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DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE OF GENIZAH 
FRAGMENTS IN PHILADELPHIA 

By B. Halper, Dropsie College. 

Prefatory Note. 

The various Genizot of the Orient, especially that of 
the Old Cairo synagogue, have for centuries preserved some 
important remnants of Jewish literature which were unknown 
until comparatively recent years. The publication of all 
the fragments would undoubtedly throw a flood of light 
upon Jewish history, would enhance our knowledge of the 
various branches of Jewish literature, and would clear up 
many obscure phases. But owing to the hugeness of the 
task and the lack of special funds for this purpose, any 
publication on a large scale is for the moment out of 
the question. The most that we can expect in the near 
future is to have a complete catalogue of the various 
collections stored up in European and American libraries. 
For one reason or another, only two catalogues of Genizah 
fragments have hitherto appeared, those of the Bodleian 
Library, Oxford, and of the British Museum, London. 1 
It is to be hoped that the present catalogue, which is 
confined to the description of Genizah fragments in the city 
of Philadelphia, will prove of value to scholars. 

1 Neubauer and Cowley, Catalogue of the Hebrew Manuscripts in the 
Bodleian Library, vol. II, Oxford, 1906 ; G. Margoliouth, Catalogue of the 
Hebrew and Samaritan Manuscripts in the British Museum, London, 1899- 

I9I5- 

VOL. XII. 397 E e 



398 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

The' fragments described in the following pages form 
five main collections which were purchased at different times. 
Dr. Cyrus Adler acquired his fragments while in Cairo 
in 1 891, that is, about five years prior to Professor Schechter's 
famous ' expedition ' to that city. The Honorable Mayer 
Sulzberger, Professor David Werner Amram, Dr. Herbert 
Friedenwald, and Professor Camden M. Cobern subsequently 
obtained their collections, which presumably hail from the 
Orient (most of the fragments seem to be from the Cairo 
Genizah), from various dealers. Dr. Adler, Mr. Sulzberger, 
and Dr. Friedenwald donated their collections to the Dropsie 
College, while Professor Amram presented thirty of his 
fragments to the University of Pennsylvania, seven to 
Mr. Ephraim Lederer, and six to the Young Men's 
Hebrew Association of Philadelphia. The Dropsie Col- 
lege purchased the Amram and Cobern Collections, and 
Mr. Lederer kindly presented his fragments to the same 
institution. Accordingly, all the fragments described in this 
Catalogue, with the exception of those at the University 
of Pennsylvania (marked U. P.) and at the Young Men's 
Hebrew Association (marked Y. M. H. A.), are in the 
Dropsie College Library. 

Although these fragments were acquired at random, 
they practically represent all branches of Jewish literature. 
Even the fourteen fragments in the Friedenwald Collection 
contain Bible, Talmud, Liturgy, Kabbalah, and ethical 
works. In the Amram and Sulzberger Collections there is 
a comparatively large number of legal documents and 
letters, a good many of which are of great value for the 
study of Jewish history. Owing to the multiplicity of 
subjects, the task of identifying these fragments is by no 
means an easy one. My difficulty was enhanced by not 



GENIZAH FRAGMENTS IN PHILADELPHIA — HALPER 399 

having a complete collection of Hebraica and Judaica at 
my disposal for ready reference. It was only by a thorough 
and careful perusal that I was able to identify nearly all 
the fragments. In many cases a mere guess or chance put 
me on the right track. The few fragments that still remain 
unidentified are so minutely described that any one familiar 
with the subject will have no difficulty in recognizing 
them. Some years ago Dr. Cyrus Adler had begun to 
work on a few of his fragments, and I found his notes 
very useful. 

The branches of Jewish literature that gain most by 
these fragments are undoubtedly, as is the case with 
practically all Genizah collections, Halakah and Liturgy, 
especially the latter. In the liturgic codices, mainly in the 
Adler Collection, we meet some names of hymn writers 
who were either entirely unknown or whose hymns have 
rarely been preserved. Mention may be made of Nissi 
al-Nahrwani 2 — that blind scholar who had been offered the 
Gaonate by David b. Zaccai before Sa'adya was appointed 
Gaon 3 — whose Confession was erroneously ascribed toNissim 
b. Jacob of Kairuwan. There is no reference to him in 
Zunz's Literaiurgeschichte der synagogalen Poesie, and only 
two of his hymns are recorded in the Catalogue of the 
Bodleian Library; but from his hymns and Selihot, pre- 
served in No. 277 and other fragments, it may be inferred 
that Nissi was a prolific paitan. Incidentally we learn that 

s Although in all acrostics the spelling of this paifan's name is 'D'J, 
it seems to be merely a case of plene writing. Accordingly, this name 
is abbreviated from D*D3 , just as , D1' 1 is the shortened form of SJDV . It is, 
however, possible that 'CO is a Persian name similar to , V , n, and has 
nothing to do with DJ or D^DJ. Should this assumption be correct, the 
transliteration of this name would be Nisi. 

3 See Neubauer, Mediaeval Jewish Chronicles, vol. II, p. 80. 

E e 3 



4<X> THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

his father's name was Berechiah.* The same codex has 
preserved a series of piyyutim by Joseph ibn Abitor, based 
upon the fifteen Songs of Ascents (Psalms 120-134). There 
is every reason to assume that the poet composed fifteen 
piyyutim, all beginning with DV. In this' codex we find six 
complete piyyutim and the beginning of a seventh belong- 
ing to this series constructed on a definite plan, a full 
description of which is given in this Catalogue. Zunz 5 only 
knew of two of these hymns (the second and the third, the 
latter of which he hesitatingly ascribes to the author), and 
did not detect their intrinsic connexion. Altogether about 
two hundred and fifty piyyutim have been recorded in this 
Catalogue. Owing to the circumstance that the greater 
part of these liturgic compositions are either still unpublished 
or inaccessible to scholars, I deemed it advisable to describe 
their structure as minutely as possible. The alphabetic 
arrangements employed by the paitanim being of various 
kinds, it is insufficient to describe them merely as 3"x or 
p"*ltJT) . In many cases the alphabet or the author's name is 
so skilfully and intricately worked in as to be baffling at 
first sight, especially when the writing is faded and the lines 
are continuous and not separated by dots. The hymn of 
Samuel the Third, or Fourth (No. 2,55, 8), may serve as an 
illustration of this point. In ascertaining whether a piyyut had 
ever been published, I was aided by my friend, Prof essorlsrael 
Davidson, of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, 
who has examined all printed works housed in the Seminary 
Library, and given a detailed account of each piyyut and 
poem occurring in them. I herewith wish to express my 
gratitude to him for his kindness in putting at my disposal his 

4 The full name is found in the acrostic of No. 277, 43. 

5 Literaturgeschichte der synagogalen Poesie, p. 179, Nos. 42, 43. 



GENIZAH FRAGMENTS IN PHILADELPHIA — HALPER 401 

manuscript work which is a veritable Thesaurus of Liturgic 
Poetry, supplementing Zunz's Liter aturgeschichte der syna- 
gogalen Poesie. Of peculiar interest are also the fragments 
of Azharot in Jewish-Arabic (Nos. 264, 265, belonging to 
the Adler and Friedenwald Collections, respectively). That 
they represent two independent poems is evident from the 
different systems of enumerating the 613 precepts which 
they presuppose. Another liturgic poem in Jewish-Arabic 
is the translation of Judah ha-Levi's famous poem "|1D3 'D 
(No. 284), which is also known under the title THDn JVIX. 
On the basis of some fragments it may be asserted that 
there was a vast literature, in Jewish-Arabic, on prayer in 
its various ramifications, only faint traces of which have 
been preserved. 

Among the talmudic fragments and the documents, 
attention may be drawn to the Arabic original of Hefes 
b. Yasliah's Book of Precepts (No. 121 ; published, 
Philadelphia, 1915) ; the extracts from the Yerushalmi 
(No. 85) ; the twenty-two parchment leaves of the Aruk 
(No. 97) which prove that the author divided his Dictionary 
into books and chapters in the manner of Arabic lexico- 
graphers : the Arabic translation of Maimonides' Yad 
ha-Hazakah (No. 133) ; the autograph responsum of 
Abraham the son of Maimonides (No. 159). Foremost 
among the documents is Sa'adya's letter, addressed to his 
three pupils in Egypt (No. 332), which was published by 
Schechter in his Saadyana, pp. 24-6, and served as a 
connecting link in the Ben Meir controversy. This fragment 
is part of a codex which probably contained historical 
letters or documents relating to this controversy similar 
to the compilation of H. J. Bornstein (Warsaw, 1904). 
Although this document is not the original, it is indisputably 



402 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

Sa'adya's, as may be seen from the four lines, in Arabic 
script, which were omitted by Schechter. Other documents 
that may be cited here are those relating to Masliah 
ha-Kohen, Gaon of Egypt in the first half of the twelfth 
century (Nos. 342, 343) ; the legal document drawn up in 
the court of Daniel (No. 346) ; the edict issued by Abraham 
the son of Maimonides (No. 347). On the whole, these 
documents reveal some interesting details in the inner life 
of mediaeval Egyptian Jewry. 

I 

BIBLE (Texts, Translations, Commentaries, 
Glosses, and Grammak). 

1. 

Part of a codex of the Pentateuch with masoretic notes. 
Gen. 6. 5-7. 3. 

First column of recto begins with Dvn (6. 5), and the last 
legible words of the second column are [mn]n nn (6. 14). First 
column of verso begins with ruban DDK (6. 16), and the second 
column ends with mpJl (7. 3). 

One parchment leaf, badly damaged and obliterated, measuring 
7|X7|in. (=i8-7X 18-2 cm.). There seems to have been two 
columns to a page, and the number of lines ranged from sixteen 
to seventeen to a column. The text is in bold, beautiful square 
character, vocalized and accented, while the masoretic notes are 
in a smaller hand. [Y. M. H. A.] 

