf. 1. 5, 2. 7, 2. 14, 3. 5, 3. 6, &c, 
but the unusual form H3 is also found, cf. 2. 7, 5. 5. 

D. Syntax. F<?>-fo. 

95. Peal. In 4. 6 A uses Pe. pt. const, '•piv, while B 
have the abs. ppny . 

Pe. and Pa. In 1. 4 AB use Pa. pf. njtjj, while B have 
Pe. NrriT. In 5. 2 AB write Pe. impv. nin, while B have 
Pa. •nih. 



TARGUM TO CANTICLES — MELAMED 5 

Peal and Aph. In 8. 4, 8. 9 AB write Aph. i5t, while 
B writes Peal 13T, and in 8. 14 AB write Aph. nerii, 
b Pe. ncni (l ncTii). 

Pael. In 4. 8 AB have Pa. pt. c. 'PDD, B abs. PpDD. 

Ithpe. In 8. 9 A writes Ithpe. pt. det. NmnyriD, while 
B writes the indetr. tnfivno. 

ERRORS 

A. Textual. Omissions. 

96. The following omissions occur in AB : 3. a npinDKl 
[w:d] ; 4. a pw [mm] ; 5. 1 [^K-icn] sn^a ; 5. 10 spojn 
[n»d"3]; 7. 3 [tan] snn: 'D; 8. 14 [tor] ny. 

In A alone the following omissions are to be noted : 

4. 10 pjne> jo ["vrv] ; 7. 3 [fi'mao] D^nano. 

There are two passages in which B alone omits words 
contained in B: 1. 4 [n^d] ndc^T; 3. 8 [N:nr6] I^DDT. 

In 8. 11 AB contain an omission due most probably to 
homoioteleuton : [ruv now D^BTTO] trrc 2Tiin. 

B. Grammatical. 
1. Suffixes. 

97. In 1. 11 '.dtd and 4. 1 W2"iip A alone is incorrect 
in the omission of the suffixes. 

a. Gender. 

98. AB only have the correct gender in the following 
passages : 5. ia ji>3rtDDl ; 6. 4 NW ; 7. 8 JtnariD ; 3. 14 pJpn. 

In 4. 8 T^ (twice) and 5. ia JD'pT, A alone is correct. 
AB have the incorrect forms in the following instances : 
1. 1 inni; a. 8 i^riDi. 

A alone is incorrect in 3. 10 pwi ; 5. a nim ; 8. 8 pW>pi ; 

8. 11 ntyjj. 

B alone is incorrect in 7. 3 nn\ 



6 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

3. Number. 

99. In 8. 3 xipmb AB alone are correct. In 7. 6 »e""i!> 
and 8. 1 NJHN NDy, AB alone are incorrect. 

4. Prepositions. 

100. In 8. 11 n^y J^ai AB are incorrect. 
In 3. 8 K2-\rb A alone errs. 

CHAPTER III 
C 

101. The text of C presents a number of independent 
readings and forms. It has many features peculiar to 
itself which mark it apart from the rest of the manuscripts. 
But of all the texts, it is most prone to textual errors and 
omissions. Especially is it careless in omitting words 
and phrases ; of such omissions there is a large number. 

TEXTUAL VARIANTS 

A. Independent Readings. 

102. The independent readings of C are the following : 
1. 1 'ani; i. 3 finny Wddd; 1.4 amis; 1. 13 wa-ip; 2.6 

^TWib) ; m 3. IO fo-KPH NnB>33 "NIVD TDyB> p W'k t6 'oip 

'nivd TaycD "j^ 'pnsi W'tc paw nTBtn ponp^o wm; 128 
3. 14 Tnon ; " 9 3. 6 irpixn ; #«/. n-ibv ; 3. 8 nanaa pafo 
NnniN; 130 3.9 Nam pniv asm; 131 4. 1 apyn auod pp'tx; 132 

WT The roots ^pri and '7T are closely related ; either word might be 
used here. 

