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Julius Wellhausen celebrated his seventieth birthday on 
May 17, 19 14. Friends and former students, headed by the 
editor, Professor Marti, have united to do him honour by the 
publication of a volume of scientific papers.' It is to be regretted 
that the Committee decided to confine the invitations solely to 
such scholars as were committed to the methods of Wellhausen ; 
it seems the publication was intended to serve as a proof that 
they were not antiquated nor in need of revision. For, in the 
first place, a far greater number of men would have responded, 
who though more or less at variance with the celebrant's position, 
would have been glad to testify to their admiration of Wellhausen ; 
and in the second place, science is not advanced by clinging to 
this or that method, this or that position, if here and there new 
paths have been opened and new points of view established. It 
is easy to see against whom Marti's pointed shafts are directed ; 
but withal it little behoves Biblical students in any camp to 
detract from the merits of this scholar who has been a path-finder 
and whose name has had international vogue. 

We turn first to the end of the volume where a list of 235 
publications from Wellhaueen's pen has been drawn up by 
Professor Rahlfs. His first fruits dealt with the clans and families 
of the tribe of Judah, enumerated at the head of I Chronicles. 
With this dissertation submitted to the Theological Faculty of 
the University of Gottingen went the usual theses which the 
candidate was to publicly defend and which embraced a wide field 
of theological knowledge. To some of them, the scholar made 
reference in his later publications, as for instance, the derivation 

' Siudien zur semitischen Philotogie und ReligionsgesMchie. Julius 
Wellhausen zum siebzigsten Geburtstage am 17. Mai 1914 gewidmet von 
Freunden und Schiilern und in ihrem Auftrag herausgegeben von Karl 
Marti. Giessen : Alfred Topelmann, 1914. pp. xii + 388. 


of miD from mjf. His first large work, published in 1871, dealt 
with the text of the Books of Samuel. It has been a guide to all 
younger men in the proper use of the ancient versions, particularly 
of the LXX, for the purpose of textual criticism. He steered 
a middle course between Thenius to whom every Greek word 
meant a Hebrew equivalent and who failed to grasp the importance 
of studying in a version the translator's mannerisms and exigen- 
cies, and on the other hand, Geiger, who saw in every deviation 
from the M.T. an intentional change, born of the conflict of 
opinions among the various later sects. Three years later, a study 
of the Pharisees and Sadducees was published with a clear leaning 
on Geiger, though he by no means followed him through thick 
and thin. A series of articles on Biblical Chronology and the 
analysis of the Hexateuch paved the way for his great and best 
known book, The History of Israel, later renamed Prolegomena to 
the History of Israel, which meant the summing up of the 
arguments for placing the Priestly portions of the Pentateuch in 
post-exilic times, and a reconstruction of the history of Israel 
nothing short of turning the traditional view upside down. We 
younger men have heard of the storm of protest from all quarters 
that ensued and how in both hemispheres the name of Wellhausen 
became the subject of diatribes in pulpits of all churches. He 
was at length forced out of his position in the Theological 
Faculty and compelled to switch over to the Philosophical Faculty 
in a minor Prussian university. From these years come his 
works on Arabic literature and Arab religion, notably his book 
on the remains of Arab Heathenism which meant to illustrate the 
same development m Israel, placing the rise of Islam on a level 
with the Deuteronomic revelation. He once more returned to 
the Old Testament field by a translation of the Minor Prophets 
and, particularly, by his volume on the History of Israel and 
Judah which grew out of an article originally contributed to the 
Encyclopaedia Britannica, but which was thoroughly enlarged and 
remodelled. This work which is now in its seventh edition (see 
later) is a masterpiece of style. Whether he deals with the 
natural configuration of Palestine which, unless we are mistaken. 


he never visited, or the political, religious and literary history, 
we meet stately periods of which each word is so much condensed 
thought. Advanced as' the standpoint is in various details, 
nevertheless, Wellhausen shows an unperturbed attitude towards 
vagaries of younger men, some of whom were his own disciples. 
The crowning chapter is, of course, the last, in which Wellhausen, 
naturally enough from a Christian point of view, proceeds to show 
how the Old Testament religion which is traced in the previous 
pages through the cross-current of the last pre-Christian century 
leads to the flower, the teaching of Jesus of Nazareth. If Amos 
and Jeremiah are invested retrospectively with the evangelical 
touch and made to stand forth as the protagonists of individual 
civic righteousness against the pride of race and poHtical 
chauvinism, Jesus, on the other hand, is described as another, 
indeed as the last prophet, who consummates the individualistic 
tendencies in the religion of Israel. That to Wellhausen the 
religion of Jesus and Christianity are things apart may be seen on 
the last page where it is pointed out that the destinies of nations 
and the progress of civilization are not to be measured by Church 
history and Church councils over which the owl of strife presided, 
and who concludes with the apophthegm that the Gospel is the 
salt of the earth and where it aims to be more, it becomes less. 
Advanced to the oriental chair ultimately vacated by Lagarde, 
we find him contributing an edition and translation of the Psalms 
to Haupt's Bible, participating in a discussion as to the historical 
character of the Restoration, and turning his attention to Arabic 
history and Arabic literature; but of a special interest to the 
Biblical student are his works on the Gospels and the Acts of the 
Apostles in which he operates with methods of criticism previously 
applied to the Old Testament, and with the notion of an Aramaic 
original underlying the Gospels. 

It is a record certainly rich in achievement and profound in 
its stimulating effect. Through all his works, there is noticeable 
a master mind never lost in details but always going to the 
centre of things and aiming at a presentation of the great and 
leading figures and thoughts in the religion of Israel which has 


always stood in the centre of his interest. Opponents have been 
shocked here and there by an irreverent tone, and Jewish scholars 
have been aghast at the havoc which Wellhausen's theories 
wrought in traditional opinion. Wellhausen shares the Christian 
view of the inferiority of Rabbinic Judaism. But Wellhausen is 
far too aristocratic to show hostility towards Judaism, if he ever 
harboured such thoughts. If his disciples betray anti-Semitic 
tendencies, it is simply because they belong to a younger genera- 
tion and because they descend to a low level. 

Of the twenty-one papers in the volume all but three (Franken- 
berg's on ' Determination in Semitic ', on the lines pursued by the 
author in his work on the ' Organism of Semitic Word-formation ' 
published in 1913; Bevan's on 'Mohammed's Ascension to 
Heaven ' ; Albrecht's edition of the fifth porta of the Book of the 
Tejnis by Moses Ibn Ezra, based on Giinzburg's edition and two 
further MSS.) deal with Hebrew and the Old Testament. Beer cuts 
out from the portions of Isaiah generally regarded as authentic all 
anti- Assyrian discourses and only leaves the pro- Assyrian prophecies 
stand ; thus vacillation is removed and the prophet is depicted 
as his people's enemy (' Volksfeind '), a universalist transcending 
all national barriers with an outlook into the future 'genuinely 
Protestant ', while the Synagogue and Islam and Catholicism are 
founded upon the spurious eschatology of the amplified and 
corrected Book of Isaiah as we have it to-day ! Bertholet's ' Notes 
on Textual Difficulties in Deutero-Isaiah ' contain here and there 
suggestions which will command attention; the best in 51.12 
comes from Ehrlich; the deductions from the Septuagint are 
not always convincing. Budde ventures the opinion that the 
prose account of the encounter of Amos with the priest Amaziah 
(Amos 7. 10-17) stood originally at the head of the book. The 
lexicographer Buhl endeavours to determine the meaning of the 
stem fh (j"^). Burney is inclined to believe, against Moore, that 
the two narratives of Gideon's rout of the Midianites now dove- 
tailed into one another probably did not differ as to the place of 
the flight of the marauders. Cornill's contribution elaborates 
points raised in his controversy with Sellin. The Judah section 


in the Blessing of Jacob (Gen. 49) is reduced to three short 
lines with their allusion to wine growing and cattle raising in 
the southern hills and steppes; all else, including the Shiloh 
passage, is interpolation. Wellhausen's repristination of Goethe's 
discovery of the Jahvistic Decalogue in Exod. 34, a parallel to 
the Elohistic in chapter 20, is submitted to a fresh proof and 
substantiated: it consists of five pairs of commandments. 
Elhorst refutes the opinion according to which the rites of 
mourning in Israel have for their purpose the warding off of evil 
demons; he thinks that the matter is a most complicated one, 
and that a variety of motives plays into these customs : on the 
one hand, there is a desire to do a service to the departed, for 
it is quite material in what manner one goes down into the under- 
world; and, on the other hand, there is the belief that the house 
of death is occupied by a power which in the interest of the dead 
and the living it is well to propitiate and to honour. Von Gall 
examines the pre-exilic passages in which Jahveh is designated 
as king of Zion, and comes to the conclusion that he succeeded 
to the title of an ancient pre-Davidic deity, Zedek (cp. the 
name Adoni-zedek), located in the sacred spring Gihon ; the cult 
of that deity lived on unofficially, and consisted in the burning 
of children in the valley of Hinnom in honour of the king — 
Moloch ; the prophets realized the heathen origin of the abomin- 
able practice, and gradually transformed the King of Zion into 
the Lord of the universalistic Messianic kingdom. Gray collects 
the data in the Egyptian Aramaic papyri, affording the earliest 
evidence of the existence among the Jews of the practice of 
giving to children the name of an ancestor, and particularly that 
of the grandfather. Guthe's explanation of the sign and the 
prophecy in Isaiah 7. 4-17 proceeds from an analysis of similar 
prophecies to which a sign is attached, both in Isaiah and else- 
where : the sign is subordinated to the prophecy. In the present 
case, sign and prophecy are constructed to consist each of two 
halves, and there is a relationship in time and thought between 
the corresponding halves : the birth of a new generation under 
the call 'God is with us' in the time of peace following the 


retirement of the two warring kings, and the meagre sustenance 
by milk and honey when in the sequel the country will be 
devastated by Assyria. There are difiSculties enough in this view, 
and Guthe brushes them aside lightly ; the assumption that ' the 
young woman ' means ' young women ' (generic article), although 
acquiesced in by many commentators, remains unconvincing. 
Haupt's treatment of the text of the Song of Deborah shows that 
scholar's usual manner of transposing textual elements and rele- 
gating others to the margin together with questionable emenda- 
tions ; but one can always learn from Haupt, and his diversified 
learning permeates the notes. While admitting the higher 
cultural sphere reflected in the marriage laws of the Hammurabi 
Code, Holzinger points out that the point of view is largely one 
of property rights, and that there is no trace of the higher moral 
ideal dominating the conceptions of Judaism on the subject of 
marriage. In the Old Testament itself there is a marked 
development between older and more recent times, exemplified 
in the different attitudes of the Jahvist and Elohist (Smend's 
analysis of Gen. 24 is accepted); but the change occurred from 
within, the contributing factor being the religious conceptions of 
the Jews. Kohler's contributions to the Hebrew Lexicon of the 
Old Testament demonstrate the need of including certain plau- 
sible conjectures by means of which the old Hebrew vocabulary 
may be enlarged ; he also points out how one or the other article 
in Buhl's Gesenius will bear revision. According to Lods, the 
' angel of Jahveh ' represents a sort of ' double ', ' I'^me ext^rieure '. 
Marti seeks to show that even so late a prophet as Zechariah did 
not escape the fate of being corrected by means of interpolations, 
the purpose of which was to accommodate the prophet to the 
standard of a predicter of eschatological events. Meinhold 
claims, against Wellhausen and his school, that when the Priestly 
Code assumes centralization of the cult in pre-exilic times it is 
not altogether falsifying history : centralization was a necessary 
corollary of the peregrinations in the desert, and at least during 
the life of Moses the Israelites worshipped Jahveh in one place, 
that being the ark and the tent of the covenant. But it is wrong 


on the part of the Priestly Code to assume the perpetuation of 
this state of affairs in post-Mosaic times, when the settlement in 
Canaan and the subsequent dispersion of the tribes necessitated 
a multiplication of altars and ritual centres. Rogers reverts to 
the view of George Rawlinson and Hugo Winckler that Senna- 
cherib undertook two campaigns against King Hezekiah, one in 
701 and another about 682, thus relieving the textual diflSculties 
in the accounts of the book of Kings and Isaiah. Steuernagel 
investigates the Deuteronomistic expression i'XIS''' "TIPN nin" , and 
comes to the conclusion that in most cases ^NiB*'' 'npN was 
appended by. a later editor in order to differentiate between 
Jahveh as ethnic deity, and Jahveh the national God of Israel. 