2. 

Part of a codex of the Pentateuch with masoretic notes. 
Gen. 10. 14-12. 15. 

Fol. 1 a begins with ffDina-riKI (10. 14); the last legible line 
is DN 1[V| |t3pvi (10. 26); ib begins with iuijmtO (10. 28), and 
ends with \0V (n. 6); 2 a continues 1 b, and the last legible line 
is "i^TI !W niK» (n. 15); 2 b begins with JUSTIN (11. 17), and 
ends with npM (n. 29) ; 3 a continues 2 b, and the last legible line 



GENIZAH FRAGMENTS IN PHILADELPHIA — HALPER 403 

is pro 1B>J> (12. 5); 3 b begins with robb (ibid.), and ends with 
IKT'l (12. 15). 

Three parchment leaves, badly damaged, measuring 8x8^ in. 
(= 20-3 X 20-9 cm.). There are two columns to a page and 
seventeen lines to a column, besides several lines of masoretic 
notes above and below the text. Bold square character, with 
vowel-points and accents. The masoretic notes are in a smaller 
hand and unvocalized. [Armani.] 

3. 

Gen. 14. 24-r5. 18. 

The first legible word is D'tMNn (14. 24). The column ends 
with IlNtn (15. 18). There are a few fragmentary lines of the next 
column containing 17. 7-13. 

A piece of parchment, badly damaged, forming part of a Scroll 
of the Law. A little over a column has been preserved. Size 
I 5l x lh m - (=40 X 19 cm.). Bold square character. [Amram] 

4. 

Part of a codex of the Pentateuch. Gen. 27. 7-30. 16. 

Fol. 1 a begins with rraK! (27. 7), and the last legible word ii 
V3N (27. 34); fol. 1 b begins withnxi (27 37), and the last 
legible word is mriN (28. 12); fol. 2 a begins with 'inn (28. 15), 
and the last legible word is ["p2]j>N (29. 18) ; 2 b begins with nriN 
(29. 23), and last legible word is [33]e»l (30. 16). There are 
variants in orthography and vocalization. While this codex tends 
to scriptio plena, there are examples of defective writing of words 
which are plene in our masoretic text. DOICD for QOD (27. 9); 

-roya for najn (27. 10); I'nsji for Tpsis (27. 29); Tip?, for ninji 

( 2 7- 33) > nx before |NVn (29. 3) is repeated twice, and there is 
a line through \«Sr\; wcpoa for UBlpoa (29. 26); i>K for ^$ 

(3°- 1)- 

Two paper leaves, badly damaged, forming the inner sheet of 
a fascicle. Size 8f X13 in. (=21-9x33 cm.). There are three 
columns to a page, and there must have been about twenty-six 
lines to a column ; but the lower part is torn off, and only about 
eleven to seventeen lines have been preserved. Large square 



404 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

character, vocalized and accented. Masoretic notes on the margin 
in a smaller hand. [Sulzberger.] 

5. 

Part of a codex of the Pentateuch. Gen. 37. 9-35 ; 41. 24-50. 

Fol. 1 a begins with rum 115? (37. 9), and 1 b ends with IIS 
(37. 35). Some leaves are missing between 1 b and 2 a. The 
latter begins with jot? nn (41. 24), and 2 b ends with Q»33 (41. 50). 
The vocalization is faulty, and there are some orthographic 
variants. Fi$n for ntbn ( 37 . IO ); 'JK for W (#«/.); p»£» for 
pDJJD (37. 14) ; inoW for lilOtM (41. 32) ; KSD3H for NSO?n (41. 38) ; 

inw for inx (41. 41); naoor for njwr (41. 45); nalna for na\na 
(41. 48). 

Two parchment leaves, badly damaged, forming the outer 
sheet of a fascicle. Size 9! x 7f| in. (=24-8 x 20-1 cm.). There 
are two columns to a page, and twenty-two lines to a column. 
Beautiful square character with vowel-points. [Sulzberger.] 

6. 

Part of a codex of the Pentateuch. Lev. 1. 9-17. 

Recto begins with rby (1. 9), and verso ends with nin^ (r. 17). 
While this leaf seems to belong to an accurate codex, the 
orthography differs somewhat from that of our Masorah, as niTJ 
instead of mrTO (1. 9), and ha 11 instead of b^y (1. 17). 

One paper leaf, measuring 9fx6Jin. (= 24-8 x 16-4 cm.). 
There are thirteen lines to a page. Bold square character, 
vocalized and accented. [Sulzberger.] 

7. 

Part of a codex of the Pentateuch. Lev. 1. 14-3. 3. 

Fol. 1 a begins with anpffl (1. 14), and 1 b ends with }DB> 
(2. 1); 2 a continues 1 b, and 2 b ends with ntrj?n (2. 7); 3 a 
continues 2 b, and 3 b ends with [yjlpn (2. 14) ; 4 a continues 
3 b, and 4 b ends with 2Tipn by (3. 3). It is part of a very 
carelessly written codex. While the orthography generally agrees 
with that of our Masorah, there are numerous mistakes in the 
letters. 3 and 3 are frequently confused. The codex does not 
seem to be the work of a professional scribe. 



GENIZAH FRAGMENTS IN PHILADELPHIA — HALPER 405 

Four paper leaves, badly damaged, forming the inner sheets 
of a fascicle. Size 6| x 5§ in. ( = 17-4x13 cm.). There are nine 
lines to a page. Square character with sporadic vocalization. 
[Sulzberger.] 

8. 

Part of a codex of the Pentateuch. Lev. n. 40-12. 7; 
13. 26-42. 

Fol. 1 a begins with 1HJ3 (1 1. 40), and 1 b ends with TOT 
(12. 7). Some leaves are missing between ib and 2 a. The 
latter begins with niS"V 0X1 (13. 26), and 2 b ends with ^31 (13. 42). 
There are some orthographic variants and scribal errors. On the 
whole, the codex seems to have been carelessly written. "J^rt for 
•jhn (n. 42); jnj for pru {ibid.); DnSDEJil for DI1DD31 (Kere 

twiNDtMi, 11. 43); onenprn for Dnenpnm (n. 44); won for 
-inDn (n. 47); new for nehw (12. 4); toy for snn (12. 6); 
iipeo for npoo (12. 7); nncsi? for nnt!>s-t6 (13. 28); last sin 

{ibid) and ypaxm DW (13. 34) are omitted. 

Two paper leaves, forming the outer sheet of a fascicle, 
measuring 4! x 3J in. (=12-4 X 8-8 cm.). Number of lines ranges 
from nineteen to twenty-one to a page. Square character. 
[Sulzberger.] 

9. 

Part of a codex of the Pentateuch. Lev. 16. 18-32. 

Recto begins with nii7> ^sb "IK'S (Lev. 16. 18), and ends with 
D3 , nt5'S3 ns (16. 29). Verso continues recto, and ends with 
EHpn HU (16. 32). 

A parchment leaf, badly mutilated, measuring 10^X9^ in. 
(= 26-8 x 24 cm.) There are two columns to a page, and the 
number of lines to a column ranges from nineteen to twenty. 
Verso has only half a column of ten lines, the rest of the page 
being blank. Beautiful large square character. [Amram.] 

10. 

Part of the Pentateuch. Lev. 15. 33-18. 1. 
The first legible word on column 1 is raplbl (15. 33); 
it ends with nrni (16. 14). The first legible word on column 2 



406 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

is DflNCDn (16. 21); it ends with tW^I (16. 32). The first legible 
word on column 3 is mn (17. 10) ; it ends with HE'D (18. 1). 

A piece of parchment, which may have been part of a Scroll, 
as the writing is only on one side. It is badly damaged on 
all sides, except the lower part, and contains about two and 
a half columns. Size 15^ X i8£ in. (=39-3 X 46-3 cm.). Highest 
number of lines preserved on a column is twenty-eight. Verso 
is blank. Beautiful large square character. [Sulzberger.] 

11. 

Part of a codex of the Pentateuch. Lev. 16. 31-17. 2. 

Recto begins with DlTOyi D3? tWl (16. 31), and verso ends with 
[^tn]B» <an ^3 ban (17. 2). 

One paper leaf, badly damaged and faded, measuring 6\ x 4f in. 
(= 16-5 x 1 1-8 cm.). There are nine lines to a page. Large 
square character, vocalized and accented. [Y. M. H. A.] 

12. 

Part of a codex of the Pentateuch (Hebrew text and Targum). 
Lev. 23. 10-20. The Hebrew text and the Targum are given 
alternately, verse by verse. 

Recto begins with tCiDiy JV (Targum of 23. 10), and ends with 
JOB> (Targum of 23. 15). Verso continues recto, and ends with 
BHp (23. 20). 

One parchment leaf, with a piece of paper pasted on the top, 
measuring 6| x 45 in. (=17-1 x 12-4 cm.). There are seventeen 
lines to a page. Square character with a strong tendency to 
cursiveness. Vowel-points and accents have been added by a 
later hand. [Amram.] 

13. 

Part of a codex of the Pentateuch. Lev. 26. 3-36. 

Fol. 1 a begins with nDBTl (26. 3), and 1 b ends with D3X"1N 
(26. 20); fol. 2 a continues 1 b, and 2 b ends with n?V (26. 36). 
A very accurate codex. 

Two parchment leaves, badly damaged, forming the inner 
sheet of a fascicle. Size 8x7! m - ( = 2 °'3 x x 9 - 7 cm -)- There 
are seventeen lines to a page. Clumsy square character, vocalized 
and accented. [Sulzberger.] 



GENIZAH FRAGMENTS IN PHILADELPHIA — HALPER 407 

14. 