128 The reading of C seems superfluous. 1! » Cf. Heb. "Iflpa. 

130 L writes NmiK 'DJnaa p'tlM ; C is good ; it is an interesting 
variant of L. 

131 C refers to the various woods ; R to the temple. 

132 This ma y De an error f c. 



TARGUM TO CANTICLES — MELAMED 7 

4. 6 jotai ; 5. 3 pnrv 3tik ; 6. 1 iwp»» n , iP'' mp^nota ; 6. 5 
»nniN ; 6. 6 N^ani ; 133 7. 13 nrui ; 8. 5 Ki?i>p5. 

B. Fuller Readings. 

103. There are a number of fuller readings in C : 
1. 1 nd^d]; 1. 9 [fTrme>»i] nsriB; 1. 14 [ntPDi] "IT; a. a 
'3$>a [l»a]; 3. 6 [i]r6an [ta-ityi pw] on-oxi; 5. 14 pnt3B>3 
[ppvui] ; 134 7. 6 [KTsn] |cib>3. 

C. Order. 

104. In some cases a different order is found in the 
text of C : a. 8 anim salts i»y nmb ; a. 9 ptpiw na»n i>y 
■vtaai ; 135 a. 17 Hep naiNT ; 4. 14 rut? wo ; 5. 7 tofon rrpns ; 
7. 13 tramo ^ tuits*M u$>i. 

GRAMMATICAL VARIANTS 

A. The Orthography of C. 

105. Like AB, C prefers the use of d to that of b, 
and, but for the word MSC which occurs twice, uses only 
the D. 

C prefers final K to ii, writing invariably ND and ND3, 
but also nrvtr, nsio. 

C rarely uses 11 ; it occurs but once each in the words 
jii^y, 'iitai, innoi, and pnmur ; ordinarily kiyd?, xnijn, pnm^a. 

C rarely uses M , generally preferring V Thus we find 
npi»nN, 3«nnNi, but rmv-iix, jvn. pta. 

C frequently abbreviates such words as K5HK, itfcby, 
tbwv, besides the common abbreviations mrr mp, ^tOB*, 
anxo. 

133 B KMriDI does not occur as a noun but as Aphel pt. 

1 3 * C mg. al. m. 

135 Cf. Pesahim 39 a, and Low, Aram&ische Pflansstnnamen, pp. 87, 179. 



8 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

B. Phonetics. Vowels. 

1 06. In half or completely closed syllables C retains 
the original & which B changes to e or i; 5. 3 C -nnib!>> 
B innb^. 

When followed by a labial i becomes it; 1. 11 B n$2E>, 

C NJhlB>. 

£ changes to J in 5. 6 C wnv, B wax. 

Final J becomes e; 1. 17 C yantn, B 'jarttn; 7. 13 C 'k, 
B 'K. 

u is changed to in 3. 3, where C writes "iifn for B -,irn ; 
5. 14 piNi for B piKi; 6. 4 C -ynuyi, B I'mim. Patah is 
reduced to shewa in 1. 14; C jonfe), B jonte). 

Characteristic of C (and D) alone is the method of 
punctuating the conjunction 1. Almost invariably C writes 
T, contrary to rule, before the «i»2 letters, thus ;»T, rMintfOl, 
wwnaT, nrvynT, nana?, &c. 

In two instances C writes } in ^Bj5i, pjjfipi against the 
regular form 1. It is possible that the pronunciation of i 
before «|D3 was as though it were written i and that the two 
last forms mentioned are merely mistakes of the scribe. 

C. Morphology. 
1. Verbs. 

107. Peal. Pt. m. pi. 1. 16 C pt?a, L pe^a from vVia, 
b jca Vwi. 

Inf. a. 9 C br6, B xbn!>, L sbnoij. 136 
Impf. 3. 3 C ptfN, B pbN; 7. 7 C pbom, B ^UDm 
(Gr. 271). 

136 L i s best form. 



TARGUM TO CANTICLES — MELAMED 9 

Pael. Pt. m. s. 1. 10 C djibdi, B D^naioi. 
Pt. f. s. nvidd, B nttdo. 
a. Nouns. 