The well-known history by the nestor of Biblical criticism is 
now in its seventh edition.^ It is practically a reprint, without 
additions or corrections, as every monumental and epoch-making 
work should be. Evidently its influence is still potent, for, 
despite the many admirable books on the subject published in 
recent years, people like to revert to the main source and 
fountain-head of Biblical research from which all the latest 
currents and cross-currents derive their existence. 

Volz's Biblisctie AltertUmer ^ is based on Kinzler's well-known 
work on Biblical antiquities, the seventh edition of which appeared 
in 1893. The immense archaeological material that came to 
light in the Orient during the last twenty years necessitated a 
complete revision of the work, and so the present book is prac- 
tically new so far as subject-matter is concerned. In plan and 
execution, however, it approaches its predecessor. It should be 
noted that a good deal of the description is due to personal 
inspection as a result of an Oriental tour. The work is in two 
parts, the first dealing with the divine cult and religious life of 
Israel, the second with the domestic, social, and national condi- 

2 IsraelUische und jiidische Geschichie. Von J. Wellhausen. Siebente 
Ausgabe. Berlin : Georg Reimer, 1914. pp. 372. 

s Die biblischen Altertiinter. Von Dr. Paul Volz. Mit 97 Textabbil- 
dungen und 3a Tafeln. Calw und Stuttgart : Veblag der Vereinsbuch- 

HANDLUNG, I914. pp. viii + 556. 


tions of the Jews. In the former a sharp line is drawn between 
the prophetic ideal of monotheism, the practical monotheism of 
the priests forming an intermediary between the prophetic spirit 
and popular practice, and finally the popular belief which shows 
affinity with the beliefs of the rest of the world. As sources the 
author makes use of both Testaments and the Apocrypha. 
Talmudic references are introduced only where they serve as 
a proof for a Biblical statement. The continuity and organic 
connexion of the work, as well as its comparative completeness 
of material, will recommend it to both scholar and layman, for 
whom it was written. The photographic reproductions are well 
executed, and the indices are as perfect as possible. 

Arnold advances a novel thesis concerning the vexing problem 
of the ephod and the ark.* As is well known, there are two kinds 
of ephod mentioned in the Old Testament, one meaning loin-cloth 
or apron worn by all persons who engaged in solemn religious 
exercises in the immediate presence of the deity, and one having 
reference to a solid and heavy object of an unknown nature, but 
with the power of divination implied. Now Arnold argues against 
the ephod being an object of divination ; rather is the ark such 
an object, as may be seen from numerous passages containing 
the word piX. Starting with i Sam. 14. 18, where the masoretic 
text has pix and the Septuagint nisx, he hits upon the idea that 
the former is genuine while the latter is a substitute of a 
scrupulous scribe who wished to hide the fact that the ark was 
an object of divination. He then proceeds to identify all the 
passages wherein the heavy ephod occurs as having had piK 
originally. Likewise he reads pnt* for px in i Sam. 15. 23, which 
yields good sense. After a searching investigation of the expression 
QTibn piN and similar combinations, he arrives at the conclusion 
that 'the historical sacred box of the ancient Hebrews was 
a manifold object regularly employed as the instrument of 
priestly divination'. This hypothesis relieves at once the diffi- 

* Ephod and Ark. A Study in the Records and Religion of the Ancient 
Hebrews. By William R. Arnold. {Harvard Theological Studies. III.) 
Cambridge : Harvard Univershy Pbess, 1917. pp. 170. 


culty in i Sam. 14. 18, according to which the ark was in the 
camp of Saul near Gibeah of Benjamin at the battle ot Michmash, 
while, in agreement with another account in i Sam. 7. i, it was 
deposited in the house of Abinadab on the height above Kiriath- 
jearim, and remained there until David removed it to Jerusalem. 
If the ark of Jahveh was a multiple object then both statements 
are compatible with each other. The author describes the nature 
of the ark, its origin and development, until its final disappearance 
during the destruction of the first temple. It appears that the 
ark was a box of Canaanitish origin, and served as a repository 
for the sacred lots, and as a receptacle from which those lots were 
drawn. It was banished as a heathen relic with the advance 
of pure monotheism and the Deuteronomistic centralization of 
worship. The author elaborates all these points very meticu- 
lously, and comments on Biblical passages in a sound way. 
There can be no doubt that the hypothesis is very plausible, 
solving as it does several knotty problems in Biblical exegesis. 
The book ends with two excursuses, one on the equivalence of 
Yahwe Sebaoth to Jahwe Militant and not Lord of Hosts or 
Armies, and another on a troublesome passage in the Elephantine 
Temple papyrus. A conspectus on |l~iN in the Old Testament 
is attached at the end, and helps to visualize the whole intricate 
subject at a glance. 

The Layman's Library,'' as stated by Mr. Burkitt in the preface, 
aims to present, in popular treatment, various theological subjects 
from the standpoint of the Anglican Church. The editors think 
' in the first place of the laymen of the Church of England, who 
are puzzled by the inroads of modern learning upon the Church's 
ground, and wish to know what counsel and advice specialists 
who are also Churchmen can give them on the several subjects '. 
The present volume by Mr. Nairne opens the series. An intro- 
duction gives a general sketch of the literature of the Old 

' The Faith of the Old Testament. By the Rev. Alexander Nairne, B.D. 
With a Preface by F. C. Burkitt, M.A , F.B.A. {The Layman's Library. 
Edited by F. C. Burkitt and the Rev. G. E. Newsom.) London : 
Longmans, Green & Co., 1914. pp. xi + a26. 



Testament and its religious content. Then comes a detailed 
discussion of the early prophets, Ezekiel and the Law, the 
Wisdom books, the Apocrypha and Daniel, and finally the 
Psalter, with a view to elucidating the contribution of each of 
these sources in the sphere of absolute faith. In each case also 
the evolution of the religious concepts is emphasized, and con- 
nexions are made with the New Testament doctrine. The 
material is based on the latest critical authorities of the Christian 
faith, who insist that the fruition of the moral teachings of the 
prophets and the full maturity of their ideal religion was not 
effected before the Maccabean period, and only culminated in 
Jesus of Nazareth. The treatment is original and quite interesting. 

Mr. Robinson* aims to present some of the fundamental 
ideas of the Israelitic religion 'in their historical setting, with 
some indication of their theological and philosophical value, and 
of their significance for Christianity '. He takes up first the idea 
of religion, then the idea of God, the idea of man, the approach of 
God to man, the approach of man to God, the problems of sin 
and suffering, and the hope of the nation. He winds up with 
a chapter on the permanent value of the Old Testament, empha- 
sizing Israel's history as a divine revelation and his religion as 
historical. An introductory chapter deals with the history of the 
canonical books as the source of religious ideas. His attitude is 
that of one ' who believes critical study of the Old Testament to 
be no obstacle but a great help to the progress of the Gospel of 
the New Testament'. To this end he traces the development 
from the idea of the nomadic war-god of the Mosaic period, 
through that of the agricultural land-god of Canaan, into that of 
the world-god, and up to the absolute monotheism at the time 
of the exile. The treatment is lucid, and the style clear and 
compact. A bibliography and index enhance the value of 
the book. 

The Kingdom of God Series' purports to expound the 

* The Religious Ideas of the Old Testament. By H. Wheeler Robinson, 
M.A. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1913. pp. viii + 245. 

' The Religion of Israel. By John Bayne Ascham. {Kingdom of God 


development of the kingdom of God on earth as represented in 
the Old and New Testaments. The former is covered by two 
volumes : The Religion of Israel z-vA The Religion of Judah, both 
written by the same man. These books are intended primarily 
for adult Bible classes and high schools that stand in need of 
modern text-books written in scholarly spirit but in popular style. 
Hence the topical arrangement of the material and the concise 
treatment of each subject, hence also the questions for class dis- 
cussion and suggested readings at the end of every chapter. The 
sequence of the topics is historical and follows in the main the 
Biblical canon. A brief summary concludes the work. The 
present volume contains twenty-six study chapters and stops with 
the rise of eighth-century prophetism and the fall of Samaria. 
The later development of the kingdom is reserved for the second 
volume on the religion of Judah. 

Bade ^ endeavours ' to meet the difficulties of men and women 
to whom the Old Testament is still a valuable part of the Bible, 
but who find it an indigestible element in the Biblical rationale 
of their beliefs '. With this aim in view he analyses the Hebrew 
religion on the basis of recent investigations, showing its inferiority 
from an ethical standpoint. He pictures the Hebrew religion in 
the most unfavourable light. To him even the Deuteronomic 
code does not constitute monotheism, for he coins for it the name 
monojahvism. Theoretical monotheism appears first in Jeremiah 
and is advocated by other pre-exilic prophets. As a practice it 
hardly existed. With such an appreciation of the Hebrew reli- 
gion it is no wonder that the author has to defend it as the 
progenitor of Christianity. It is true, he argues, that the Old 
Testament is on a low level of ethical and religious development, 
still we must study it as the antecedent and origin of the New. 

Series. Edited by Henry H. Meyer and David G. Downey.) New York : 
The Abingdon Press, [1918]. pp. 239. 

» The Old Testament in the Lif^ht of To-day. A Study in Moral 
Development. By William Frederic Bade, Professor in the Pacific 
Theological Seminary, Berkeley, California. Boston and New York: 
Houghton Mifflin Company, 1915. pp. xxii -^ 326. 

P 2 


The moral superiority of the latter over the former is assumed 
from the very beginning, and a wish is uttered that doctrinal 
co-ordination of the Old and New Testaments should give place 
to historical subordination of the former over the latter. The 
present volume covers Hebrew religious development during the 
pre-exilic period ; another volume will deal with the Jewish reli- 
gion during the exilic and post-exilic times. Foremost in the 
discussion is the idea of God in the Old Testament, the moral 
character of Yahwe, and the expansion of Yahvism to Theism 
under the influence of prophecy. The book contains an appen- 
dix ox^ Jehovah a.r\A Javeh, and one on Jer. 8. 8. 