Part of a codex of the Pentateuch. Num. 8. 2 1-9. 4. 
Recto begins with "IBT1 (8. 21), and verso ends with ncp 
(9. 4). There are a few textual and orthographic variants. Thus 

wirb for vnra (9. 3) ; njnoa for nyoa {ibid.). 

One paper leaf, measuring 8Jx6iin. (= 20-9 x 15-8 cm.). 
There are ten lines to a page. Bold square character, vocalized 
and accented. [Sulzberger.] 

15. 

Part of a codex of the Pentateuch. Num. 16. 30-17. 4. 

Recto begins with nCN-^3 (16. 30), and ends with BtO (16. 35). 
Verso continues recto, and ends with nBTiJn (17. 4). 

It seems to be part of a very accurate codex. 

One parchment leaf, slightly damaged, measuring 6^ x 5^ in. 
(= 16-4 x 14 cm.). 

Recto has twelve lines of text, beside four lines, in a smaller 
hand, of masoretic notes, two above and two below. Verso has 
eleven lines of text (there is some space between chapter 1 6 and 17), 
beside the four lines of masoretic notes. Bold square character, 
with vowel-points and accents. [Amram.] 

16. 

Part of a codex of the Pentateuch. Deut. 1. 15-25. 

Fol. 1 a begins with DWn "ne>1 (1. 15), and ends with *ie>K 
(1. 17); ib continues 1 a, and ends with DDK3 (1. 20); fol. 2 a 
continues 1 b, and ends with 131 (1. 22); 2 b continues 2 a, and 
ends with y-\Vff\ raiD (1. 25). 

Two paper leaves, forming the inner sheet of a fascicle, 
slightly faded. Size 6^X4§ in. (= 15-8 x n cm.). There are 
ten lines to a page. Square character with a tendency to cursive- 
ness. [Amram.] 

17. 

Part of a codex of the Pentateuch. Deut. 1. 31-36. 

Recto begins with KB" "ma ytbvt (1. 31), and verso ends 

with nroc t6t> (1. 36). 



408 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

One paper leaf, damaged and faded, measuring 61 x 4! in. 
(= 15.7 X 1 1-8 cm.). There are ten lines to a page. Square 
character with a tendency to cursiveness. [Y. M. H. A.] 

18. 

Part of a codex of the Pentateuch. Deut. 5. 1-14. 

Recto begins with tr\\>^_ (5. i), and ends with ma? (5. 6); 
verso continues recto, and ends with DV1 (5- 14). Recto is 
vocalized, but the vowels are not always the same as in our texts. 
Altogether the vowels seem to have been carelessly put in. 
A glaring instance is O^ni?* 1 ] (5. 1) instead of DPnpjfl. Verso is 
entirely without vowel-points, and even the verses are not always 
divided. The last few lines are mostly obliterated. 

One parchment leaf, measuring 7f X 7 in. (= 18-7 x 17-8 cm.). 
There are fourteen lines to a page. Square character. [Adler.J 

19. 

Part of a codex of the Pentateuch. Deut. 7. 17-19. 6. 

Recto begins with IDNfl 'D (7. 17), and verso ends with 
oyrba (9. 16). 

A piece of parchment, badly damaged, measuring 9! x 95 in. 
(= 24-8 x 23-5 cm.). Each side has two columns, and each column 
has twenty-nine lines. Oriental square character. [Amram.] 

20. 

Part of the Book of Joshua. 21. 6-24. 32. 

Fol. 1 a begins with pt5H3 ^aP! (21. 6), and 1 b ends with 
DJTQ&O (21. 43); fol. 2 a continues 1 b, and 2 b ends with p?n 
(22. 25); fol. 3 a continues 2 b, and 3 b ends with ^ne» "OpT^ 
(24. 1); fol. 4 a continues 3 b, and 4 b ends with nicxy (24. 32). 
There are a number of variants, especially in orthography and 
vocalization. Some words are missing altogether, while others 
have been restored by a later hand. pj> nx for py DX1 (21. 16) ; 
nnp for nnp (21. 26); ]% for pb (Kere p>U, 21. 27); fTWp'p 
for iTWE^a {ibid.). The second DHMW (21. 44) is unvocalized, 
ba ns is apparently crossed out by a line, and on the margin there 
is 1Wtt ; it is thus evident that the copyist wanted the verse to read 

DT3 mm jn: ivt< omaw bx> dtob3 b»n -my s6i. ya for rva 



GENIZAH FRAGMENTS IN PHILADELPHIA — HALPER 409 

(21. 45); VDT (22. 30) is missing and is not supplied on the 
margin; tfaxi for HN3K1 (24. 8); from JN5W (24. 22) to J«WP (24. 
24) has been omitted through homoioteleuton. 

Four parchment leaves, badly mutilated, forming the. inner 
sheets of a fascicle. Size 10 x8§ in. (=25-4X 21-9 cm.). There 
are two columns to a page, and twenty-five lines to a column. 
Square character, vocalized and accented. [Sulzberger.] 

21. 

Part of First Book of Kings. 1. 29-2. 13; 7. 24-8. 10. 

Fol. 1 a begins with n*l¥ ^30 (1. 29), and ends with [DW)]pn 
(1. 49); fol. 1 b continues 1 a, and ends with [d]1^C (2. 13). 
Some leaves are missing between 1 b and 2 a. Fol. 2 a begins 
with in[tf] (7. 24), and ends with [rD3]c6 (7. 42). The last line 
is burned; fol. 2 b begins with by ~IB>K {ibid.), and ends with 
[n]xV3 (8. 10). There are also some marginal notes by a later 
hand, indicating words omitted in the text and Haftarot. The 
edges are damaged. 

Two parchment leaves, forming the outer sheet of a fascicle, 
measuring iof x iof in. (= 27 x 27-6 cm.). Each page has three 
columns. Number of lines ranges from 25 to 27. Square 
character, vocalized and accented. [Friedenwald.J 

22. 

Part of a biblical codex. 2 Kings 5. 8-13. 

Recto begins with tatE* (5. 8), and verso ends with f]SO (5. 13). 
There are a few orthographic variants. VD1D3 for 1D1D3 (5. 9); 
iUDK for nJ3K (Kere TOON, 5. 12) ; xbri for tt)bn (5. 13). 

One paper leaf, measuring 6| x sf in. (=17-1 x 13 cm.). There 
are twelve lines to a page. Beautiful square character, vocalized 
and accented. [Sulzberger.] 

23. 

Part of a biblical codex. 2 Kings 23. 3-24. 3. 
The first legible word in recto is ['"nTjnN (23. 3), and the last 
legible words of verso are [^V]t3 "VCrb (24. 3). 



410 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

There are some masoretic notes. 

A piece of parchment, torn in two, badly damaged and faded. 
Size 7| x ii in. (= 19-7 x 27-9 cm.). Each side has three columns. 
As the top is torn off, it is impossible to say how many lines there 
were to a column. Bold square character, with vowel-points. 
[Amram.] 

24. 

Part of a codex of Isaiah. 15. 1-18. 4. 

Recto begins with no["u] (last word of Isa. 15. 1), and ends 
with |V]33 3N1D 1133 (16. 14). The first column of verso is 
almost entirely damaged, and the first visible word is DHSSD 
(*7- 3) > tne third column ends with vs (18. 4). The orthography, 
while generally accurate, deviates sometimes from our masoretic 
text with regard to defective or full writing. Thus Tvbb\y instead 
of TV?y (17. 6). The vocalization is in some cases curious, and 
points to the Oriental origin of the codex, as, for instance, rnb]1 
for rnbtt (17. 10). Of peculiar interest is the vocalization 3K31 
instead of 3831 (17. n), since the Septuagint renders this word 

by /ecu <!)S TraTrjp. 

One parchment leaf, badly mutilated and torn, measuring 
n^Xio^in. (=29-2x26-8 cm.). There are three columns to 
a page, and at least twenty-four lines to a column, apart from a 
number of masoretic notes on the margins. Beautiful large square 
character; vocalized and accented, probably by a later hand. 
[Amram.] 

25. 

Part of a biblical codex. Zech. 14. 2-1 1. 

Recto begins with n*137i1 (14. 2), and ends with Sinn DV3 
(14. 6); verso continues recto, and ends with D3 ntt"! (14. 11). 

One paper leaf, slightly faded, measuring 7x4^ in. (= 17-8 
X 12-4 cm.). Bold square character, with vowels and accents 
added by a later hand. There are eleven lines of text on each 
side, besides one or two lines of notes in a smaller hand. There 
are also some notes on the margin. [Amram.] 



GENIZAH FRAGMENTS IN PHILADELPHIA — HALPER 4TI 

26. 

Psalm 37. 23-37. 

Recto begins with V? (37- 2 3)> an( i en( is with pHX (37. 30); 
verso continues recto, and ends with JVinK (37. 37). 

Judging by the mode of writing the divine name, this leaf 
may have formed part of a prayer-book. 

One paper leaf, measuring 6^x5 in. (=16-4X12-7 cm.). 
There are thirteen lines to a page. The words are not evenly 
spaced, and the scribe probably intended to give the lines a poetic 
appearance. Square character, with vowel-points and accents. 
[Amram.] 

27. 

Part of a biblical codex. Ps. 50. 18-51. 9. 

Recto begins with D'SNJO D5J1 (50. 18), and ends with *K5>ttt 
(51. 2); verso continues recto, and ends with ^Konn (51. 9). 
The vocalization and the orthography slightly differ from our 
Masorah. Thus B*BN30 (50. 18) instead of B'BWC; J1JO (51. 7) 
instead of J11JD; ninit33 (51. 8) instead of ninon. 

A piece of parchment, trimmed on the lower side, although 
no words have been cut off. Size 6 T 5 5 xs in. (=i6x 12-7 cm.). 
Recto has thirteen lines, while verso has eleven. Bold square 
character, with vowel-points and accents, probably supplied by 
a later hand. [Amram.] 