108. Two different forms of the same noun are found 
in 1. 1, where C writes rviDJ?, B 'fncy; 137 1. n C WDy, 
B "hiDj?; a. 9 C KD ? 3ri, AB NDart, EF saD';i. 

C always writes xsripib while B generally write NBHpb- 
^ay written in various ways is found in C as tfij?. 
In 6. 3 C writes "b-rn, B -b'rn. 

D. Syntax. Verbs. 

109. Peal. In 7. a C writes Pe. pf. where B write pt. : 
C lP^D, R |»p5>D, L pbo. 

Pe. and Pa. 6. 5 C writes Pael. it^ph, B Pe. IBph. 
Pe. and Aph. 3. 3 C writes 'nm, B "nvft. 
Pe. and Ithpe. Pt. 1. 13 B KP'Djn, C KpoyriDl. 7. 4 
R "i^non (intrs. pi.), C l^hcN. 188 

Ithpe. and Ithpa. Pt. 1. 9 C ipincxT, B ipinB'NT. 
Ithpe. and Ithpa. Pt. 1. 11 C pEnsnoi, B pEnshm. 

ERRORS 
A. Textual. 

1 10. Omissions in C are very frequent, as may be seen 
from the cases given below. 

1. Homoioteleuta. 
I. 9 b*3< K»D IV JVT3W PN-I31J PK31W N'JWI llCK 3^3] *6 

^a* [t6 wd m ta»i> ; 2. 3 Koi>y "i>ui pnD y^K ya] nacoi 
[y»3 ropm 'w ND^y pan pa nw pjniD ; 5. 9 tok xrbtt prx 
tok «n^« pT«5> trcoy ^ao mtvbbh 'ncn sneoa r^Bcfr] sax 

187 C = rn.B'J!; cf. Neldeke, il/awrf. Gn, 154, note 1. 
1S8 l wr ites J^nOT . 



IO THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

tub. rvo«p pam brrmb [tfya ; 8. 6 by [Kprsn ^to ia^>] by ; 

8. 7 JN1 130 *m nV'3BDi» pk' «!? pt«D |W'K sm kdh] ioi> 

Minn [id!> p^nm NyiN <ai>D bs ptwariD. 
a. Omissions. 
in. Plain omissions in C are as follows: i. 13 Kj?ai 
[«ip] pom; 1. 17 ysntn [»**i] aenpo; 139 2.4 '*6y [n^ap]; 
a. 7 [pD'oi>] prm [xh] ; uo a. 14 tnano [prtnoDDi] ; U1 ibid. 
[i>N-ie>n] xntwa ; 2. 15 [aua] wen ; a. 16 yjy ninno [pwi] ; us 
*'&#. m [»pnv] ; 3. a nnwi [^roi] ; 3. 4 [ma] wimp ; 3. 6 
[r6] jH3»n» ; 3. 7 [ w ] not* ; 3. 9 [noi>c] ns^d ; 3. 10 W>di 
[vnb]; *%£ [i'tnen] Nvns; 143 4.8 [pa'pn] pana; 4- " 
[wrox] »wya ; 4. 15 [oiwra mncn] Ntrtpo iraa ; 4. 16 fry] 
vi!>n; 5. 15 [N3-ip] jnxi; 14 * 6, 1 [*n] annacin; 6. a toco 
[Ntmpn] ; 6. 4 [rmona] *» -ion ; ibid, nab® ['b] wan ; 6. 5 
[xna-i] Nnswa [wan] iO)yai; 14B 6. 9 arta [run]; 6. n rvai> 
pirn Onpo] ; U6 7. 1 ['ncn] xncwa ; 7. a [w»«] ^sba ; 7. 5 
pDn [psn] psm ; ibid. [»»ri>] pirn ; **«/. [^11 p^] ^i tWi 
prn» ; 7. 8 [twro] pDnan pryai ; 8. 1 [witn] soy ; 8. 3 icn 
>a U7 [t6anb] tpjw&; 8.4 [pd^] xy\x; ibid, [pai?] 1 * 8 naT; 
8. 6 my [spou] xh ; ibid, pen [??]. 
3. Scribal errors. 
1 1 a. The following scribal errors occur in C : 
1. 10 xacDNa Nnnw nans jo; 3. 7 pnnan; 3. 10 p; 4-3 
sai> n^d^ ; 4. 4 li? Nvn ; W9 4. 7 'ne» na ; 4-8 pterin ; 4- 15 
wpD ; 5. 1 mm ; 5. 4 nom ; 5. 9 n."6n dn pmt6 ; 6. 1 130 ; 