Jahn's' object is to disprove the theory of a special divine 
guidance for Israel : the Jewish religion, like any other religion in 
the course of human history, is a natural development from 
idolatry to monolatry, without any hint at choice or predilection. 
The vaunted monotheism of the Hebrews is nothing but a fiction 
fostered by prophets and priests alike. Yahwe is but a humanized 
national god such as we find among many other peoples of 
antiquity. Not until the rise of Christianity do we meet with a 
real spiritual monotheism, and this becomes possible only after 
the complete separation of Christianity from Judaism. This argu- 
ment is not new and is quite characteristic of a certain group of 
Christian theologians whose purpose is to efface the Jewish origin 
of the Christian faith, even if they have to marshal their sources 
in a way to suit their preconceived notions. 

Daniel Volter '" belongs to a group of theologians who look at 
the history and religion of Israel through an Egyptian microscope. 
Their aim is to prove that all the ancient Hebraic institutions 
incorporated in the Pentateuch had their origin on the banks of 
the Nile and that the story of the patriarchs up to and including 
Moses are mirrored exactly in the mythology of the Pharaonic 

' Ober den Gottesbegriff der alien Hebrder und ihre Geschichtschreibung. 
Allgemein verstandlich dargestellt von G. Jahn, emerit. Professor der 
semitischen Sprachen. Leiden : E. J. Brill, 1915. pp. xvi + 672. 

'° Jahwe und Mose. Eine religionsgeschichtliche Untersuchung von 
Dr. Daniel VOlter. Leiden : E. J. Brill, 1914. pp. iv-H 48. 


kingdom. This contention was raised by the author in an early 
book entitled Aegypten und die Bibel dealing with the earliest 
history of Israel in the light of Egyptian mythology. Further 
researches were incorporated in his Die Patriarchen Israels und 
die agyptische Mythologie, Mose und die dgyptische Mythologie, 
and in a pamphlet entitled Wer war Mose? The present bro- 
chure on Yahveh and Moses advances the view that the former 
corresponds to the Egyptian god Har-Sopd-Shu whose habitat was 
Sinai, and the latter finds its prototype in the moon-god Thot, so 
familiar in the Egyptian pantheon. The author even discovers 
affinities between Zipporah, Moses' sister, and the divinity Hathor. 
This view that Yahveh dwelt on the Sinai peninsula and was an 
Egyptian divinity is in contrast to the view of Wellhausen, Gunkel, 
and Eduard Meyer, who place him on a volcano in Midian, in 
the vicinity of the Arabian Gulf. In his pamphlet on Passover " 
he maintains that the Israelitic feast of Passover and mazzoth, 
celebrated on the r4th and 15th of Abib or Nisan, corresponds 
exactly to the Egyptian feast of the 14th and rsth of Pachon. 

Schwab's dissertation '^^ constitutes a very exhaustive study of 
the term nefes in the Old Testament and Apocrypha. First the 
original and fundamental function of this concept is defined, its 
concrete and abstract connotations as a principle of life, then its 
relation to nelamah and ruah is discussed, and finally its equiva- 
lent in Hellenistic Greek. Practically every phase of the word is 
dealt with very minutely, and in every case the proper authorities 
are quoted in full. Foot-notes are abundant and illuminating. 
The book is, furthermore, provided with a bibliography and an 

Causse" traces the monotheism of the prophets from its 

11 Der Ursprung von Passah und Massoth, neu untersucht von Dr. Daniel 
VOlter. Leiden : E. J. Brill, 1913. pp. 32. 

1' Der Begriff der ne/ei in den heiligen Schriften des Alien Testamentes. 
Ein Beitrag zur altjttdischen Religionsgeschichte. Inaugural-Dissertation 
(Miinchen). Von Johann Schwab. Borna-Leipzig : Robert Noske, 1913. 
pp. X + 106. 

1' Les Prophetes d' Israel et les Religions de r Orient Essai sur les origines 


earliest stage to its latest development, and then compares it with 
Oriental monotheism generally. The latter, he claims, never lost 
its heathen substratum and pantheistic tendencies, while the 
former, though subject to syncretism, always retained its high 
idealistic standard which it expounded to the entire world. It 
will be seen from this that the author does not subscribe to the 
radical and iconoclastic views of Jensen, Winckler, and their Pan- 
Babylonian confreres, who endeavour to trace every phase of 
Hebraism to either a Babylonian or Egyptian origin. Universal- 
istic monotheism, the author maintains, is the creation of the 
Hebrews alone. 

Holscher's book on Prophecy and the Prophets'* is as thorough 
and exhaustive as such a work can be. It is laid out on compara- 
tive lines and goes into every phase of the phenomenon. The 
object is to depict the origin of prophecy and its later development. 
Of the six chapters the first is introductory, sounding the general 
psychological phenomena which accompany prophecy, such as 
ecstasy and vision. Subsequent chapters deal with ecstatic prophecy 
as manifested in the earlier prophets of Israel and then with the 
natural prophecy of the great literary prophets. The last chapter 
discusses how the various prophetic books originated and how 
they assumed their present form. The author is of opinion that 
ecstatic prophecy was indigenous in Canaan whence the Israelites 
derived it on their conquest of the land. Traces of this primitive 
state of prophecy are still found in the early historical books of the 
Bible such as Judges and Samuel. In Arabic literature, as the 
author points out, examples are more numerous. The transition 
from ecstatic to literary prophecy is conterminous with the shaping 
of a strict Yahvism. In discussing each prophet extracts from his 
orations are adduced, not, however, without introducing emenda- 
tions. To increase its usefulness the work is provided with ample 

du monotheisme universaliste par A. Causse. Paris : E. Nouery, 1913. 

PP- 33°- 

^* Die Profeten. Untersuchungen zur Religionsgeschichte Israels von 
GusTAV HOlscher. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs'sche, 1914. 
pp. viii + 486. 


Dr. Sanda's monograph on Elijah '' contains an appreciation 
of the towering personality of that great prophet whose deeds 
border on the miraculous. The author takes up first the sources 
of the story of Elijah, deducing from them the political situation 
of the northern kingdom and the religious conditions of Israel 
during the ninth century. Then follows a description of Elijah's 
deeds and characteristics. The trustworthiness of the Biblical 
account is assumed after the Catholic fashion, and nothing is 
yielded to the mythical theory of some ultramodern critics. 

No archaeological discovery in modern times stirred the 
scholarly world to such an extent as the find of the Elephantine 
Papyri in 1907. In their bearing on the history and religion of 
the Hebrews these papyri stand unique and unrivalled : not only 
do they throw light on an obscure period of Jewish history, but 
in many respects they corroborate Biblical accounts on which 
aspersions had been cast heretofore. No wonder prominent 
scholars of the Bible everywhere felt themselves in duty bound to 
institute an enquite into or at least to give a precis of these impor- 
tant documents. Of this literature, which has become quite vast 
in recent years, the most outstanding is Eduard Meyer's investi- 
gation, '^ which constitutes a crystallization of opinion gained after 
numerous discussions in public lectures both in Europe and 
America. Meyer, as is his wont, approaches the problem in 
a systematic way : he recapitulates his theory about the origin 
of Judaism in the Persian period, first pronounced in his Ent- 
stehung des Judenihums {'HaXlt a.. S., 1896), and then proceeds to 
demonstrate how the newly found papyri furnish convincing proof 
to this assertion. The veracity of Ezra-Nehemiah, which he 
championed long before the papyri were unearthed, is dwelt upon 

" EUas und die religiosen Verhdltnisse seiner Zeit. Von Dr. A. Sanda. 
(Biblische Zeitfragen. Siebente Folge. Heft i/a.) Miinster in Westf. : 


1* Der Fapymsfund von Elephantine. Dokumente einer jiidischen 
Gemeinde aus der Perserzeit und das alteste erhaltene Buch der Welt- 
literatur. Von Eduard Meyer. Leipzig : J. C. Hinrichs'sche Buch- 
handlung, 1912. pp. iv+128. 


with great force and emphasis. An illuminating picture is drawn 
of the Jewish settlement on the Egyptian island and its relation 
to the mother country in Palestine. On the whole, the views he 
advances are based on a fair analysis of the papyri and deviate very 
little from other expert opinion such as Sachau's. The author's 
main merit lies in his excellent treatment, which is furthered by 
a smooth and flowing style. The greater part of the book, as 
might have been expected, is devoted to the religious texts 
bearing on the rebuilding of the destroyed temple and the cele- 
bration of Passover, and especially noteworthy here is the discus- 
sion of the Jewish religion among common people in Jerusalem 
and Elephantine (pp. 38-67). However, considerable space is 
devoted also to the literary texts, particularly the Ahikar legend 
and its place in the world literature. 

Anneler's book" endeavours to reconstruct the life and history 
of the Elephantine Jews in great detail. The conclusions reached 
do not vary much from those of other scholars, though the author, 
as we are told in the introduction, arrived at them quite inde- 
pendently. The book opens with a geographical description of 
Assuan and Elephantine, which is followed by a discussion of the 
relation of the Jewish colony to the native population, the inner 
life and outer position of these Diaspora Jews, their status within 
the Jewish nation, the origin of the colony and its history. It 
closes with an extensive bibliography which is fairly up-to-date. 
Very praiseworthy are the figures and sketches of Karl Anneler 
accompanying the text. 

Von Gall's popular lecture" summarizes the main results 
obtained from the Elephantine Papyri and their bearing on 
Jewish religion and history generally. 

Jahn" launches into a diatribe against the critics of his com- 

" Zur Geschichte der Juden von Elephantine. Von Dr. phil. Hedwig 
Anneler. Bern; Max Drechsel, 19 r 2. pp. viii-fi55. 

'' Die Papyrusurkunden der jiidischen Gemeinde in Elephantine tn ihrer 
Bedeutung fiir jiidische Religion und Geschichte. Von August Freiherrn 
von Gall. (Vortrage der Theologischen Konferens eu Giessen, 34. Folge.) 
Giessen : Alfred Topelmann, 1912. pp. 26. 

1' Die Elephanliner Papyri und die Biicher Esra-Nehemja. Mit einem 


mentary on the books of Ezra and Nehemiah. As is known, he 
called into doubt the genuineness of the Persian documents incor- 
porated in those two books, in refutation of Eduard Meyer and 
others, for which he was attacked severely. With the discovery 
of the Elephantine Papyri and their corroboration of Ezra-Nehe- 
miah, the author, in order to maintain his former stand, feels 
himself constrained to question also the authenticity of the papyri. 
This he does in a series of lexical investigations whose purport is 
to prove that the Aramaic of the papyri is quite late, about the 
second century b.c.e., and that therefore the dates given are 
fraudulent. But his arguments, like those of Belleli, who likewise 
doubted the veracity of the papyri {An Independent Examination of 
theAssuan and Elephantine Aramaic Papyri, London, 1909), are far 
from convincing. Palaeography has long since settled the question 
of authenticity, and it behoves Bible scholars to deal with these 
texts only so far as lies within their province of research and no 
farther. Jahn's effort makes the painful impression of wilful con- 
tortion and deliberate contradiction. This is evident not only 
from his etymological strictures on the text of the papyri but also 
from his explanation of the Hebrew proper names which is 
appended to the book and serves as a supplement to his com- 
mentary mentioned above. It should be noted also that the 
book suffers considerably from misprints. 