28. 

Part of the Book of Psalms. 106. 5-107. 37 ; 118. 29-119. 86. 

Fol. 1 a begins with "jn^TO (106. 5). and 1 b ends with flW 
(107. 37). Some leaves are missing between 1 b and 2 a. The 
latter begins with nwb (118. 29), and 2 b ends with "prose 
(119. 86). There is a great number of variants in the orthography 
and vocalization. There is especially a tendency in this codex to 
employ 1 and » as often as possible, although in some cases this 
fragment writes defectively words which are written plene in our 
Masorah. A few examples may be given here: TTIN^SJ for 

•prot^w (106. 7); nkra for niha (106. 21); oro* for ams 
(106. 26); dtos for Dru's (106. 30); ajfnj! for agrn (106. 40); 



412 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

'XXIDl for 'NVD1 (107. 53); nXU for i"lM (119. 2); ynimiN for 

Trims (119. 15); Tpirn for fpra (119. 23); wp for '•jd' 1 ? 
(119. 28); -pipea for Tipsn (119. 78). 

Two parchment leaves, badly damaged, forming the outer 
sheet of a fascicle. Size n|X9§ in. ( = 28-2 x 23-8 cm.). There 
are twenty-six lines to a page. Beautiful square character; 
vocalized and accented, probably by a later hand. [Sulzberger.] 

29. 

Part of the Book of Psalms. 126. 6-134. 3. 

Fol. 1 a begins with "|17n (126. 6), and ends with 7JOB* 
(128. 6); fol. 1 b begins with TCP (129. 1), and ends with 1117 
(131. 1) ; fol. 2 a continues 1 b, and ends with ["]? XJD37 (132. 12) ; 
fol. 2 b continues 2 a, and ends with j>-|t<1 (134. 3). The 
orthography differs from that of the Masorah. It often inserts 
1 and 1 as matres lectionis, as nana (126. 6), DTrD (127. 4), "p1l< 
(128. 4), Nivn (130. 4). More important variants are rw (127. 2) 
and tW1 (129. 6). 

Some words have been scribbled on top of fol. 1 b by a 
later hand. 

Two parchment leaves, measuring 6f x 6^-in. ( = 1 7 -4 x 1 5 -8 cm.). 
Number of lines to a page ranges from eighteen to twenty-one. 
Square character. [Adler.] 

30. 

Part of the Book of Psalms or prayer-book. Psalm 135. 6-17. 

Recto begins with pK31 (135. 6), and ends with [nn7J7n 
(135. 21); verso continues recto, and ends with VJDn (136. 17). 
It is punctuated and accented. But neither the vowels nor the 
accents are identical with those of the printed texts. Altogether 
the vocalization is peculiar. Dagesh forte is inserted in the first 
letter of almost every word. Even K sometimes has a dagesh, as 
f3«ai (135. 6) and , lb8n (135. n). As a rule scriptio plene is 
prevalent in this fragment. Thus HS' 1 '?^ (135. 10) and T)?1 
(135. 13). Strange vocalizations are nbjjB (135. 7), jrm (135. I2 ), 
D W?? (i35- *4)- Through the oversight of the copyist, all the 
words between D^XD (135. 8) and D»1XD (135. 9) are omitted. 



GENIZAH FRAGMENTS IN PHILADELPHIA — HALPER 4 13 

One of the lower corners is burned. 

One parchment leaf, measuring 63^ x 5 -J in. (=16 x 14-9 cm.). 
Number of lines of each page is seventeen. Square character. 
[Adler.] 

81. 

Part of a biblical codex. Prov. 30. 27-31. 9. 

Recto begins with "|i>D (30. 27), and ends with 3 ,_ i (30. 33); 
verso begins with H3[t] (31. 1), and ends with piasi (31. 9). 
There are some masoretic notes on the margin. 

One parchment leaf, badly damaged, measuring 6f x 7 in. 
(=16-8x17-8 cm.). Recto has eight lines, there being extra 
space between 30. 28 and 30. 29, while verso has nine lines. 
Bold square character with vowel-points and accents. [Amram.] 



32. 

Part of a biblical codex. Prov. 31. 20-Job 1. 18. 

Fol. 1 a begins with rvn (Prov. 31. 20), and ends the chapter; 
fol. 1 b has a masoretic note belonging to the preceding book, and 
then goes on, without a heading: PPM B"X (Job 1. 1); it ends with 
1DH31 (1. 5); 2 a continues 1 b, and ends with r6t5Ti (1. 12); 
2 b continues 2 a, and ends with )Y33 (1. 18). 

The codex to which this fragment belongs must have been 
very beautiful, although the vocalization and orthography are not 
accurate, that is to say, not in accordance with the Masorah. 
Thus WPi instead of 'STi (Prov. 31. 30); Dnwntt for DnvvriN 
(Job 1. 4); KTI for Nin (i. 6); Fit?'B>n f or nofcq (i. 8); lmco for 
inoa (ibid.); nbj|D for ri&yn (i. 10); D'blK for Q^as (i. 13); 
DTW1 for DW1 {ibid.). 

Two parchment leaves, slightly damaged, forming the inner 
sheet of a fascicle. Size 6x7m. (=15-2 x 17-8 in.). There 
must have been twelve lines to a page ; but fol. 1 a, concluding 
a book, only has eleven lines, while 1 b has ten lines of text and 
two of masoretic notes. Bold square character, with vowel-points 
and accents. [Amram.] 

VOL. XII. F f 



414 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

33. 

Part of a biblical codex. Job 2. 4-3. 26; 7. 8-8. 21. 

Fol. 1 a begins with |)V (2. 4), and 1 b ends with [m] (3. 26). 
Some leaves are missing between fol. 1 b and 2 a. The latter 
begins with ttb (7. 8), and the last legible word on this page is 
"IBj/i> (7. 21), but it no doubt continued to "IND (8. 7) ; 2 b begins 
with 13 (8. 8), and the last legible word is [nj)]nn (8. 21). This 
fragment has a number of variants in orthography and vocalization. 
-I1DB' for -ids? (2. 6); "ply for TjiJ (2. 9); pop for ;op (3. 19); 
pSPtn for pt?n (Kere I1SWI, 8. 8); O'p; for B^ (8. 14); 31Q1 for 
3B"I (8. 16). On the whole, this codex seems to prefer the 
scriptio plena. 

Two parchment leaves, badly damaged, forming the outer 
sheet of a fascicle. Size 8|x8§ in. (=22-2x21-2 cm.). There 
are two columns to a page, and twenty lines to a column. 
Beautiful square character, vocalized and accented. [Sulzberger.] 

34. 

Part of a biblical codex. Canticles 2. 13-3- 3; 4- 6-14. 

Fol. 1 a begins with ruwin (2. 13), and 1 b ends with D'HDIE'n 
(3. 3). Some leaves are missing between fol. 1 b and 2 a. The 
latter begins with "px (4. 6), and 2 b ends with ni^HNl (4. 14). 
There are some variants in orthography, "p for "O? (Kere "p, 

2. 13); D^jnt? for wbw (2. 15): nnimni for nnmai (3. 2); 
-ion for -non (4. 6); mzbn for nyabn (ibid.); nnx3 for into 
(Kere nnK3, 4. 9) ; 13113 for 13Q (4. 10) ; -pnnsi? for 7TlinBE> 

(4. II). 

Two parchment leaves, forming the outer sheet of a fascicle. 
Size 4^ x 3^ in. (= 10-4 x 8-8 cm.). There are ten lines to a page. 
Square character, vocalized and accented. [Sulzberger.] 

35. 

Part of a biblical codex with masoretic notes. Cant. 3. 6-4. 12. 

Recto begins with "U"i»rr;D (3. 6), and ends with "JWIBS? 
(4. 3); verso continues recto, and ends with fj (4. 12). 

On the upper margin of verso the word Dmax was added by 
a later hand. 



GENIZAH FRAGMENTS IN PHILADELPHIA — HALPER 415 

A piece of parchment, badly damaged, measuring i2f X 11 in. 
(= 32-4 x 27-9 cm.). Each page has two columns, and each 
column has seventeen lines. Large square character, with vowel- 
points and accents. [Amram.] 

36. 

Part of the Book of Esther. 2. 13-16. 

Recto begins with [-|{S>]K _ i>3 DK (2. 13), and ends with na j>sn 
(2. 14); verso begins with ^N' (2. 15), and ends with b jae> 
(2. 16). There are some variants in orthography and vocalization. 
3 "$? (2. 14) ; f?D (ibid.) ; emtPrlK instead of tmiBTlN (2. 16) ; 

•>yyyn (ibid.). 

A piece of parchment, forming lower half of a page. A little 
over five lines to a page have been preserved ; but judging from 
the missing words between recto and verso, one may assume that 
there were about eight or nine . lines to a page. Size 5§ x 3f in. 
(=13.6 x 8-4 cm.). Bold square character; vocalized and ac- 
cented probably by a later hand. [Lederer.] 

37. 

Part of the Haftarah for the first day of Passover. Joshua 
5. 2-11. 

Recto is headed yenrra nDD b& pt?[N1 nvb moan], which is 
followed by Joshua 5. 2-1 1; both the Hebrew text and the 
Targum are given alternately, verse by verse. The vowel-points 
of the Hebrew text seem to have been supplied by a later hand. 

It is very inaccurate. DHV (5. 2) is omitted, and in verse 3 
it is Dmv instead of Dns. So also D^ID (5. 5) instead of D^D. 

A piece of parchment, badly damaged, measuring 8J x 6| in. 
(=21-6 x 17-1 cm.). Recto has nineteen lines besides the heading, 
while verso has twenty-one lines. Square character. [Amram.] 