139 C shorter, perhaps. 

140 N^T written C mg. al. m. ul L writes "J131D. 

145 C writes pBJl , mg. al. m. "' Not necessarily omission. 
144 Ii writes N3"ipi. B Cm 

146 NJVa?, hence may not be an omission. 

i« C ib. ue C mg. al. m. p3^> . 

149 This is both an omission and error of C. 



TARGUM TO CANTICLES — MELAMED II 

6. ii ujriNi; 7. 1 nfr; 7.3 pna; ibid. pISD; 7.5 intai; 
z'&'rf. trcn ; 7. 6 nnpnij ; 7. 7 *niate ; 8. 4 [impact ; 8. 5 pii ; 
ibid. Noa ; 8. 6 NDJ^. 160 In 1. 11 there is a textual error of 
B against the correct reading of C ; '•jnxxa , B 'jhXNii . 

B. Grammatical. 
1. Verbs. 

113. The following errors in verbs are to be noted 
in C: 

1. 6 rvrjDi; 1. 7 f$t&5»; 1. 17 fins a. 3 ihd>\ a. 17 
f^DD-i ; 3. 3 laisi ; 3. 8 pm; 5. a ifcriN ; 8. 7 nnei>. 
In the following verb forms C alone is correct : 
a. 1 a virinN ; a. 17 poDiiso. 161 
a. Nouns. 

114. The following errors in nouns occur in C: 

1. 9, a. 6 pYii; 1. 16 xjrtoi; 2. 13 niaajj; 3. 8 Nni>D cir- 
cumcision ; 7. a prrJrn'. 
3. Suffixes. 

115. In 3. 5 panmto C alone has the wrong suffix, while 
in 7. 7 paJNl C alone incorrectly omits it. 

4. Gender. 

116. In the following passages C alone has the correct 
gender: 1. 11 p'na ; 4. la ihbhvb ; 1M 6. 10 |TSE>. 

In the following C is incorrect in gender forms: 1. 16 

ppnDI; 2. 10 i>'PN; 7. 7 "|i>J/. 

5. Number. 

117. In a. 14 *oi>D and 5. a "pnjftn C alone is correct in 
number. Errors of C in number are: 1. 14 turu ; a. 15 

160 C is blurred. ™ L writes fDDISD. 

152 The form C \rbrtirO is not found; it should be fbTWQ, but C is 
clearly meant for feminine. 



12 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

|vrra; 3. 17 ump; 163 4. 6 prrvi; 4. n k^dd; 154 4. 12 

pm PJJ13D3 ; 165 6. I pWl; 166 7. 3 NtWX. 

6. Prepositions. 

118. In the following passages C alone has the correct 
preposition 6. 10 JDT3; 7. 3 NJJK3. 

In the following instances C either omits or inserts the 
wrong preposition: 1. 1 whhl, 7 Wicm; a. 15 K^anntn; 
5. 13 N3D3, 14 pnneo ; 6. a jmruD^. 

CHAPTER IV 
D 

119. Despite its fragmentary character, D contains a 
number of interesting variants and forms. It contains even 
an independent reading which appears to be genuine and 
not a corruption. While it presents closer relation to C 
than to the other manuscripts, its variants indicate that it 
is an independent text, and the missing sections would no 
doubt have given us a number of interesting variants in 
form and text. 