Van Hoonacker,"" in a series of three lectures on the Assuan 
and Elephantine Papyri, advances a theory that the so-called 
Jewish colony at Elephantine was not purely Jewish but con- 
tained also Samaritan elements. This would explain many 
phenomena, which are otherwise puzzling, such as the absence 
of pure monotheism and the toleration of other divinities by the 
side of Jahveh, the Babylonian influence in the chronology of 
the business documents and also in the story of Ahikar, and, last 

Supplement zu meiner ErklSrung der hebraischen Eigennamen. Von G. Jahn. 
Leiden ! E. J. Brill, 1913. pp. 107. 

2° Une Communauie Judeo-Arameenne a Mephantine, en £gypte, aux VI' 
et V Slides av. J.-C. Par A. van Hoonacker. {Schweich Lectures. 1914.) 
London : Oxford University Press, 1915. pp. x + 92. 


but not least, the exclusive use of Aramaic and the absence of 
Hebrew documents. The arguments are well chosen and con- 
vincing, though they are in conflict with the general trend of 
opinion among scholars. 

Kaulen's introduction to the Bible,^' first published in 1876, 
still enjoys considerable popularity, as the present fifth edition 
proves. The excellent plan, the clear and concise definition, the 
precision of statement, and the copious references which charac- 
terized this work at its initial appearance and marked it as unique 
among works of this class, are maintained also in Hoberg's 
revision. Owing to new research and great archaeological 
activity in the Biblical field the book has grown to large propor- 
tions. Especially the first and second parts dealing with the Old 
Testament have experienced a considerable increase, both by way 
of elucidation of argument and enumeration of the voluminous 
literature that cropped up in the path of archaeological expedi- 
tions and literary criticism. It is to the credit of the editor to 
have registered all the important works dealing with Biblical 
criticism — something that is lacking in another ambitious Catholic 
undertaking, Rudolph Cornely's Introduction, forming part of the 
Cursus Scripturae Sacrae. Of course, the Catholic standpoint is 
maintained throughout, and such points as the Mosaic authorship 
of the Pentateuch are argued with great vehemence and consider- 
able earnestness, the decision of the Bible Commission of the 
27th of June, 1906, forming the climax of the discussion. With 
all that the book is useful also to non-Catholics because of its 
wealth of material. Moreover, being written in the vernacular, it 
will always be able to compete with similar works in Latin, like 
Cornely's Introduction alluded to above. 

The first edition of Sellin's introduction to the Old Testa- 
ment'"' was reviewed in an early issue of this Quarterly (N. S., 

^1 Einleilung in die Heilige Schrift des Alien und Neuen Testamentes. 
Von Franz Kaulen. Fiinfte, vollstandig neu bearbeitete Auflage von 
Gottfried Hoberg. {Theologische Biblioihek.) Freiburg im Breisgau : 
Herdersche Verlagshandlukg. ErsterTeil, 1911, pp. xii + 266. Zweiter 
Teil, 1913, pp. X-H300. Dritter Teil, 1905, pp. vi + 373. 

'^ Einleilung in das Alte Teslament. Von Dr. E. Sellin. {Evangelisch- 


I, 550 f.). The favourable opinion there expressed is deserved in 
a larger degree by the present improved and enlarged edition. 
It is to be observed that, despite the onslaught of Corn ill in his 
Zur Einleitung in das Alte Testament (Tubingen, 1912), which at 
that time called forth an answer with a similar title by our author, 
the latter retains his cardinal principles and views concerning the 
age and composition of the various books of the Old Testament. 
His standpoint, it should be recalled, is conservative after the 
manner of Klostermann, Gunkel, and Gressmann, and is opposed 
to the literary criticism of the Wellhausen school. Naturally, in 
this edition references have been brought up to date. 

Gautier's very elaborate but popular introduction to the Old 
Testament^' first appeared in 1905 and proved its usefulness 
through the rapid exhaustion of this issue. The second edition 
is, of course, brought up to date, but it is still un livre de vulgari- 
sation, intended not for specialists, nor even pastors or students, 
but for the average Protestant who wants to be instructed about 
the Book of Books. Nothing is assumed, explanations are abun- 
dant, sometimes even tedious, the minutest details are treated 
minutely ; yet nobody would maintain that there is no need for 
such a book. 

Truyols designed his book^' originally as an introduction to 
his Critica textual de I Sam. i-iy, but because of its enlarged 
size and its constant reference to other books of the Hebrew 
Scriptures it was thought advisable to issue it as a separate 
publication. It is modelled after Buhl's Kanon und Text, ex- 
patiating on textual more than on historical matters. The author 
deals first with the importance and necessity of textual criticism 

Theologische Bibliothek. Herausgegeben von Prof. Lie. B. Bess). Zweite, 
neu bearbeitete Auflage. Leipzig: Quelle & Meyer, 1914. pp. xv+ 168. 

'' Introduction a VAncien Testament, par Lucien Gautier. Seconde 
edition revue. Lausanne : Georges Bridel & C'", 1914. Tome I : 
pp. xvi + 547. Tome 11 : pp. 544. 

M Breve Introduccion a la Critica Textual del A. T. Por A. FERNiNPEZ 
Truyols, S.I. {Estudios de Critica Textual y Literaria, Fasc. I.) Roma : 
PoNTiFicio Instituto BiBLico, 1917. pp. xii + 152. 


when properly limited, then proceeds to the actual condition of 
the masoretic text, and finally institutes an inquiry into the means 
of restoring the original Hebrew, quoting the rules and principles 
that governed Houbigant, De Rossi, Cappellus, and Steuernagel in 
their critical work. Frequent references are made to Cornely's 
voluminous introduction. The book is a fine contribution, well 
printed, and provided with the necessary indices. 

Richard G. Moulton,'^'^ editor of The Modern Reader's Bible, is 
concerned with the sacred Scriptures as Uterature pure and simple. 
Primarily the Bible should be studied like any other book, for 
' it is when we set about reading the Bible like any other book, 
that we realize fully how profoundly the Bible is different from 
every other book '. The author gives a rapid survey of the chief 
events incorporated in the Scriptures. He construes the whole 
Bible as a drama in two acts and an interlude. The Old Testa- 
ment constitutes the first act, the Wisdom literature is the inter- 
lude, while the New Testament forms the second act. The Book 
of Revelation enters as an epilogue. The book is supplementary 
to The Modern Reader's Bible and assumes an acquaintance with 
it. The appendix on how to read the Bible has constant refer- 
ence to this literary edition which is based on a natural and 
rational arrangement of the different styles of literature in the 

Hodge's popular introduction "^^ deals not only with the Old 
and New Testaments but also with the Apocrypha. The treat- 
ment follows the order of historical research, exhibiting the 
gradual evolution of one literary stratum out of the other. In 
each case, owing no doubt to the limited compass of the book, 
only the most essential facts are given. As might have been 
expected, emphasis is laid on the perfection of the New Testa- 
ment and its moral superiority to the Old. Here and there 

25 The Bible at a Single View. With an Appendix : How to Read the 
Bible. By Richard Green Moulton. New York : The Macmillan 
Company, 1918. pp. 137. 

2« How to Know the Bible. By George Hodges. Indianapolis: The 
Bobbs-Merrill Company, [1918]. pp. 360. 


textual illustrations are given from the English version which the 
author never tires of praising. A topical index adds to the efficacy 
of the book. 

The third edition of Doeller's Compendium of Biblical Her- 
meneutics " exhibits some growth, though it is still within the limits 
of a compendium for theological students. Especially praise- 
worthy is the appendix dealing with individual exegetes among 
Jews, Catholics, and Protestants. As might have been expected, 
Jewish and Protestant exegesis occupies only a subordinate part 
throughout the book, the main discussion centring around 
Catholic hermeneutics. 

As a basis for his catechism Dr. Hoberg,^^ in the preface, 
quotes the dictum of Pope Leo the Great : Divina est enim 
auctoritas, cui credimus ; divina est doctrina, quam sequimur. 
With this principle in view he traces in brief the various aspects 
of Biblical hermeneutics, as reflected in the works of Catholic 
authorities in ancient and modern times. Against historical and 
literary criticism he holds out the time-honoured theory of inspi- 
ration and infallibility of the Biblical text. 

Von Loewenfeld's little book ^° contains twenty-four homiletic 
discourses on various texts of the Old and New Testaments. Its 
aim is the edification of students in their leisure hours. 

Tuck's book'" is intended for Sunday-school teachers and 
ministers. It is divided into three sections, the first dealing 
with difficulties relating to moral sentiments, the second with 
difficulties relating to Eastern customs and sentiments, and the 

" Compendium Hermeneuticae biblicae. Auctore Dr. Ioakne Doeller. 
Editio tertia et emendata. Paderbornae : Apud Ferqinandcm Schoeningh, 
1914. pp. viii+170. 

^ Katechismus der biblischen Hermeneutik, Von Gottfried Hoberg. 
Freiburg im Breisgau : Herdersche Verlagshandlung, 1914. pp. viii + 45. 

^ Biblia incognita. Gedanken iiber weniger bekannte Bibeltexte, von 
J. R. VON LoEWENFELD. {MUhlmatm's theologische TaschenbUcher, Nr. 3.) 
Halle (Saale) : Richard MuHLMANN,VERLAGSBUCHHANDtuNG, 1915. pp. 104. 

'» A Handbook of Biblical Difficulties. Or Reasonable Solutions of 
Perplexing Things in Sacred Scripture. Edited by Rev. Robert Tuck, B. A. 
London : Elliot Stock, pp. viii + 568. 


third with difficulties relating to the miraculous. The discussion 
includes both the Old and New Testaments. In every section 
the difficulty is first stated in a precise manner, then follows an 
explanation and quotations from well-known theological authori- 
ties. All the explanations are based on the theory of divine 

Rothstein's book on Hebrew poetry "' is a reply to Staerk's 
article ' Ein Hauptproblem der hebraischen Metrik ', which 
appeared in Rudolf Kittel's Festschrift (No. 13 of Kittel's Beitrdge 
zur Wissenschafi votn Alien Testament). Staerk's strictures were 
directed against the author of the Grundzuge der hebraischen 
Metrik and his pet theory of a uniform metre in the lyric poetry 
of the Hebrews : through an analysis of the most ancient songs 
incorporated in the Old Testament he endeavoured to prove that 
mixed metres are the rule rather than the exception. Rothstein 
reverts to this problem, taking up in his rebuttal first the texts 
quoted by his opponent and then other texts from the Prophets, 
Psalms, &c., in order to justify his standpoint. Needless to say, 
he pursues his destructive method of overhasty emendation and 
excision, which is so well known from his Grundzuge, and wliich 
called forth the condemnation of many Biblical scholars. Of 
course, if one employs the knife indiscriminately one is able to 
cut the text in any way to suit one's fancy. A saner method is 
that of Staerk, who makes the masoretic text yield the metre 
and not the metre yield the text. Rothstein's theory of a forced 
metre in the lyric portions of the Old Testament is not much 
better than Siever's attempt to find a set rhythm in some of the 
narratives of Genesis and Samuel. Both are artificial, and bound 
to fail. 