38. 

Part of a collection of Haftarot. 

Recto begins with «no Tim 11D (Jonah 4. 8) to the end of the 
chapter. This is obviously for the Day of Atonement. This is 
followed by Micah 7. 18-20. Then comes the heading bw ;itWi^ 

F f 2 



416 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

nWWa 3B0 1X TIBH n»D which is followed by Zech. 13. 9-14. 2. 
The last word of verso is nvrbob. 

One paper leaf, faded, measuring 7 X5 T 3 6-in. (=i7-8x 13-2 cm.). 
There are eleven lines to a page besides some masoretic notes. 
Bold square character with vowel-points and accents. [Amram.] 

39. 

Part of a collection of Haftarot, Hebrew, and Aramaic alternating 
verse after verse. 

Recto begins with DnNBn (Mic. 7. 19), which belongs to the 
Haftarah of the afternoon service of the Day of Atonement. 
The conclusion of this Haftarah is followed by the Haftarah of 
the first day of Tabernacles (Zech. 13. 9-14. 21), which is headed 
ivy nna ruiD b& \WH~b. The first word of this Haftarah is 
TlNDni (Zech. 13. 9), and this page ends with TPI (Targum of 
14. 6). Verso continues recto,- and ends with "inurrpa rvm 
(14. 16). 

One paper leaf, measuring n|x7 T 7 ein. (= 29-5 x 18-9 cm.). 
There are thirty-two lines to a page. Square character with a 
tendency to cursivenesss. Vocalized and accented, the Hebrew 
text in the Tiberian system, and the Aramaic Targum in the 
Babylonian. [Y. M. H. A.] 

40. 

Part of Targum of Leviticus. 4. 10-5. 2 ; 7. 16-8. 10. 

First legible word on fol. 1 a is [-|]ine (4- 10); this page ends 
with nph (4. 25). First legible word on fol. 1 b is xrbyi (last 
word) ; this page ends with nD3» (5. 2). Some leaves are missing 
between fol. 1 b and fol. 2 a. The first legible word on the latter 
is y-\[p > ] (7. 16); it ends with KWip (7. 29), corrected by a later 
hand into 'Wllp. First legible word on fol. 2 b is TPI (7. 31). 
Next line is »3 (7. 34), and it is obvious that all the words between 
WD^ (7.32 and that of 7. 33) have been omitted by homoioteleuton. 
These words are added on the margin. It ends with [n]e>D 
(8. 10). 

It is vocalized by a later hand, and has a number of marginal 
notes, chiefly corrections. 



GENIZAH FRAGMENTS IN PHILADELPHIA — HALPER 417 

The upper part is burned. 

This fragment belongs to the same fascicle as No. 41. 

Two parchment leaves, forming the outer sheet of a fascicle, 
measuring 9^X9^ in. (= 23 x 23-5 cm.). Number of lines of 
each page is twenty-two. Square character. [Friedenwald.] 

41. 

Part of Targum of Leviticus. 5. 3-7. 15. 

First legible word on fol. 1 a is irmiD = iTTDIND (5. 3) ; this 
page ends with JiNI (5. 16). First legible word on fol. 1 b is 
p'OnE" {ibid.); this page ends with Nrmo (6. 3). First legible 
word on fol. 2 a is E>N[ni] (6. 5) ; this page ends with "lES'ST 
(6. 19). First legible word on fol. 2 b is p (6. 21); this page 
ends with ITnDm (7. 15). 

It is vocalized by a later hand, and has marginal notes, chiefly 
corrections. Some words and even verses are omitted in the text 
and are added on the margin. These omissions are usually 
through homoioteleuton. 

The upper part is burned. 

These leaves are to be inserted between those of No. 40. 

Two parchment leaves, forming the inner sheet of a fascicle, 
measuring 9^x9^ in. (= 23x23-5 cm.). Number of lines of 
each page is twenty-three. Square character. [Friedenwald.] 

42. 

Part of a sort of compendium of the Pentateuch containing 
the first three and last three verses of every Sidrah. Gen. 
23. 2-28. 13. 

Fol. 1 a begins with nem (23. 2), and ends with no*) (25. 17) ; 
fol. 1 b continues 1 a, and ends with rnpy (25. 21). Fol. 2 a 
continues 1 b, and ends with 'QKD (= ^axo, 28. ir); fol. 2 b 
continues 2 a, and ends with J? 3X3 (28. 13). There are many 
scribal errors : rwt6 i6 for . . . "b (25. 20) ; t6 "injn for 6 ... . 
(25. 21); »«N for VOX (28. 7); "QND for ''jaNO (28. n). 

Two paper leaves, forming the inner sheet of a fascicle, 
measuring 4! x 3^ in. (= 12-4 x 8-8 cm.). There are twelve lines 
to a page, except fol. 2 b which has only six, the rest of the page 



418 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

being blank. EHS is marked on the margin. Square character. 
[Sulzberger.] 

43. 

Part of a Jewish-Arabic translation of the Pentateuch (not 
Sa'adya's). This fragment covers Gen. 8. 11-9. 26. Each verse 
begins with the Hebrew word. Over every Arabic word is written 
its Hebrew equivalent in a very small cursive hand. 

Recto begins with TOXDn (rwn, 8. n), and ends with rbbit 
(&rktt, 9. 6); verso continues recto, and ends with orb (10^, 
9. 26). 

One paper leaf, badly damaged in the middle, measuring 
ir^-X i\ in. (=29-2 x 19 cm.). There are twenty-seven lines to a 
page. Oriental square character with a strong tendency to 
cursiveness. [Amram.] 

44. 

Part of a Jewish-Arabic translation of the Pentateuch. Gen. 
24. 58-25. 17. Each verse begins with the first Hebrew word. 
The first legible word is 1JHS (24. 58), and the last is 'OD (25. 17). 
Possibly Sa'adya's translation ; but no conclusive evidence can be 
adduced. The variants from the printed text of Sa'adya's 
translation, though mostly insignificant, are sufficiently numerous 
to make one hesitate to decide definitely about the authorship. 
1JHS = U-i3*l (24. 60); S. 131N31. WpO; S. EJpDn (24. 64). 
KDtfi'K = DVJ^sn ; so S. ; the Beyrout translation has more 
correctly (j^l^Jl (25. 6). KDJJK; so Beyrout translation; S. 3ni 
(ibid.). 

A narrow and long strip of parchment, badly mutilated, written 
closely on one side. Size 19 x 3 J in. (= 48-1 x 8-8 cm.). Recto 
has seventy-nine lines, while verso is blank. Square character 
with a tendency to cursiveness. [Sulzberger.] 

45. 

Part of a translation of Exodus in vulgar Jewish-Arabic, with 
notes. 38. 21-39. I0 - 

Recto begins with !TtNnE>ta pDD = nnyn J3E>D (38. 21), and 
continues to the end of 38. 24. Then follows a note on the value 



GENIZAH FRAGMENTS IN PHILADELPHIA — HALPER 419 

of -133. The opinion that it is a "1XD3P is refuted. Verso is 
scarcely legible. It begins with BD[ll] = 11113'! (39. 3 c), and ends 
with [«i]vi»K = "lion (39. 10). 

The translation is as a rule paraphrastic. Nevertheless the 
translator desired to express every Hebrew word. Thus )")N is 
consistently rendered by X'W. Every verse begins with the 
Hebrew word. 

One parchment leaf. All the four sides have been trimmed, 
and none of the lines is complete. Size ro^ x 3! in. (= 26 
X 9-5 cm.). The number of lines now is twenty-nine to a page. 
Square character. [Adler.] 

46. 

Part of Sa'adya's translation of the Pentateuch. Lev. 26. 34-44. 

Recto begins with ibl "B (26. 34), and ends with DiTKlVN 
(26. 39) ; verso continues recto, and ends with mn 570 NVW 
"IIOK^K (26. 44). Every verse begins with the first Hebrew word. 
There are some minor variants. Thus "VJ JO Ijlpll for D'h IJJplI 
(26. 36) ; 1VD3' for JiytW (26. 39) ; the first part of verse 42 has 
been omitted by mistake. 

One paper leaf, torn and faded, measuring 6|X4 in. (= 15-5 
X io-i cm.). There are thirteen lines to a page. Oriental square 
character with a tendency to cursiveness. [Amram.] 

47. 

Part of a Jewish-Arabic translation and commentary of Genesis. 
31, 50-32. 3. Each verse begins with one or more Hebrew words 
of the text, which are followed by the Arabic translation. After 
every paragraph the author discusses exegetical and grammatical 
problems. 

Fol. r a begins with a note on the word royn (31. 50) which 
is explained in accordance with Sa'adya's translation. Of 31. 50-53 
the translation is missing; but the commentary tallies with 
Sa'adya's translation, as may be seen from myn and from the 
insertion of n3J after cW {ibid), which Sa'adya renders an: JKD3K . 
Of verses 31. 54-32. 3 we have only the translation, the fragment 
breaking off just when the author begins to discuss that paragraph. 



420 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

This fragment offers many variants from Sa'adya's translation, 
as T33 1$Otp5> for XDKyD tatO |K (31. 54); mb ^ for njTClD ^N 

(32. 1); nvpSa for nnxJNaa (32. 2). 

Two paper leaves, badly damaged, forming the inner sheet of 
a fascicle. Size 7§X5^ in. (=18-7x14 cm.). The number 
of lines ranges from twenty to twenty-one to a page. Oriental 
square character with a strong tendency to cursiveness. [Amram.] 

48. 

Part of an Arabic translation and commentary of 2 Samuel, 
chapters n and 12. 