TEXTUAL VARIANTS 

A. Independent Readings. 

iao. The following independent reading is to be noted 
in D : 7. ia linn 11 , " bitt itidi '-ib* n»a soy nn is. 

The following differences in individual words occur 
in D: 1. 9 prv!>S; ibid. ND<; 1. 13 (un^s; 7. 9 ton KrWM; 
7. 10 mn -iDr6. 

ins L writes fW3"np. 

164 L writes ppVID, which points to a different text. 

«• L writes pm 5)1303. 166 AL write K"rWl. 



TARGUM TO CANTICLES — MELAMED 13 

B. Fuller Readings. 
iai. The following fuller readings occur in D: 1. 14 
i>N-iB»i [13a]; 7. 4 toemn [rra]; y. 9 juwn [wk] pai. 

The following abbreviated readings occur in D: 1. 1 

[Wdki] kw; 1. 8 [noinn] in ; 7. 10 [«n] nio'io. 

C. Order. 
12a. A case of inverted order is preserved in D : 1. 17 

GRAMMATICAL VARIANTS 

A. The Orthography of D. 

123. D generally omits 1, writing Jini>3, Ntnp, Km, but 
iTnifB also occurs. 

D uses 11 but once in rvroi^ro, preferring forms without 
11, as xnof, snisn. 

D generally prefers ' to ", making use of «, strangely 
enough, in two words WSD and K^x, which are written 
in the other MSS. and in L with one \ D also writes 
nTV'-iiN, but ptan, kiv-hk. 

D shows a strong preference for abbreviations, Dnxo, 
^N-it?\ aiwv each being written in full once. Otherwise 
these words are abbreviated together with all other proper 
names, as well as such words as nNin:3, K»i>y, NrmiN, which 
are written as 'u:3, 'oby, or 'by, 'tix. 

B. Phonetics. 

1. Consonants. 

124. In 1. 8 D writes xnD'W, B NriB»M. 

2. Vowels. 

125. D retains the & which in half or completely closed 
syllables is changed to i or e. Thus 1. 2 D Kb"U5, B KDTM. 



14 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

a is lengthened to a in Pa. pass. pt. : i. n D ppfo, B ppm. 157 
i changes to e in i. 13: Bspj", D sp: ; 7. 10, 8.5 sto, 
D NWb, &c; cf. 7. 9 nnw, 

£ changes to I, 1. 7 B '"in, D '■in ; 7. 9 ">», D ^S. Patah 
and shewa interchange : 8. 5 D pTiy, B p-jiy. Peculiar 
to D (and C) is its writing of the conj. l before 1»3 with 
a shewa. Thus pnni, rrfiritPEi, ^iKnei. It is probable that 
D imitated C in this peculiarity in all the missing sections, 
as it imitated it almost entirely in those chapters extant. 
The pronunciation of 1 before 1«33 was probably as though 
written \. 

C. Morphology. 
1. Verbs. 

126. Peal. Impf. Two forms of Peal impf. occur in 1. 8, 
8. 4, where D writes xm, B W. 158 

Pael. Pf. Two forms of Pael pf. 3 m. s. in 1. 7 D <i'ri, 
H 'in. Pt. pass. f. pi., two forms in 1. 11, D piDD, B pn66. 
Aphel. Pf. Two forms in 1. 1 D nj&, B n'W. 

a. Nouns. 

127. In 1. 1 we have four instances of the same change 
of form of numerals, where D writes xnthbii, xffriw, Kn^on, 
xrrcoy for B srWDri, swats', wwon, KrP'DJi. Two forms 
of the sing, noun occur in 1. 10, where D writes ND1D and 
B K'DID. D preserves a singular reading, 1. 16 Npiaa, 
B NiViEO. 189 In 8. 6 D writes poft, B jncnj?. 

3. Conjunctions. 

128. In 8. 1 two forms of the conj. occur where D 
writes f|lN, B v\K. 

»« Cf. Gr., 332. "8 C£ Gr . ( 354 . 