Zorell presents an introduction to the lyric poetry of the 
Psalms.'^ His mode of treatment is Catholic and conservative. 

" Hebraische Poesie. Ein Beitrag zur Rhythmologie, Kritik und Exegese 
des Alten Testaments. Von J. W. Rothstein, Breslau. (Beitrdge zur 
Wissenschafi vom Alten Testament, herausgegeben von Rudolf Kittel. 
Heft 18.) Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung, 1914. pp.viii + no. 

'^ Etnfiihrung in die Metrik und die Kunstfornien der hebraischen Psalmen- 


He finds seven different forms and metrical schemes in the 
Psalter, and he expounds them in theory and practice. In 
addition to the texts from Psalms he offers in Hebrew metre the 
Benedictus and Magnificat from Luke. There is no attempt to 
emend the consonantal text, .though the vowels are changed here 
and there. 

The studies on parallelism in the Old Testament by Newman 
and Popper '' show the good effect and excellent results already 
obtained by the advocates of a literary study of the various books 
of the Bible, foremost among whom are Gunkel in Germany and 
Richard G. Moulton in this country. Such a minute analysis of 
literary types as is offered in the present work certainly deserves 
high commendation, though many details, particularly some 
emendations and transpositions, need not be approved and 
accepted as final. Indeed the best part of the work is the 
classification of the literary types, and not the exegesis of the text, 
though the latter is quite reliable and trustworthy. The authors 
did their work with thoroughness and precision, and with a view 
to objective truth. Newman, as a beginner in the field of 
Biblical criticism (having written his Amos studies as a thesis for 
the M.A. degree) is conservative and more chary of emendations ; 
while Popper is bolder in introducing changes. Another point 
of difference is that Newman arranges his material by types, while 
Popper treats his verse by verse. There can be no doubt that 
the former is the better way in studies of this kind. Newman, 
moreover, has the larger share of the work to his credit, having 
composed the general introduction on parallelism in the world 
literature. This introduction is quite creditable in itself, dealing 
as it does with the origin and evolution of parallelism throughout 

dichtung. Mit vierzig Textproben. Von Franz Zorell, S.J. Miinster in 
Westf. : AscHENDORFFSCHE Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1914. pp. iv + 5a. 

^' Studies in Biblical Parallelism. Part I : Parallelism in Amos. By 
Louis I. Newman. Part II : Parallelism in Isaiah, chapters i-io. By 
William Popper. {University of California Publications. Semitic Philology, 
vol. i, nos. a and 3, pp. 57-444.) Berkeley : University of California 
Press, August 6, 1918. 


the ages. There is a chapter each on parallelism in Finland, 
China, Egypt, Sumeria, Babylonia- Assyria, Arabia, Abyssinia, and 
Palestine ; also on parallelism in the Apocrypha and the Apoca- 
lypses, in Hellenistic-Jewish writings, in the New Testament, in 
Syriac, in rabbinical literature, in mediaeval Jewish literature, 
and even in modem Hebrew literature. Newman's object is thus 
to prove that this literary phenomenon, though found among some 
non-Semitic peoples, is really a Semitic characteristic which 
became obliterated only in modern times. In his Amos studies 
he endeavours to separate prose from poetry, dividing the latter 
into parallelistic and non-parallelistic stichoi. Of course the 
latter are in the minority. Of the former, couplets are in the great 
majority, there being a few triplets and still less monostichs. 
Similar results are obtained by Popper in his analysis of the first 
ten chapters of Isaiah. So far the conclusions are justified : 
parallelism is a dominant feature of Hebrew poetry. But to 
argue from this, as Popper does, that poetical lines should be 
emended wherever they fail to correspond to this principle, is 
very precarious. After all, Newman is right in suggesting that 
there may have been also another principle in the prophetic 
utterances beside that of parallelism. It is a pity that the 
authors use transliteration in place of Hebrew characters : it 
interferes with the right understanding of the problem, and often 
leads to confusion. 

Kahle's book*^ is an elaboration and amplification of his 
earlier work entitled Der masoretische Text des Alien Testaments 
nach der Vberlieferung der babylonischen Juden (Leipzig 1902). 
Both deal with the Babylonian or supralinear system of vocaliza- 
tion, only that the present work is based on fifty manuscripts 
instead of one. The general results are the same as in the shorter 
work. Side by side with the well-known Tiberian or sublinear 

'* Masoreten des Ostens. Die altesten punktierten Handschriften des 
Alten Testaments und der Targume. Herausgegeben und untersucht von 
Paul Kahle. Mit 16 Lichtdrucktafeln. (Beitrage sur Wissenschaft vom 
Alten Testament, herausgegeben von Rudolf Kittel. Heft 15.) Leipzig : 



punctuation there was a Babylonian or supralinear system, which, 
owing to the decay of Babylonia in the ninth century, came into 
disuse and was preserved only among the Jews in Yemen. It 
was discovered in 1839, but since then many manuscripts came 
to light bearing the same vowels. From a study of these the 
author arrives at the conclusion that there existed simultaneously 
two vowel systems in Babylonia, one simple or qualitative (of six 
vowels only) and one complex or quantitative (of ten and more 
vowels). The former remained pure, and is exemplified in 
Yemenite manuscripts, while the latter became contaminated 
with the Tiberian system, which, owing to the gradual decay of 
Babylonia in the ninth century and the great authority of Ben 
Asher, became prevalent among Jews everywhere, and finally won 
undisputed mastery in the West. The Petropolitan codex of the 
Latter Prophets (written in 916 and edited by Strack) is a good 
instance of the mixed system. Kahle discusses the whole problem 
of eastern and western Masorah in an introduction, and offers 
52 extracts from texts, describing each manuscript of which he 
makes use. An excellent feature is a discussion of the sound of 
the various vowels in the East and the West, and also a resume 
of the morphology as presented in these texts. A special chapter 
deals with the targumic texts and the grammatical results they 
yield. The photolithographic reproductions are very instructive. 
Bernard Pick '"^ compiles a list of all the Bible versions from 
1456, the date of the Mazarin Bible, and onward. The list is in 
chronological order, and is followed by an alphabetical index of 
languages and dialects, including Diglot editions. Altogether 
there are 653 entries, this constituting the number of Bible 
translations, either as a whole or in part. In a foreword the 
author deals briefly with the ancient and mediaeval versions pre- 
ceding the Mazarin Bible. He admits the great help offered 
him by the monumental Historical Catalogue of the Printed 

^ Translations of the Bible. A Chronology of the Versions of the Holy 
Scriptures since the Invention of Printing. Written for the American Bible 
Society by Bernard Pick, Ph.D., D.D. New York: American Bible 
Society, 1913. pp. 59. 



Editions of Holy Scripture in the Library of the British and 
Foreign Bible Society, though emphasizing the fact that his list 
contains versions which are not mentioned in the above catalogue, 
and some which have been published since that work was issued. 
The list is useful for quick reference, though in most cases it 
contains very little information of a collateral nature. 

England is the land of the Bible par excellence. There is 
hardly any other country where this book permeated the life of 
the people to such an extent as in Great Britain, where every 
struggle, both internal and external, always hinged on the con- 
sideration of thoughts and ideals embodied in ' the Scriptures. 
The civil war under Oliver Cromwell is only a single instance- 
In ordinary every-day life the Bible has always been a vade mecum 
with nobleman and peasant, statesman and shepherd, man and 
woman, old and young. It is remarkable, as Mr. Canton ^° points 
out, that in the England of not long ago there were ' Bible bees ', 
' Bible fruit-trees ', ' Bible flower-pots ', ' Bible hens ', ' Bible 
chickens ', and naturally also ' Bible eggs '. That there was a 
' Bible day ' celebration goes without saying. The author traces 
this Bible enthusiasm among the Anglo-Saxon people from its 
earliest inception down to the present day. He begins with the 
paraphrastic renderings of Caedmon, Bede, Cynewulf, and a host 
of anonymous writers ; then he discusses the direct translations 
of Wycliffe, Tyndale, Coverdale, and Matthew, which culminated 
in the Geneva Bible, the Bishops' Bible, and the Authorized 
Version. Special attention is devoted to the British Bible 
Society, originated in 1804, and its foreign dependencies. All 
this is narrated in an archaic and poetic style, in imitation of the 
Biblical style so often met with among British men of letters. 
The value of the book is enhanced by twenty-four beautiful 
illustrations, ranging from portraits of Bible translators to 
specimens of Bible translations. 

Wright's revision of Dr. Westcott's excellent book " appeared 

" The BihU and the Anglo-Saxon People. By William Canton. London: 
J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd., 1914. pp. xii + 285. 

" A General View of the History of the English Bible. By Brooke Foss 


in 1905. The present issue is a reprint, and attests to its great 
popularity and vogue among scholar and layman alike. The 
reason for its success lies, no doubt, in its sane criticism and 
sound scholarship, and although many books have appeared on 
this subject since its first publication in 1868, nevertheless it 
still remains indispensable on account of the third chapter 
dealing with the internal history of the English Bible, and parti- 
cularly the very learned appendices containing collations from 
various versions. 

From the report of the British and Foreign Bible Society '' we 
see that despite the World War versions were made into seven 
fresh languages during the last year, besides a number of revisions 
of old versions. The Bible Society to-day possesses records of 
editions of the Scriptures in about 725 languages and dialects. 
The complete Bible is found in about 140 different forms of 
speech. The Bible Society's own list of versions now embraces 
511 languages. About iir of these have been added during 
the last dozen years. During the last four years, years of storm 
and stress, forty million volumes have been published ; of these 
9,378,000 were issued during last year. It is interesting to learn 
that, since August 19 14, the Society has provided for its war- 
service over eight million volumes in 75 different languages. The 
account is interestingly told, and the experience of the colporteurs 
forms delectable reading. 

The One Hundred and First Annual Report of the American 
Bible Society '^ still lingers on the Centennial celebration of the 
society's existence, which took place in 19 16, recording the 
various meetings held in different parts of the country in honour 

Westcott, D.D. Third edition revised by William Alois Wright. 
New York: The Macmillan Company, 1916. pp. xx + 356. 

'* For Such a Time as This. A popular report of the British and Foreign 
Bible Society for the year 1917-18. London : The Bible House, [1918]. 
pp. 91. 

39 One Hundred and First Annual Report of the American Bible Society, 
1917. Together with a list of auxiliary societies, their oiBcers, and an 
appendix. New York: American Bible Society, 1917. pp. 592. 


of this occasion. A sad line is introduced in this record through 
the announcement of the demise of the able recording secretary, 
Dr. Henry Otis Dwight, the man who compiled a very good 
history of the society. As to the propaganda work during the 
year, it was conditioned by the new war situation in which 
the country found itself since April 191 7. Owing to the reduced 
income and the increased cost of publication the new issues were 
much smaller than in the previous year. 