Fol. 1 a begins with the Hebrew of n. 23, which is rendered 
into Arabic ; then follows the Hebrew and Arabic of verse 24, 
after which is a long note covering the rest of fol. 1. Some leaves 
are missing between 1 b and 2 a. The latter comments upon the 
exact force of ruDp (12. 3) and nnpi' •Drvi (12. 4), while 2 b has 
a long discussion on David's action in connexion with Bath-sheba. 

It was obviously the author's system to give the Hebrew text 
and Arabic translation alternately, verse by verse, and then 
comment on the entire paragraph. 

Two paper leaves, badly damaged and faded, forming the 
outer sheet of a fascicle. Size 8^x6 in. (= 21-6 x 15-2 cm.). 
There are nineteen lines to a page. Oriental square character 
with a strong tendency to cursiveness ; the Hebrew words are in 
a bold square hand, with vowel-points and accents. [Amram.] 

49. 

Part of a Jewish-Arabic translation and commentary of Jeremiah. 
About a half of every verse of the Hebrew text is first given which 
is followed by a literal translation. The exposition of the text is 
placed after the paragraph has been completed. 

Fol. 1 a begins with note on Jer. 4. 20 b, and ends with notes 
on 4. 22 ; fol. 1 b continues 1 a, and ends with general notes on 

4. 20-26. Some leaves are missing between fol. 1 b and 2 a. 
The latter begins with notes on 4. 31, and ends with notes on 

5. 1, 2 ; fol. 2 b continues these notes at length. 



GENIZAH FRAGMENTS IN PHILADELPHIA — HALPER 42 1 

li"Q1 inn (4. 23) is rendered by rV31 PlTl, while Sa'adya's 
translation of this phrase (Gen. 1. 2) is mnariDOl mDM. Our 
author confuses biblical verses. Thus in commenting on Jer. 
4. 30, 31, he attributes the words niNXV D'tM DW (Zach. 5. 9) to 
Ezekiel; doubtlessly he had in mind nns DK m'32 D^BO DW 
(Ezek. 23. 2). Similarly, he confuses and combines (while 
commenting on Jer. 5. 1, 2) Hos. 12. 8 with Amos 8. 5 b. 
In translating Jer. 5. 1, he omits the words e»X IKXDn DX. 
Comp. LXX. 

Diacritical points are seldom used, and there is no consistency 
about this usage. The divine Name is written thus "\ The 
orthography of the Arabic words is as a rule classical. But fol. 2 a 
has D^K for ^Ul. 

Two paper leaves, measuring 7xl x 5i m - ( = 19-5x14 cm.). 
The number of lines to a page ranges between nineteen and 
twenty. Square character. [Adler.] 

50. 

Part of an Arabic translation of and commentary on the Book 
of Job. 31. 12-40. At the beginning of every verse one or two 
words of the Hebrew text are given ; then follows the translation of 
all the verse. The annotations were obviously placed at the end 
of each speech, regardless of chapter, for after the translation of 
chapter 31 we have notes on chapter 29. 

Fol. 1 a begins with JTOJ = ^331 (31. 12 b), and ends with 
rota = iiXVD (31. 25 b); fol. 1 b continues 1 a, and ends with 
vV = ?y (31. 36 a). Fol. 2 was a narrow strip when the copyist 
wrote on it, as no words are cut off. 2 a continues 1 b, and ends 
with bl2\ = nnm (31. 40). Fol. 2 b continues 2 a, and completes 
chapter 31. Then follows a note to "JBTI "£n 1"i1t6 (29. 3). 
This page ends with the beginning of a note, perhaps, 
on 30. 1. 

This translation is to all intents and purposes identical with 
that of Sa'adya's. It is true, we have a number of variants, but 
the bulk of them are quite insignificant, and are due to different 



422 



THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 



systems of orthography, like , 37W'l>a (31. 28) where Sa'adya has 
'J^S, and nrDDB (31. 34), S. rDDS. Other variants are due to 
an inadequate knowledge of grammar, like HP (31. 26); S. XWJ?. 
bxblX (31. 27); S. N^JN. Some variants are errors of the 
copyists, as rfwbb (31. 32); S. tfZ9?. 'DXSD (31. 33); S. "3K3D. 
Bacher in his edition of Sa'adya's translation and commentary on 
Job quotes some variants which agree with our fragment, as 

nnrota (31. 15); S. into. xrrvDK (31. 18); s. ktvkdx. 

The commentary presents a greater problem. The words 
commented upon and the opinions expressed are identical in our 
fragment with those of Sa'adya's ; but the position in which the 
notes are placed, and the language employed, are entirely different. 
In Sa'adya, as printed by Bacher, the notes are placed at the end 
of every paragraph, while in our fragment they are at the end of 
the speech which, in this case, extends over three chapters. 

In order to illustrate the difference of style in the notes, I give 
the two texts in parallel columns : 



Fragment. 

•\wn i?n rvit6 

'dsi "i&ra ntoyD 

w6 pD3 raro 

nxora nnbyi 

r\bt6n -lvrDD 

i>3 D3i nbip brio 

ITT b* nnNE' 

•nnNty na 

»n?ni linai 

yitNni in b'n 

"b hafv 



Sa'adya. 
'xzbx nvnao mi i&ra vyobx 

•rcroD nxona 'o in nana 
n"n) bm&> nnt? ba oai brio 
»nrm [nnKtp imd] (o"i> n" 11 'x 

.yilNni JN3D ('D 3"3 3't?) 



^ "ijn ^ harv 'n 



It is well known that Sa'adya wrote more than one recension of 
his commentary, and our fragment may represent one of those. 
(See Bacher, p. ix). It is also possible that one of Sa'adya's 



GENIZAH FRAGMENTS IN PHILADELPHIA — HALPER 423 

pupils wrote down in his own language that which he heard from 
his teacher. 

The orthography was intended to be classical. Diacritical 
points are placed only over a and V. 

One and a half parchment leaves. With the exception of the 
last page, the number of lines on each page is seventeen. 
The complete leaf measures 6^x5-5 in. (=16-6x14-9 cm.), 
while the half is 6^g x 2§ in. ( = 16-6 x 7 cm.). Square character. 
[Adler.l 

51. 

Part of Ibn Ezra's commentary on Genesis. 8. 5-21. 

Recto begins with my?n (8. 5), and last legible words are 
K1PH m[se>] (8. n); verso begins with lain mjfi O (8. 13), and 
last legible words are [J1]b6 nin^Jn] (8. 21). 

This fragment belongs to the same fascicle as Nos. 52, 53. 

A piece of paper, other half of No. 52. Size 4.5X3! in. 
( = 12x9-5 cm.). Fourteen lines have been preserved on each 
side. Rabbinic cursive hand. [Amram.] 

52. 

Part of Ibn Ezra's commentary on Genesis. 8. 5-21. 

Recto begins with "tlB'jni ra[»nn] (8. 5), and the last legible 
words are TP1 spM iron (8. n) ; verso begins with Y~\tW ^V (8. 13), 
and last legible words are blpv Dj?Dn (8. 21). 

This fragment belongs to the same fascicle as Nos. 51, 53. 

A piece of paper, torn on all sides; other half of No. 51. 
Size 4|X3| in. (=12x9-5 cm -)- Fourteen lines have been 
preserved on each side. Rabbinic cursive hand. [Amram.] 

53. 

Part of Ibn Ezra's commentary on Genesis, n. 28-12. 8. 

Recto begins with DHEOn icy -»NE> pm (n. 28), and ends 
with -|DXE> tJHTl JVX71 ruE>n (n. 31); verso begins with 
31 wro~\ (12. 5), and ends with [D^JjJlS DTOE>1 DITO n (12. 8). 

It belongs to the same fascicle as Nos. 51 and 52. 

One paper leaf, badly damaged and lower part torn off. 
Size 45X5! in. (=12X14-6 cm.). Fourteen lines have been 
preserved on each page. Rabbinic cursive hand. [Amram.] 



424 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

54. 

Part of Rashi's commentary on Genesis. 41. 8-23. 
Recto begins with |iT:nn23 an (41. 8, repeated twice), and 
verso ends with f'pb }¥3 i"ini (41. 23). 

Important variants. Thus in verse 41. 13 : D1J WriS D"U 'D 

<D vnzb inx pxt? >sb won xm id bob xi>i "rap x-ipen nn 
njns -ioxc? 103 n^voi' "own nsns inn n^ni" iT3t? *o 3^on xm 
vi3j? ^v ivp. 

Verse 41. 16: jjdbti mix -)ina!> oi^n paro prxn Di^n sjdbti 
nyi>3 i:ie6 jwn *6 la's . . s|dv now <a 103 mrxm n:3n ne>i> 
n3 xw »B3 rpyp 'i> por |rp . . my omi'x xi>x ^k> nosnn px 
ovbtib aba n3i3 n^n i3in xme> mtai Dn xn .nsns abw 
bbsnnb mx insc pin x'n . . njns Dihr nx n:y Kim owns 
nis^o ^ notan. 

One paper leaf, slightly damaged, measuring 6| x 4 T % in. 
(= 15.5 x 10-9 cm.). Rabbinic character. Recto has seventeen, 
and verso sixteen lines. [U. P.] 

55. 

Part of commentary, in Jewish-Arabic, on the Books of 
Samuel. 1 Sam. 25. 30-27. 10; 2 Sam. 12. 14-13. 6. The 
notes are rather long, though not many passages or words are 
commented upon. 