169 Cf. note 87 above. 



TARGUM TO CANTICLES — MELAMED 15 

D. Syntax. Verbs. 

139. Peal and Pael. In 1. 9 D writes Pael 3 m. s. nay, 
B the Peal nay. In 1.3 D writes Pael 3 p. i&rri, B Peal 
intrs. iD'rin. 

Pael and Ithpaal. In 1. 4 D writes Pa. pt. PPPPD, 
B Ithpaa. ppmno. 

Ithpeel and Ithpaal. In 8. a D writes 3 p. nfiyriKn, 
B innyrixn. Inf. In 8. 5 D has Ithpaal xyhru*!?, B Ithpeel 
xyfant&' 



ERRORS 

A. Textual. 
1. Omissions. 
130. The following omissions are to be noted in D : 
7. 11 ["a] yvhef jtfvn; 8. 1 jnran [win] na; 8. 3 tntpp kjwi 

3. Scribal Errors. 
131. D contains the following scribal errors. In 1. 1, 1. 2, 
1.5, 1. 17 D repeats nc&cr for nrJi>&; 1. 6 nD^in; 1.8 
KryVBB>; 1. 11 , np>; 1. 14 soa an; ibid. p&a\; ^r; 1. 16 
n«sy; 7. 10 m^iuan; 7. 13 "hbdj; 8. 1 rv; 8.5 twa. A 
textual error, apparently a doublet, occurs in D : 1. 13 
nx nnx. 

B. Grammatical. 
1. Verbs. 
133. The following errors in verbs occur in D : 1.8 
■nanci ; ibid. DTn ; 1. 13 p^SiB'Si; 8. 1 NnDoi. 
3. Nouns. 
133. The following errors in nouns occur in D : 1. 8 



l6 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

prroaB'D; i. 9 •'•frrn; 7. 14 nijh. The following noun forms 
in D are better than in B : 1. a nviD ; 160 1. 11 Jirro'ip. 

3. Gender. 

134. In the following passages D is incorrect in gender : 
1. 1 DWnDt; 1.4 nvt; 1. 7 pB>p; 1. 8 ntf J^noi; 1. 11 
jcnanm ; 1. 14 pSiriN ; 1. 16 &wd. 

4. Number. 

135. D alone is correct in number in 1. 15 T*131V, while 
it is incorrect in ibid, mnp tOK^n. 

5. Prepositions. 

136. In 1. 10 NT33, 1 a MTU3 ; 7. 13 KDjn D is incorrect. 

CHAPTER V 
EF 

137. In EF also we find a few variations in text. 
There are further differences in orthography, phonetics, 
morphology, and syntax to be noted. The orthography 
of E especially, which, however, is distinct from F in many 
respects, has a number of interesting points. Taken 
all in all, the text of these two MSS. is well preserved, 
and contains by far less of textual errors than C, and is 
only slightly inferior to AB. 

TEXTUAL VARIANTS 

A. Independent Readings. 

1 38. The following variations in text are to be noted in 
EF, jointly or singly : 1. 1 NW no ; 1. 8 J1D1D3 ; 1. 9 Kin ; 
1.--14MW; 4. 1 Knew »»; 5. iontoJDD; 7. n xneoa k"idn 
i>Nne>H; 8.6 btr\w rro; E 1. 1 btrw 'm nvro; F 1. 17 

160 CE write nWiD- Cf. jLoju^s and Merx, Chrest., 10, note 9, where 
all these forms repeat themselves. 



TARGUM TO CANTICLES — MELAMED 17 

"Dip ; 4. 4 byr\ ; 5. 8 pD^y irjoerc ; 7. 3 jini> jinn ; 7. 4 rwei 
onssN e|DV -o. 

B. Fuller Readings. 

139. There are a few fuller readings in EF: 1. 10 
[btrw rw] ipsj na; 2. 7 [jyjsn] kjtin; 2. 13 [^tto] nsip; 
8. 5 [5>inB>H] twins. 