The One Hundred and Second Annual Report of the American 
Bible Society '" shows a further decrease in issues, owing to the 
abnormal conditions caused by the war. In 1917 there were 
issued a total of 4,818,564 volumes of Scripture against 5,604,768 
the year before. The main decrease, as might have been 
expected, has been in the foreign agencies. At home there was 
a marked increase, owing to special editions published for the 
Army and Navy. 

The Layman's Old Testament*^ as its name implies, is intended 
for the plain man who either has no time or does not care to use 
a commentary on the Bible, and yet feels the need for devotional 
and edifying pabulum. For that purpose the Biblical text is 
rearranged to suit the historical and chronological sequence as 
nearly as possible. The books of Leviticus, Chronicles, Esther, 
Lamentations, and the Song of Solomon have been omitted alto- 
gether. On the other hand, portions of three important Apocry- 
phal books, viz. Maccabees, Ecclesiasticus, and Wisdom of Solo- 
mon, have been included. The text is that of the Revised 
Version, modified here and there by the use of marginal readings 
and bearing numerous subject headings. Digressions from the 

*" One Hundred and Second Annual Report of the American Bible Society, 
1918. Together with a list of auxiliary societies, their officers, and an 
appendix. New York : American Bible Society, 1918. pp.554. 

*^ The Layman\ Old Testament, comprising the major part of the Old 
Testament, with selections from the Apocrypha. Arranged from the 
Revisers' Version, and edited with brief notes by M. G. Glazebrook, D.D. 
Part I : Historical Bcoks. Part II : The Prophets, the Psalms, and the 
Wisdom Books. With maps. Oxford : University Press, [1913]. 
pp. ix + 864. 


accepted text are indicated in brief foot-notes, which also contain 
explanations of a geographical nature. 

The Holy Bibk*^ is the familiar Douay version used by Catholics 
in English-speaking countries. The preface contains nothing new 
and merely serves as a reminder of the Pope's encyclical letter 
concerning Bible study. The maps at the end of the book are 
well executed and quite useful. 

The aim of The Shorter Bible " is ' to single out and set in 
logical and as far as possible in chronological order those parts of 
the Bible which are of vital interest and practical value to the 
present age'. This aim is quite praiseworthy in our practical 
age, when people delight in reading short stories and getting the 
gist of a narrative in the least possible time. The present under- 
taking is especially welcome because of the excellent English 
style, which is both modern and simple, smooth and flowing in 
a remarkable degree. The curtailment involves only duplicate 
accounts which do not affect the main narrative. As an example, 
Matthew, Mark, and Luke are combined into one account of the 
life and ministry of Jesus. The Gospel of John is appropriately 
placed after Revelation. The arrangement of the material into 
well-balanced sections with suggestive titles, barring chapter and 
verse division, is judicious and will benefit those who do not read 
seriatim. An index of Biblical passages closes the handy volume. 
It is to be hoped that the Old Testament, which is in preparation, 
will be edited with the same sense of fitness and proportion. 

<2 The Holy Bible. Translated from the Latin Vulgate, and diligently 
compared with other editions in divers languages (Douay, a.d. 1609; 
Rheims, A. d. 1582). Published as revised and annotated by authority. 
With a preface by the Cardinal Archbishop of Westminster. This edition 
contains Bishop Challoner's notes, newly-compiled indices, tables, and 
verified references. Also Pope Leo XIII's encyclical on the study of the 
Holy Scriptures, and a new series of maps. New York : Benziger Brothers, 
[1914]. pp. Ixxxii + 14B5 + 399. 

" The New Testament. Translated and arranged by Charles Foster Kent 
with the collaboration of Charles Cutler Torrey, Henry A. Sherman, 
Frederick Harris, and Ethel Cutler. {The Shorter Bible.) New York: 
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1918. pp. xix + 305. 


Dahse," in both pamphlets, gives a r'esumi of his investiga- 
tions in the Pentateuch as presented in his larger work Text- 
kritische Materialien zur Hexateuchfrage (reviewed in this Quar- 
terly, IV, 260 f.), summing up his deductions with reference to 
divine names in Genesis. He reiterates his conviction, corrobo- 
rated by other scholars, that the old Pentateuchal hypothesis 
cannot stand but must be modified along more solid lines. 

Konig*' parries the attack of Dahse and his congeners on 
Higher Criticism. Like Skinner {The Divine Names in Genesis, 
London, 19 14), only in a less popular way, he endeavours to 
refute the various arguments advanced by Dahse as to the textual 
condition of the Hebrew Bible on the one hand and the genuine- 
ness of the Septuagint on the other. The divine names in the 
Hebrew Genesis, he concludes, though not absolutely reliable and 
flawless, are still far superior to those of the Alexandrine version, 
and hence a division of sources may properly be built on them. 
But, and here lies the vulnerability of the textual critics, historical 
and literary criticism, as its name indicates, is based not alone on 
the divine names, but also on many other considerations, such as 
an historical study of the various texts and their literary analysis, 
coupled with a comparison of other oriental literatures. Konig, 
furthermore, points out the artificiality and untenability of the 
new Pericope hypothesis advanced by Dahse as a panacea for 
the knotty Pentateuch problem. 

Baumgartel's dissertation '"' touches on the great controversy 

44 Wie erklart sich der gegenwartige Zustand der Genesis? Skizze einer 
neuen Pentateuchhypothese von Pfarrer Johannes Dahse. Giessen : 
Alfred Topelmanh, 1913. pp. 20. (Sonderabdruck aus der Studierstube, 
Juli 1913.) 

Die gegenwartige Krisis in der altteslamentlichen Kritik. Ein Bericht von 
Johannes Dahse. Giessen : Alfred Topelmann, 1914. pp.30. 

<5 £)ie ntodeme Pentateuchkritik und ihre neueste Bekampfung beurteilt 
von Eduard Konig. Leipzig : A. Deichertsche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 
1914. pp. vi + 106. 

^ Elohim ausserhalb des Pentateuch. Grundlegung zu einer Untersuchung 
liber die Gottesnamen im Pentateuch, von Friedrich Baumgartel, Lictheol. 
{Beitrage sur IVissenschaJt vom Alten Testament, herausgegeben von Rudolf 


now raging as to the authenticity of the divine names in Genesis. 
As a stepping-stone to the main question he institutes an inquiry 
into the use of Elohim in the extra-Pentateuchal books. His 
main object is to determine which Elohim is an appellative and 
which is a proper noun, for only the latter comes into considera- 
tion in the problem before us. Of course, in a number of cases 
it is difficult to arrive at a definite conclusion. But, barring these, 
he finds, after a detailed investigation based on statistics, that in 
the historical books Elohim is used by itself and occurs very 
rarely in combination with Yahwe ; while the Prophets, and like- 
wise Proverbs, Job, Ruth, and Lamentations avoid this combina- 
tion altogether. In Chronicles the use of Elohim is insignificant 
beside that of Yahwe. The conclusions are based solely on the 
masoretic text and overlook textual criticism which might modify 
them to some degree, but the author believes that the Hebrew 
text is reliable on the whole. It is regrettable that such a minute 
study fails to differentiate between wrhti and DMiJNn. 

Die Schriften des Alien Testaments " is a new series of com- 
mentaries on the Old Testament, given in selections and newly 
translated into German, and explained in a scientific yet popular 
way. Being intended for the educated layman rather than the 
theologian emphasis is laid on aesthetic and literary-historical 
questions, though religious phases are not overlooked altogether. 
The arrangement is historical and discordant passages of doubtful 
importance are eliminated. The rendering is faithful both in 
sense and form. The difference between this series and any 
other series of commentaries is that the latter expounds sentence 
by sentence while the former does it by whole sections and para- 

Kittel. Heft 19.) Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs'sche Bochhandlong, 1914. 
pp. viii + 90. 

*' Die Urgeschichte und die Patriarchen (Das erste Buch Mosis). tjber- 
setzt, erklart und mit Einleitungen in die fiinf Biicher Mosis und in die 
Sagen des ersten Buches Mosis versehen von Hermann Gunkel. {Die 
Schriften des Alien Testaments in Auswahl neu ubersetzt und fiir die Gegen- 
wart erklart . . . Erste Abteilung : Die Sagen des Alten Testaments. Erster 
Band.) Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1911. pp. x + 310. 


graphs. The work is in three divisions : I. ' The Legends of the 
Old Testament ' will contain, in addition to the present volume 
by Gunkel, also a volume by Hugo Gressmann on the Beginnings 
of Israel (from Exodus to Judges). II. ' Prophecy and Legisla- 
tion in the Old Testament ' will consist of three volumes : i. The 
book already published by Gressmann on the oldest historiography 
and prophecy of Israel (i Sam. to 2 Kings 15, Amos, Hosea, and 
general Introductions); 2. The great prophets and their times 
(Isaiah, Micah, Zephaniah, Deuteronomy, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, &c.) 
by Hans Schmidt of Breslau ; and 3. Judaism from the re-estab- 
lishment of Jerusalem to Ezra's legislation by M. Haller of Bern. 
III. ' Lyric Poetry and Wisdom ' will contain two volumes : 
I. Lyric poetry (Psalms, Canticles, &c.), by W. Stark, of Jena; 
and 2. Wisdom (Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes) by Paul Volz of 
Tubingen. As to Gunkel's commentary, it follows closely his 
earlier works on the same subject : ScMpfung und Chaos in Urzeit 
ufid £ndzet( {Gottingen, 1895), and Genesis in the Gottinger Hand- 
kommentar sum Alien Testament (Gottingen, 19 10). After an 
introduction dealing with the origin of the Pentateuch and the 
literary character of the legendary material he gives the texts of 
the various stories embodied in the Book of Genesis, together with 
comments and detailed analysis of the various elements that go 
to make up the story. Four different types of print are employed 
for the sources (J, E, P, and interpolations). An exhaustive sub- 
ject index accompanies the work. 