Fol. 1 a begins with iyivb 'V nw "O mm (1 Sam. 25. 30), and 
has notes on -pi)D 11131 (25. 33); WTvfys -\m(ibid.); ^'3X3 13T1 

(25- 39); '131 i™ ^ ix t?i ( 2 5- 44); p«3 naijio WJni (26. 7); 
'131 U3X nnjn (26. 8). 1 b has notes on '131 nnr6c3 IN (26. 10); 
'131 nnx '•o (26. 14); 'i3i e»x xi>n (26. 15); '131 -jrvDn T dx 
(26. 19); '131 nsnDno (ibid); '121 fpT 1 -ib>n3 (26. 20); 3"e* ti 
'131 (26. 23); DnDCB ^X (27. 10). Some leaves are missing 
between 1 b and 2 a. The latter has notes on '131 px: '3 DSX 

(2 Sam. 12. 14); -tMtn (12. 15); 'i3i n-n xS (12. 17); mnbno 
(12. 19); 'in nVn "iim (12. 22); '131 may nx npn (12. 30); 

'131 mjD3 CW (12. 31); '131 T3»m (#/</.); '131 X^l (13. 2); 

'i3i jmo (13-4); nnoi? (13. 6). 



GENIZAH FRAGMENTS IN PHILADELPHIA — HALPER 425 

A characteristic note of this author may be given here : 
ttbt* ww w ab nd:!?n is raashx -opo jx obm bvita wi 
fuxa peat? »rjn itrm ne>xi> -qti tvi iid m -dts> ova N3^K3 

The orthography is mostly classical, but there are few diacritical 
points. A Tashdid is written over [HKDriD which is the translation 
of D'er^rp (2 Sam. 12. 19). 

Two paper leaves, slightly faded, forming the outer sheet of 
a fascicle, measuring 7^x5! in. (=18-5x13-6 cm.). There 
are twenty-one lines to a page. Oriental square character with 
a strong tendency to cursiveness ; the Hebrew words commented 
upon are in bold square hand, with vowel-points, but other Hebrew 
words are in the same character as the Arabic. . [Cobern]. 

56. 

Part of Rashi's commentary on Proverbs. r8. 4-22. 4. 

Fol. r a begins with pD3B> trtc ^3 (18. 4), and 1 b ends with 
n"3pn (19. 29); a few lines are torn off at the top of 2 a, which 
begins with nabn (20. 5), and 2 b ends with rh l"^b D11D (22. 4). 

This fragment has important variants, as Tins? for W\sb 
(20. 8). 

Two parchment leaves, badly damaged, forming the inner 
sheet of a fascicle. The upper part is entirely torn off. Size 
n|x6|in. (= 29-2x15-5 cm.). Each page has two columns, 
and there must have been more than thirty lines to a page. 
Rabbinic cursive character. [Amram.] 

57. 

Part of Kimhi's kabbalistic commentary on Ezekiel. 1. 21, 22 ; 
1. 24, 25. 

Fol. 1 a begins with tao "pn b]l ETTO nixtwrinm (r. 21), and 
r b ends with "VKO Xinc "11N3 (1. 22). Two leaves are missing 
between fol. r b and 2 a. The latter begins with DrD?3 Vlp (r. 24), 
and 2 b ends with "3J Trmj& NTI3T Njtt:t?Ki> (r. 25). 

There are some interesting variants. Thus verse 22 has iwio 
(instead of felD); /3S>1D (instead of 0^3 t?W). Verse 25 has 
331*1(1 (instead of 31"l3n). 



426 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

Two paper leaves, forming the outer sheet of a fascicle, 
measuring 5^x4 in. (= i3-3xro-i cm.). Thirteen lines to a 
page. Rabbinic hand, but each verse begins with bold square 
character. [U. P.] 

58. 

Beginning of an Arabic commentary on Psalms, which is 
much briefer than Sa'adya's. It is headed nrDJ WDm 7DB>3 
D*?n i"l3lOE>3. The first few words of each verse are quoted and 
then commented upon ; but no translation is given. This leaf 
covers the greater part of the first two psalms. 

One paper leaf, badly damaged and faded, measuring 
6| x 4 T S 6 in. (=15-5 X 10-9 cm.). There are fifteen lines to a page. 
Oriental cursive character. [Amram.] 

59. 

Part of an Arabic commentary on Psalms. 105. 21— ro6. 3. 

Fol. 1 a begins with notes on ?Wl (105. 21), and ends with 
V3pT (105. 22); fol. rb continues 1 a, and ends with notes to 
1»5> "IS'I (105. 24). Some leaves are missing between fol. r b 
and 2 a. The latter begins with a general introduction to 
Psalm 106. It discusses its contents, and explains why this 
Psalm which contains a sketch of Jewish history is prefaced and 
appended by verses of prayer. It also points out that iJiat (ro6. 4) 
refers to the psalmist personally, whereas IJJWiD (106. 47) is for the 
nation in general. This page ends with notes on ro6. 1, in which 
the usage of the words denoting praise, thanks, &c, is explained. 
Fol. 2 b continues 2 a, and ends with notes on npIV (ro6. 3). 

A few characteristic sentences Of this writer may be mentioned. 
In explaining that pSlC 1 (105. 23) refers to all the tribes, while 
by 3P5f Jacob alone is meant, he remarks : ]»y |K <S TONn^K JK21 
'B barbx n:xi>(i) ppb iiwi iW>k »b Dxpx ip (Jacob) v&x jn 
nd s|-idn "bit tron -i"wd!>k ixpi rn^iK ^n jo 3jjjk noxpn 

The orthography of Arabic words is not consistent. There 
seems to be an attempt to follow the classical forms. But spellings 
like WJJO = ,1** are not infrequent. Then a short u is often 



GENIZAH FRAGMENTS IN PHILADELPHIA — HALPER 427 

represented by 1, as PIT = J x> . Similarly X is used for a and 
i for 1, though these cases are less frequent than those of 1 for it, 
as JKnrv D? and 'JjnD'' D?. 

Diacritical points are only placed on D and X. 

On fol. 2 a there is a marginal note suggesting a different 
explanation from that given in the text. 

Two parchment leaves, forming the outer sheet of a fascicle, 
measuring n X6f| in. (= 27-9 x 17 cm.). The number of lines 
ranges between twenty-seven and twenty-eight on each page. 
Square character. [Adler.] 

60. 

Part of an allegorical commentary, in Jewish-Arabic, on 
Song of Songs. 2. 1-11; 5. 7-14. Not all verses are commented 
upon. The Hebrew words are usually in a larger character and 
vocalized, three dots (''') being put on each word. 

Some leaves are missing between fol. 1 b and 2 a. 

Two paper leaves, forming the outer sheet of a fascicle, 
slightly obliterated. Size 6f xs| (=I7-4X 13 cm.) Number of 
lines ranges from fifteen to sixteen to a page. Oriental cursive 
hand. [U. P.] 

61. 

Part of Gersonides' commentary on the Five Megillot. 
Canticles 8. 4-Ruth. 

Fol. 1 a begins with Canticles 8. 4, and 1 b ends with 8. 7. 
Some leaves are missing between fol. 1 b and 2 a. The latter 
begins with the middle of the ninth n?yin on Ruth, and 2 b ends 
with the sixteenth TOW), which is the last. This is followed by 
a note (missing in the Konigsberg edition) to the effect that the 
commentary on Ruth (or the preface) was completed on the new 
moon of Nisan in the year 89 (= 1329). 

Two paper leaves, slightly damaged, forming the outer sheet 
of a fascicle, io^ X 7| in. (= 26-6 x 19-3 cm.). The number of 
lines ranges from twenty-three to twenty-nine to a page. Cursive 
rabbinic character. The verses of the text are in a larger hand 
and are vocalized and accented. [Amram.] 



428 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

62. 

Part of a Jewish-Arabic commentary on the Book of Daniel. 

The writing of fol. i does not seem to be the same as that of 
fol. 2. The subject-matter of fol. i is rather puzzling. On fol. i a 
the writer expatiates on the attributes and praises of God. This is 
continued till fol. i b, line 3, where the paragraph ends with the 

words 'ji i'i DN3 rba bi vm nne>» n» rbtt b nsi (Isa. 66. 2). 

Then follows a short paragraph which may be a note to Cant. 1.3. 
It begins with "piriK '•jatPD, and is followed by quotations from 
Exod. 3. 16; 4. 1; 4. 29, 30, 31. The writer probably wished 
to point out that Moses had underrated the faith of the Israelites. 
The lower half of this page is blank. Some leaves are missing 
between fol. 1 b and fol. 2 a. Fol. 2 a is in the midst of a 
discussion on the Messianic periods, and the writer explains that 
there are ten periods. It discusses the Maccabean period which 
is apparently the seventh. Various passages referring to Hanukkah 
are quoted from the Book of Maccabees in Aramaic and from the 
Talmud, as Shabbat 21 b, &c. This lengthy discussion was 
evidently occasioned by DTiyn }'pP1 (Dan. n. 13). The usage 
and meaning of the word fp are also explained, and as illustrations 
yp TVK1 rtan bJ? (Psalm 119. 96), nvp ptfl . . . &6»m (Isa. 2. 7), 
and other passages are quoted. This long note continues till the 
middle of fol. 2 b. Then follow short notes on V3D aen (Dan. 
n. 17), 133 b]l 10JJ1 (ibid., 11. 20), and a few other verses. This 
page ends with a note on niD^D Tin vbl) 13D3 K^l {ibid., 11. 21). 
These verses are explained as referring to the Muhammedan 
period. 

Fol. 1 may be the introduction to this commentary. But the 
intrusion of the note in Cant. 1. 3 and the difference in the 
writing make it probable that this leaf served as a cover, and was 
originally blank, and a later scribe jotted down some passages 
from other books. 

Two parchment leaves, forming the outer sheet of a fascicle, 
measuring 7^x5^ in. (= i8-ix 14-6 cm.). Fol. ia has twelve 
lines to a page (the lower half of 1 b is blank); fol. 2 has 



GENIZAH FRAGMENTS IN PHILADELPHIA — HALPER 429 

thirty-three lines on each page. Square character with a slight 
tendency to cursiveness. [Adler.] 

63. 