C. Order. 

140. One instance of inverted order is to be found in 
EF: 4. 2 tnpjn K^nDl. 

GRAMMATICAL VARIANTS 

A. The Orthography of EF. 

141. E and F differ in the use of D and B> ; E prefers v, 
writing "WS, vrm, vfoyff, but ^KDl and the proper names 
Dna and pDD*i . F, however, prefers D, using the B> but once 
in WW and JTiariD, and in the proper names TW and top ; 
otherwise using D, as in "idjj, miDy, t^OD. E alone shows 
a decided preference for vocal K, writing tWl, "<$!?]), ^NDB>, 
isnD, nntox, &c. Both E and F prefer 1 defective, F more 
strongly than E, and the same tendency prevails with 
regard to ' defective. EF rarely use 11, the word Nmiar it 
is true, occurring several times, but more often xnur, Nnijn> 
&c. Similarly, EF rarely use % preferring single ' forms. 
Finally, EF are not inclined to abbreviate extensively; 
confining their abbreviations generally to iiw D^. E rarely 
abbreviates even Dip. 

B. Phonetics. 

142. In 2. 9 while B write 3:n, E writes yb"\ and 
F Mi. In 1. 13 R write ntPK, EF nc?K. e is reduced to 
J in 2. 10, 3. 3, 5. 3, where E writes y<m and B unit? ; 5. 4 

VOL. xi. C 



18 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

E b^k, R twix; 6. 12 E T&w, R T&k; 8 - H EF pnyi, 
R pnjn. In i. 14 F writes n^nhsi, where R write a^nron ; 
in 2. 14 F writes Nnao, R n-q». Shewa and patah change 
places in 4. 11, where EF write Krnrjn and R xrnryn. 

C. Morphology. 

1. Verbs. 

143. Peal: Pf. 3 pi. 5. 9, EF pDKi, R n»Kl. Impf. 
3 m. s. 8. 12, E Kn\ R \t. Impv. 2 s. f. 5. 2, EF TiaiH, R 
'nan. Aphel: Pt. m. s. 2. 14 to, EF pita, R pryib. Inf. 
8. 8 EF kpijS^, R snjxi?. Ithpaal: Pf. 3 m. s. 1. 14 
F a^rinsn, R n*nntn. 

2. Adverbs. 

144. In 2. 5 E has form via, R 13». 

In 1. 12 F alone, and in 2. 17 EF jointly, wn ncnp jo, 
where R have noip JD. 

D. Syntax. Verbs. 

145. Peal: In 6. 6 EF use the abs. pt. T""llp \b^», 
where R have the est. pt. T03""P ^n. In 1. 8 the pt. act. 
and pt. pass, are used interchangeably; EF D'rn, R D'fri ; 
likewise in 5. 2 and 8. 14, F ^5"s R b^ ; E "poTii R T'&'ni- 
In 8. 9 EF have Peal pt. pass. pp'Djn, while R have Pael 
pf. iP'Djn . Peal and Pael pf. interchange in 5. 5, F rvrin , 
R n\iri. In 1. 5 and 2. 5 Peal intr. and Pa. pf. interchange, 
E p-%, F p%6, R p^'6 ; F jva'np, R man?. In 8. 7 EF use 
Peal inf. , scoi>, while R have Pael inf. »bd»$. Pael: Pt. 
act. and pt. pass, interchange in 5. 10 E rnn6, R rVHnD- 
In 3. 7 the Pael and Aphel pt. interchange, F NnriDD, 
R xinDD. In 2.17 F writes Aphel, R Ithpeel ; -oiJn, 
-OTW. In 3. 8 EF have Ithpa., while R have Ithpe. ; 
norinntn, nfrnnrpKn. 



TARGUM TO CANTICLES — MELAMED 19 

ERRORS 

A. Textual. 
1. Homoioteleuta. 

146. The following omissions due to homoioteleuton are 
found in EF : 2. 12 kd iinvotr *n:j jaatt Drnat6] jt-io&h 
[rrnotn ; 3. 5 [tun jjn nhx yixb Birroa tv ^yp wk] jna'm ; 
5. 4[pnn» ^jni mnsn x:£d annjD -ra] jinn' 1 ; 8. 12 pm] b^p 

JlfU [D^t5» p^WI KW PD3C p-im D33 "13 DjO*V. 
a. Omissions. 