Ryle's Genesis ** rests on the foundation of BibUcal criticism. 
In the division of sources he follows Driver, Gunkel, and Skinner. 
The notes are profuse, swelling the book to goodly proportions. 
An introduction deals with name, contents, composition, docu- 
ments, literary materials, historical value, religious teaching, moral 
difficulties, and divine names in Genesis. Special topics such as 
comparative texts and accounts in the literatures of Babylon and 
Egypt are treated in a series of appendices. Not the least useful 

*' The Book of Genesis. In the Revised Version. With Introduction 
and Notes by Herbert E. Ryle, D.D. ( The Cambridge Bible for Schools and 
Colleges.) Cambridge: at the University Press, 1914. pp. lxviii + 478. 


are the six plates in the body and two maps at the end of the 

Professor Brightman presents the three important sources of 
the Hexateuch/' J, E, and P, in a connected form and in natural 
divisions bearing subject titles. The fourth source, D, is omitted, 
because it is continuous in the Bible and may be studied without 
serious interruption in the Books of Deuteronomy. Needless to 
say, the author follows Graf-Kuenen-Wellhausen in his analysis of 
the sources. His immediate guide is, of course, Driver's Intro- 
duction. His own contribution is small, consisting of one general 
introduction to the work as a whole and three special introduc- 
tions to the three sources. These and the notes accompanying 
the text are mostly explanatory and advance no new theories. 
They might have been more elaborate : Wiener and Dahse, 
though answering his definition of scholar or critic, fail to receive 
due consideration, probably because as opponents to higher 
criticism they disturb what he styles ' the consensus of scholar- 
ship'. Holler's effort at refutation of the critical theory is not 
mentioned at all. Hardly reliable is his statement (p. 10, note) 
that non-Christians have made no contribution to pentateuchal 
criticism : every treatise on the subject (cp., e.g., Holzinger's 
Einkitung in den HexateucK) starts out with Ibn Ezra and Spinoza, 
both having hinted at the non-Mosaic authorship of the Penta- 
teuch, the latter going so far as to assume a variety of docu- 

Dr. Grape's book"" belongs to the polemic and apologetic 
literature called forth by the aggression of materialism towards 
the end of last century. The author attacks the pithecanthropoid 
theories of the natural scientists, notably Darwin and Haeckel, 

*' The Sources of the Hexateuch. J, E, and P, in the text of the American 
Standard Edition, according to the consensus of scholarship, edited with 
introductions and notes. By Edgak Sheffield Brightman, Ph.D. New 
York : The Abingdon Press, [1918]. pp. 395. 

50 Urmensch, Paradies, Ebenbild GoUes. Eine apologetische Studie von 
Dr. phil. J. Grape. Halle (Saale) : Richard MiJHLMANN, Verlagsbuch- 

HANDLUNG, I9I3. pp. Viii + 167. 


and endeavours to prove that man, far from being descended 
from the ape, was created in the image of God, at least as far as 
his spiritual being is concerned. Indeed, the assertion is made 
that man, rather than succeeding the ape in point of develop- 
ment, actually precedes him. Of course, this and other state- 
ments, though well argued, lack the backing of adequate proof 
and well-authenticated data such as we find among the opposing 
school of naturalists. 

Schenz's commentary on the Book of Joshua^' serves its 
purpose as a text-book for Catholic students. It contains no 
new information of importance. In the identification of the 
various localities the author is guided by the publications of the 
Palestine Exploration Pund. The notes and comments are 
separated from the German text and placed in the back of the 
book. Hebrew words which are explained in the notes are often- 
times misprinted. A good map of Palestine accompanies the 

The high character and excellent tenor of the Cambridge 
Bible for Schools and Colleges is too well known to need detailed 
comment here. Suffice it to say that Cooke, in his commentaries 
on Judges *' and Ruth,^* follows the same standard of scientific 
treatment and accurate exegesis as his predecessors and collabo- 
rators. The clearness of argument and precision of statement 
are very palatable to an age suffering from literary dyspepsia and 
an accumulation of voluminous tracts of a doubtful import. 

What a vast amount of erudition and thorough scholarship 

51 Das Buck Josua erklart von Wilhelm Schenz. Mit i Karte. {Kurz- 
gefasster wissenschafilicher Kommentar su den Heiltgen Schnften des Alten 
Teslamenies auf Veranlassung der Leo-Gesellschaft . . . herausgegeben von 
Dr. Bernhard Schafer und Dr. P. Erasmus Nagel. Abteilung I, Band 2.) 
Wien : Mayer & Co., 1914. pp. xxviii + 134. 

"'^ The Book of Judges in the Revised Version, with introduction and 
notes by G. A. Cooke, D.D. {The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges.) 
Cambridge : at the University Press, 1913. pp. xlii + 204. 

'3 The Book of Ruth in the Revised Version, with introduction and notes 
by G. A. Cooke, D.D. {The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges.) 
Cambridge : at the University Press, 1913. pp. xvii + 22. 


is displayed in Burney's commentary on Judges ! " Indeed, it 
is not merely a commentary, but also a storehouse of information 
on the political, social, and religious history of the Israelites 
during the conquest of Canaan. It is undoubtedly the most 
ambitious book of its kind in English, and, owing to its freshness 
and modernity in every line of research, is bound to form 
a formidable competitor to even Moore's excellent book on the 
subject. Especially imposing is the historical investigation which 
occupies a goodly portion of the book. One mere paragraph in 
the well-proportioned introduction, dealing with the external 
information bearing on the period of Judges, occupies sixty-three 
pages, and constitutes a creditable treatise in itself. However, 
the philological notes are not less instructive, and recall to us the 
author's earlier work on Kings. The late Dr. Driver established 
a standard for English commentators on the Bible, which fortu- 
nately is being upheld by his pupils and followers, all of whom 
aim as much as possible at originality in treatment, lucidity of 
argument, and truthfulness of statement. It is these pre-eminent 
qualities that distinguish the present work and place it on a 
high pedestal of perfection. The smallest detail is treated with 
the same degree of carefulness as the things of greater importance, 
and nothing is omitted to make the book serviceable and useful 
to everybody. Thus there are a series of indices, maps, and 
plates, which facilitate ready reference to such a bulky work. 
A noteworthy innovation is a group of additional notes sliced in 
between sections and dealing in a general way with various 
phenomena during the period of Judges. Such are : External 
Evidence for the use of the terms ' Canaan ' and ' The Land of 
the Amorite'; Sedek as a Divine Name; the Meaning of the 
Name ' Kiriath-Arba ' ; the Conquest of the Negeb ; the Original 
Form of J's Account of the Settlement of the Tribes of Israel in 
Cana'an ; a Detailed Examination of the Rhythm of the Song of 
Deborah ; the Climactic Parallelism of the Song of Deborah ; 

5* The Book of Judges, with introduction and notes. Edited by the 
Rev. C. F. BuRNEY, D.Litt. London : Rivingtons, 1918. pp. ccxxviii + 
528 + V maps -t- vi plates. 


the Language of the Song of Deborah ; Yahweh or Yahu origin- 
ally an Amorite Deity ; Early Identification of Yahweh with the 
Moon-god ; the Use of Writing among the Israelites at the Time 
of the Judges ; Human Sacrifice among Israelites ; the Women's 
Festival of Judges 11. 40; the Mythical Elements in the Story of 
Samson ; and the Origin of the Levites. Each one of these notes 
is an essay in itself, and some are quite lengthy and exhaustive. 
Whenever a point is mooted and no apodictic conclusion can 
be arrived at, the author is careful to present all sides of the 
question without committing himself to any one of them. The 
translation of the Hebrew is new and based on the most advanced 
stage of literary criticism. In emending the masoretic text the 
author steers a middle course between conservatism and radicalism. 
Noteworthy is his view that Deuteronomy, which re-echoes in the 
Book of Judges, originated in the prophetic school of the northern 
not southern, kingdom (see Introduction, p. xlvi, note). A further 
elaboration of this point of view is promised in a future work 
entitled The Prophetic School of Northern Israel and the Mosaic 

Driver's Notes on Samuel^' which enjoy a high reputation 
among Biblical scholars and students, had been exhausted for 
quite a while, hence the new edition. It goes without saying 
that the work has been brought up to date, and that all the 
research that was accumulated during the last quarter of a century 
— the first edition appeared in 1890 — is mirrored in it. Even 
the latest Aramaic papyri are taken cognizance of. This explains 
the increase in volume by 100 pages. Not only have new notes 
been added on intricate points of philology and idiom, for which 
the book is justly famed, but also a new element, a discussion of 
the topography of Samuel, has been introduced, with the requisite 
elucidating maps borrowed from the Palestine Exploration Fund. 

*■' Notes on the Hebrew Text and the Topography of the Books of Samuel. 
With an introduction on Hebrew Palaeography and the Ancient Versions 
and facsimiles of inscriptions and maps. By the Rev. S. R. Driver, D.D. 
Second edition, revised and enlarged. Oxford : at the Clarendon Press, 
1913. pp. XX + xcvi + 390. 


Moreover, references have been adjusted to the latest editions of 
the works referred to, and the index has been made more useful 
through enlargement. The critical attitude of the author remains 
the same as in the first edition : he adheres to conservative 
exegesis, abstaining from conjectural emendations which rest 
upon arbitrary and insufficient grounds. It is this quality, 
coupled with the modernity, that will make this edition even 
more valued than its predecessor. 

Truyols^" registers the textual criticism bearing on the first 
fifteen chapters of i Samuel. He adds very little himself, except 
a lucid way of presentation and clear exposition. 

Staerk's theme °' concerns the Ebed-Yahwe songs in Deutero- 
Isaiah (chs. 40-55), which he treats with a thoroughness unknown 
heretofore. Not only does he discuss the problem in its full 
historical significance, and cite all the authorities on interpreta- 
tion, but he also gives a new translation of the text with critical 
notes. In the latter he quotes Ehrlich very frequently. As to 
the meaning of the term Ebed-Yahwe, he retracts his previous 
endorsement of Sellin's view of an individual servant of Yahwe, 
and adopts the collective theory of Giesebrecht and Budde, 
according to which Israel as a nation is meant. Great erudition 
is shown in dealing with the organic connexion between the first 
(chs. 40-48) and second (chs. 49-55) group of hymns. 

Virgil's Messianic Eclogue has been and still is the battle- 
ground of commentators, who fail to agree as to the nature of 
the prophesied Messiah. As in the case of Isaiah, some think 
that it bears reference to a definite person, be it the child of 
Octavian and Scribonia, the son of Pollio, or, in the opinion 
of the Christian Church, Jesus of Nazareth ; while others believe 

°^ I Sam. 1-1} : Crilica textual por A. Fernandez Truyols, S.I. {JEstudios 
de Critica Textual y Literaria. Fasc. II.) Roma : Pontificio Instituto 
BiBLico, 1917. pp. viii + 94. 

^' Die Ebedjahwe-Lieder in Jesaja 40 ff. Ein Beitrag zur Deuterojesaja- 
Kritik von. Dr. W. Staerk. (Beitrage zur Wissenschaft vom Alien Testa- 
ment. Herausgegeben von Rudolf Kittel. Heft 14.) Leipzig : J. C. 

HiNRICHS'SCHE BuCHHANDLUNG, I9I3. pp. iv + 14a. 


that the Roman nation as a whole is meant. On one point 
scholars are agreed, viz. that the Latin bard must have been 
influenced by a Greek translation of the Messianic prophecies of 
the great Hebrew prophet, for not only does he imitate in this 
eclogue Hebrew thought, but also Hebrew rhythm. Interesting 
it is that Mr. Royds '' goes back to the old view that both Isaiah 
and Virgil predicted the coming of Jesus, and this in spite of the 
authoritative summary of Joseph B. Mayor, W. Warde Fowler, 
and R. S. Conway, who reached the conclusion that Virgil's 
expected Messiah can be no other than one of the Caesars 
(Virgil's Messianic Eclogue, its Meaning, Occasion, and Sources, 
1907). The animus of the author is expressed in his statement 
that the Pharisees looked for a militarist Messiah (p. 54) and his 
comparison of Judaism with the Prussian form of Christianity 
(p. 22). Besides the discussion of the problem, there is a new 
metrical translation of the Eclogue followed by a rendering into 
Biblical prose. Also the second Georgic from line 458 to the end 
is offered in Latin and English metre, as it bears on the subject 
of Messianic prophecies. An appendix at the end of the book 
registers all the Messianic passages in Isaiah. 