Probably part of an Arabic commentary on the Haftarot. 
The style is that of Sa'adya, and the notes may have been 
excerpted from his commentaries. There are lengthy notes on 
Hos. 14. ro and Mic. 7. 18 (Haftarah for Sabbath Shubah). 
These notes cover fol. 1 a and 1 b. Some leaves are missing 
between fol. 1 b and 2 a. The latter deals with 2 Sam. 22. r, 2 
(= Ps. r8. r, 2). The Hebrew quotations are vocalized and 
accented. 

Two paper leaves, badly damaged in the upper part, forming 
the outer sheet of a fascicle. Size ro x l\ in. ( = 25-4 x 18-4 cm.). 
There are twenty-four lines to a page. Oriental cursive character ; 
the Hebrew words commented upon are in a large square hand. 
[Amram.] 

64. 

The beginning of a homily, in Aramaic, on Ezek. 1. r. 

Recto is blank, except for a few letters of the alphabet, 
written probably by a boy. Verso is headed iW ftyfotri \T1 Dinn, 
and has thirty-three lines in irregular square character. 

One parchment leaf, measuring 8x5! m - ( =20- 3 x r 4 - 6 cm.). 
[Sulzberger.] 

65. 

Part of a free rendering, in vulgar Jewish-Arabic, of Daniel. 

Every verse begins with the first Aramaic word of the text, 
but not all verses are translated. 

Fol. r a begins with |j>3 : m"DE>! r6s, the third word repre- 
senting Dan. 4. 34. The next paragraph is headed "1XN5593 JlVp 

.PS 

(= i«j), and the narrative continues till fol. 2 a. The next 
paragraph is headed HDD BTV7 nv*P, and the story continues as 
far as KJB JHN, which is probably Dan. 6. 7. 

Two paper leaves, badly damaged, measuring 7§x6j in. 
(= 19.3 x 16-4 cm.). Number of lines ranges from fifteen to 
eighteen to a page. Square character with a tendency to cursive- 
ness. [Sulzberger.] 

VOL. XII. G g 



43° THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

66. 

Part of a halakic commentary on the Pentateuch. These 
leaves deal with the section Emor. Each leaf is headed 
mron bt* -idk tid. 

Two paper leaves, measuring &§x6| in. (= 21-6 X 15-5 cm.). 
Number of lines ranges from thirty-one to thirty-four to a page. 
Late Oriental cursive character. [Amram.] 

67. 

Part of a Jewish-Arabic lexicon of the Bible in the same style 
as Ibn Janah's U$ul. 

Fol. 1 has the root JDK (incomplete). Fol. 2 has the root nox 
(also incomplete). 

Some leaves are missing between folios 1 and 2. 

Two paper leaves, damaged, forming the outer sheet of a 
fascicle. Size 6J X 4^ in. (= 17-1 X 10-9 cm.). There are 
seventeen lines to a page. Square character with a tendency to 
cursiveness. [U. P.] 

68. 

Part of a Hebrew- Arabic glossary to First Book of Kings. 

Fol. 1 a begins with DW13. which is rendered by DK3T = lULj 
(5. 3), and ends with ^n which is rendered by •'Va = '^(6- 4) ; 
fol. 1 b begins with D'Blpt? rendered by PIJ&B n^DID {ibid), and 
ends with '"I1DS1 rendered by &-Qn = y^iS (6. 18). Fol. 2 a 
continues 1 b. It begins with D'VV rendered by "inTX, Til (ibid.), 
and ends with 2$)l (7. 6). The rendering of this word is entirely 
obliterated, and no trace whatsoever is left. It might have been 
omitted by the scribe. Fol. 2 b begins with nip" 1 rendered by 
W>, rnpi (7. 9;, and ends with Tlie rendered by 33710 (7. 29). 

Although the Hebrew words, with a few exceptions like ni~ip\ 
are spelled in accordance with our Masorah, the orthography of 
the Arabic words is phonetic. Thus ^ is sometimes confused 
with 1, as DN3T (1 Kings 5. 3). z'and u are usually indicated by 
» and 1. respectively, as may be seen from the words quoted above. 



GENIZAH FRAGMENTS IN PHILADELPHIA — HALPER 431 

In some cases, where double renderings are given, the Hebrew 
word is repeated twice, as 

minn^D na^ni 2 '* 

Some of the renderings are interesting, as nnp* (7. 9) is taken 
to mean ' heavy ' in the Aramaic sense. See Rashi. 

Two parchment leaves, measuring 5§X5xf in. (= 13-7 
X 14-8 cm.). There are sixteen lines on each page. Square 
character. [Adler.] 

69. 

A compilation of Hebrew words occurring in the Bible. 
Each word is accompanied by the biblical expression in which it 
is found. 

One paper leaf, badly damaged and faded, measuring 7^x7 in. 
(= 20 x 17-8 cm.). There are two columns to a page and 
twenty-two lines to a column. Square character. [Amram.] 

70. 

Part of a treatise, in Jewish- Arabic, on the usage of certain 
Hebrew expressions. 

Fol. 1 a begins with a discussion of the usage of the expression 
nrfp?, which, the author says, is employed in three ways: (1) in 
connexion with obedience to God ; (2) disobedience to God ; 
(3) in connexion with an act which involves neither obedience 
nor disobedience (njfKD ;X3 NO PUD 3ns J b]l nffp&N |N hpil 

nj?ND vb jk3 nd njDi ^vn n^ rvxyo |ta nd mai barn rbb 

iViyv N7I. Numerous examples for each case are given, and 
rabbinic passages are extensively quoted. The author refers to 

Sa'adya: b wi niD^s mrb vb$ rrensbx »b petsn nonn »ai 
n-i'DBn 'a $i ptn imgo to man np kd ^DNnn i>tai ravin 
(fol. 1 a, 1. 8). At the end of fol. 1 b the- author still quotes 
passages to illustrate the first usage. Some leaves are missing 
between 1 b and 2 a. The latter begins with the third mode 

bipb rvvyo xb) nyxD vb ins xd 1m nrvpWw jd niwni>N m&tci 
npbn ram icyo pis nvroaa n:vnbn »a. This is continued to 
the end of 2 b. 



432 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

The author gives the source of every quotation, and this fact 
would lead one to assume that this book belongs to a later period, 
probably to the thirteenth century. 

Two paper leaves, forming the outer sheet of a fascicle, 
measuring 6J^ x 5 in. (= 17 x 12-7 cm.). Number of lines ranges 
from twenty to twenty-two to a page, apart from some irregular 
lines on the margins. Oriental cursive character. [Amram.] 

71. 

Stray notes, in Jewish- Arabic, on biblical passages. Some 
notes are brief, while others are rather lengthy and irrelevant. 

The verses commented upon are: Psalms 68. 31; 75. 9; 
Job 25. 5 ; 34. 29. The writer expatiates upon the use of the 
Imperfect ; he then stumbles upon the word reD£>, and gives 
a number of passages in which it occurs. He is thus led to 
explain the use of the 1 to introduce the predicate, and a great 
many passages are cited. 

Two parchment leaves, slightly damaged, measuring 5§ X 4f in. 
(=I4X 11-7 cm.). There are nineteen lines to a page. Square 
character with a slight tendency to cursiveness. [Amram. J 

72. 

Part of a treatise, in Jewish-Arabic, on Hebrew grammar. 
This fragment contains rules about the makkef (written INpe, 
which is against the vocalization list?) after JIN and 73. 

Two paper leaves, badly obliterated, measuring 6^ X 5 in. 
( = 17 x 12-7 cm.). Number of lines ranges from eleven to fourteen 
to a page. The writing, which is in Oriental square character 
with a strong tendency to cursiveness, is very slovenly. [U. P.] 

73. 

Part of a treatise, in Jewish-Arabic, on Hebrew syntax. It is 
also possible that it formed part of a lengthy commentary on the 
Bible in which syntactical usages were fully discussed. This 
fragment deals with the use of the third person (TNJ7N "VOX) in 
the Pentateuch instead of the first or the second, as nB»D "lDN"i, 
ne>» i>jp|, ne>D ?K trip^, WO 7K " "13T*I. The author points 



GENIZAH FRAGMENTS IN PHILADELPHIA — HALPER 433 

out that the exceptions like '131 naiy nns "bn " "1W1 are few. 
The writer's aim was evidently polemical, as in referring to this 
principle and to the one which preceded it, he observes : ptn tbsnNS 
nxnD^ "int juko uxni nyne^K inn pvn "»d xoruNa j^^k 
KfUp ")N"hw6k nJD^N. He then discusses repetitions of words 
which add nothing to the meaning, but are merely employed for 
rhetorical effect, as '131 " TO'iN run *3 (Ps. 92. 10); or for the 
sake of making the sentence more intelligible, as the repetition of 
natDn in 2 Kings 23. 15. 

One paper leaf, measuring 7x5! in. (=17-8x13-6 cm.). 
The right upper corner is torn off. There are twenty-one lines to 
a page. Oriental square character with a strong tendency to 
cursiveness. (Cobern). 

74. 

Part of Kimhi's Hebrew grammar W>3». The treatment of 
the verb ends on recto, 1. 2, where the quinqualiteral verbs 
nnw im[nD3] are given. This is followed by Tl10E>n *1VE> in 
a large square hand, and the page ends with N1B>n K~i1p nnx (Fiirth 
edition, p. 153 a, 1. 4). Verso continues recto, and ends with 
rb 31-ip Dyonr (p. 154 a, 1. 20). 

There are some minor variants, as m»cn "W instead of 

nietm p\ipi -\y&. 

A narrow strip of parchment, measuring 10^x4^ in. (=26 
X n-4 cm.). Only half of the width has been preserved. There 
are twenty-eight lines to a page. Rabbinic cursive character. 
[Amram.] 



VOL. XII. H h