147. The following omissions occur in EF: 1. 4 im }D 
[mail] nrui [Njpp-n] ; i. 14 [taw$>] truon; 1. 15 nno'Da 
[me>»] ; 4. 1 idpVi [npjm <«i3] &opnx ; 5. i twro] otn )jn 
[nip's 'om; 8. 9 two [Tin*] ":pob. 

The following omissions are found in F alone: 1. 16 
fpjDi pe>s wi-uni wis *by] p'jd; 2. 5 Dim [mow]. 

3. Scribal Errors. 

148. Errors of divers kinds are to be found in EF: 
1. 8 wn ; 2. 5 rvjn ; 2. 9 toDVi ; 5. u am ; ibid, p-im ; 

6. 10 rviai ; 7. 10 Tm ; 7. 11 jjni ; 8. 7 KW •>»!> ; 8. 8 ttN ; 161 
8. 14 si>wn ; *&& ppriy. 

The following errors in vowels are to be noted in F 
over the prefixes b and i; 1. 11 K^pi!?; 162 5« 4 jiiW"ri; 16a 
5.12 pm. 

The following are textual errors in F alone : 4. 8 t<m ; 
5. 5 ,i i3«>; 6. 11 no i>y ; 6. 12 pmd{>; 7. 5 Rrmo; 8. 5 pun. 

4. Miscellaneous Errors. 

149. The following miscellaneous errors are found in 
E alone: 1. 11 svn ; 1. 14 nd ; 2.4 wnps; 2. 14 ynarui; 

3. 1 1 ^ro ; 4. 6 p ; 5. 1 rvbtfi ; 8. 8 torjn DN. 

161 R have flv ; hence the very opposite thought is here expressed. 

162 In these two instances it may be the influence of the guttural "I that 
altered the vowels of F. Cf. Gr., 224. 

C 2 



20 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

F contains the following errors : i. 8 Kvnib ; i. 9 twcri ; 
#££ kd' ; a. 3 rvoyij; a. 14 wanai. 

B. Grammatical. 

1. Verbs. 

150. EF have the following errors in verbs : 2. 3 [ViDT ; 
3. 8 I'irri; 4. 3 ii>6; 4. 10 spij; 4. 16 i^iM; 5. 1 wrw; 
E alone has the following errors .-1.9 ipSnewi ; 3. 7 piano ; 

3. 10 xhet; 4. 7 nay; 4. 8 ppDo; 5. 4 a^noS; 7- 3 nfnba. 
F alone has the following errors: a. 17 xyai; 3. 11 l^b"i ; 
5. 4 yfnWi ; 5. 10 rrinD ; 8. 14 pop. 

2. Suffixes. 

151. In 5. 16 tonus, nnri; 6.4 Tnaun; 8.6 ^, EF 
have wrong suffixes. 

3. Gender. 

152. In 2. 2 r^a; 3. 6 Pr6, EF are incorrect. In 1. 16 
f&h, E is incorrect. In 1. 10 nrv ; 7. 2 p"lp»1 , F is incorrect. 

4. Number. 

153. In 1.9 tcrrw; a. 15 "tsaca; 6.10 prvDa; 1. 11 
tn'an ; 2. a XVjm ; 2. 6 tWD, EF are incorrect in number. 
In 4. 5 NDiDS, E is incorrect. In 1. 7 twpn ; 2. 2 Jjrnai ; 

4. a tyJX, F is incorrect. 

5. Prepositions. 

154. The following errors occur in EF: 7. 10 nypai; 
8. 13 *»3^. In 1. 2 |DJ7, E alone is incorrect. In 4. 13 
xruja, F alone is wrong. 

6. Conjunctions. 

155. In 1. 13 and 4. 4, F incorrectly omits conjunction 
1; -ran, isiwa.