Mowinckel "' follows the lead of Gunkel in giving a detailed 
literary analysis of the Book of Jeremiah. He starts out with 
the assertion that, contrary to the traditional view, there is no 
unity, no definite plan in this composite book. He points out 
a number of parallel passages in order to support his view that 
the redactor of the book operated with several independent 
sources, so-called collections of Jeremianic oracles. He then 
proceeds to establish his thesis that the original book of Jeremiah 
consisted of the first forty-five chapters only, the rest being a later 
anonymous appendix, somewhat like the last twenty-six chapters 

68 Virgil and Isaiah. A Study of thePollio, with translations, notes, and 
appendices, by Thomas Fletcher Royds, B.D. Oxford: B. H. Blackwell, 
1918. pp. xiii + I2S. 

^° Zur Komposttion des Buches Jeremia. Von Sigmund Mowinckel 
{Videnskapsselskapets Skri/ter. II. Hist.-filos. Klasse. 1913. No. 5). 
Kristiania : Jacob Dybwad, 1914. pp. 68. 


of Isaiah. The original book, the author argues, is composed of 
four distinct literary sources, which he labels A, B, C, D. The 
first source, A, consists of oracles, and is embodied in the first 
twenty-five chapters ; it is authentic, and strongly metrical. B is 
made up of narratives, mostly personal relating to Jeremiah, and 
is found mainly in chapters subsequent to 25 ; it is prose 
throughout. Under C are comprised all larger orations, Deute- 
ronomistic in character, and usually monotonous. D includes 
only one long passage — 30. 4-31. 26 — which the author declares 
to be anonymous and in contradiction to the tenor of Jeremiah 
proper. Minor passages, supposedly inconsistent, are ascribed to 
the various editors or redactors, such as R'*^, R'^, R*-, R°, and 
R"^, R"^'^, R"'^'^". A and B were redacted in Egypt about 
580-480, first independently, and then in combination. C was 
redacted either in Babylon or Palestine about 400, and was 
subsequently interwoven with AB. Then D was added, and 
finally the anonymous appendix at the end of the book. The 
whole book in its present shape must have been edited prior to 
165, since the prophecy of 70 years is presupposed as Jeremianic 
in the Book of Daniel. The analysis is interesting and logically 
consistent, though it fails to convince. Despite the onslaughts 
of modern criticism tradition has the advantage of solidity and 
massiveness which, even if it lacks coherence, is far superior to 
the process of dissolution of the critics. Logic is net an all- 
important factor in the construction of the various books of the 
Bible. Besides, even assuming that there are various literary 
strata in the book, there is no reason whatever why Jeremiah 
could not have produced them at various periods in his life. 
Every man in his career is subject to different influences, and 
even such a bitter-hearted prophet as Jeremiah may be assumed 
to have changed his tone once in a while from castigation to 
consolation, and consequently to have changed his phraseology. 

Jean ^ presents a treatment of Jeremiah's political stand and 
theological convictions. Ample illustrations are furnished from 

*" Jeremie, sa politique, sa iheologie. [Par] F. Charles Jean. Paris : 
Victor Lecoffre, 1913. pp. xii + 86. 


the text of the prophet. An introduction deals succinctly with 
the actual condition of the masoretic text and its relation to the 
abbreviated Greek version of the Septuagint. 

Breuer's cornmentary on Jeremiah "' is composed in the 
orthodox spirit of Samson Raphael Hirsch, whose commentary 
on the Pentateuch it tries to emulate not only in content but also 
in form. The masoretic text is given in one column and a German 
translation in the other; the commentary below follows Jewish 
authorities only, ignoring altogether the researches of higher 
criticism. It is to be regretted that the author did not see fit to 
include an introduction to the prophecies of Jeremiah. 

Cassuto^'^ deals with the prophecies of Jeremiah concerning the 
Gentiles (chaps. 25, 46-51), which latter-day critics and exegetes 
like Duhm and Stade consider as later additions and hence 
unauthentic. The author's purpose is to prove that all these 
sections are genuine and well- placed, that they are in keeping 
with the trend of those fateful days and with the character of the 
great prophet. After discussing very minutely verses 5 and 10 of 
the first chapter, which serve, as it were, as an introduction to 
Jeremiah's function as an international prophet, and also the 
related passage in 9, 24-25, the author goes over to chapter 25, 
which he treats at great length, both textually and historically, 
and proves conclusively that it belongs to Jeremiah. A similar 
treatment of chaps. 46-51 is reserved for the future. 

Richter's comments and explanations^' are nothing but violent 
emendations of the masoretic text, usually disfigured to fit the 
fancy of the author. Here and there he offers a good suggestion, 

•* rTDT" "IS5D. Das Buck Jirmejah, iibersetzt und erlauteit von Dr. 
Joseph Breueb. Frankfurt a. M. : Sanger & Friedberg, 1914. pp. vi + 396. 

^2 Le profezie di Geremia relative aigentili, per Umberto Cassuto. Estratto 
del Giornale delta Societa Asiatica Ilaliana. Volume ventottesimo, 1916. 
pp. 81-152. 

" ErlSuterungen su dunkeln Stellen in den Kleinen Propheten. Von 
Georg RicHTER. {Beitrage sur Forderung christlicher Theologie. . . Acht- 
zehnter Jahrgang, 1914. Drittes und viertes Heft.) Giitersloh : T. Bertels- 
mann, 1914. pp. 199. 


as in the arrangement of Ob. 5 f., but on the whole his remedies 
are far-fetched and impossible. As an example may serve his 
emendation of the perplexing sentence Hos. 5, 2, where he reads : 
D|>3 -nob D's<3i5D 'sy =iD'K'an t3B'sn. The masoretic text is bad 
enough, but what should one make out of the substituted phrase ? 
The author, on a par with other modern exegetes, assumes that 
the ancient scribes or copyists of the Bible were ignoramuses and 
could hardly distinguish between one letter and another. He 
forgets that these men were learned in Hebrew lore and probably 
knew the Biblical text by rote. 

77ie Bible for Home and School^ as the editor states in the 
general introduction, ' is intended to place the results of the best 
modern Biblical scholarship at the disposal of the general reader '. 
This aim it fulfils in an eminent degree, as may be seen from the 
volumes that appeared so far. Dr. Smith's volume is not an 
exception to the rule. It contains thorough but brief introduc- 
tions, brief comments on the text giving only the assured results 
of historical investigation and criticism, and the most essential 
textual notes. The text is that of the Revised Version of r88i, 
supplemented with better readings from other versions. The 
book should prove useful to the Christian layman. 

The Volksschriften Uber die judische Religion "' are a splendid 
series of short and popular writings on numerous phases of the 
Jewish religion. The enterprise has proved its worth during the 
first year of its existence, when six booklets, each written by an 
authority on the subject, made their appearance. The present 
number on the prophets Amos and Hosea follows the same 
principle of popularization. First comes a picture of the political 
and religious conditions in those days. Then follows comments 

^* A Commentary on the Books of Amos, Hosea, and Micah. By John 
Merlin Powis Smith, Ph.D. {The Bible for Home and School, Shailer 
Mathews, General Editor.) ^few York: The Macmillan Company, 1914. 
pp. X + 216. 

" Die Propheten Amos und Hosea. Von Dr. Ignae Ziegler. [Volks- 
schriften Uber die judische Religion, herausgegeben von Dr. I. Ziegler, 
Karlsbad.) Frankfurt a. M. : J. Kauffmann, 1913. pp. 54. 

VOL. XII. li 


on the prophets themselves, supported by extracts from their 
writings. A few explanatory notes to the text of Hosea are added 
at the end. 

The Soci^t^ Biblique de Paris celebrated its centenary by 
issuing a new translation of the Bible, of which the present book 
of Amos is a specimen."' It aims to give a scrupulously faithful 
rendering, based on the best witnessses of the Hebrew text ; 
a limited number of notes explaining textual difficulties ; and a 
series of introductions giving a summary history of the various 
books. Of course, the method followed is critical even to the 
point of printing supposed glosses in small print and indicating 
all kinds of additions and lacunae. The usefulness of such a 
diminutive and yet thoroughly critical edition cannot be gainsaid, 
and it will surely add to the credit of the society whose work in 
the interest of the Bible has always been characterized by great 
zeal and high fervour. 

Peiser's study" is purely philological and follows that of 
Habakuk in MVAG., Vol. VIII (1903). He subjects the text 
of Hosea to a minute analysis and searching criticism, eliminating 
at will words and passages which, in his opinion, are incoherent 
and illogical. Hence the reconstructed text is much shorter, but 
who can tell that it is the original ? One is hardly justified in 
looking for logical sequence in the Holy Writ, especially in the 
prophetic writings. The author's arrangement of the masoretic 
text on the left page and the reconstructed text with the separated 
glosses on the right side must be recommended, as it enables one 
to see at a glance points of variation. The texts and comments 
are followed by a discussion of the origin and later development 
of the book of Hosea. 

After quoting all the conjectures concerning the puzzling 

" Le Livre du ProphHe Amos. Extrait de la Bible du Centenaire 
preparee par la Society Biblique de Paris. Traduction nouvelle d'aprfes les 
meilleurs textes, avec introduction et notes. Paris : Socij^te Biblique, 
1913. pp. xxxii + 28. 

'^ Hosea. Philologische Studien zum Alten Testament Von Felix E. 
Peiser. Leipzig : J. C. Hihrichs'sche Buchhandlung, 1914. pp. ix + 88. 


Elkosh, the birthplace of the prophet Nahum, Cassuto *' adduces 
the Arabic commentary of Yephet ben Ali in support of the 
theory that the place was situated in southern Judea, near Gaza. 
He follows (though having arrived at the conclusion indepen- 
dently) G. A. Smith in identifying it with the Arabic Umm-Lakis, 
a village half-way between Gaza and Eleutheropolis, which, prior 
to the excavation of Tell-el-Hezy , was oftentimes confused with 
Biblical Lakish. Vmm, ' place where ', precedes names of localities, 
and as to the initial X, it might have fallen away or else it repre- 
sents a false etymology based on an assumption of Umm-el-Lakis. 
David Baron, like the late Adolph Saphir, belongs to the 
sect of Jewish Christians whose purpose it is to conciliate 
the Jews to Christianity. His bulky book'' is a reprint from The 
Scattered Nation, the Quarterly Record of the Hebrew Christian 
Testimony to Israel, where the author published ' Notes on 
Zechariah' for a number of years. In its present form it is 
preceded by a foreword by Prebendary H. E. Fox, who empha- 
sizes the author's 'sanctified scholarship and racial intuition'. 
The commentary, while pretending to be expository, is really 
homiletic and anything but scientific. It contains too much of 
missionary effusions and very few common-sense interpretations. 
Kimhi and other mediaeval Jewish commentators are quoted 
here and there, but they are made to serve the author's purpose 
of Christianization. Quotations from other commentators of the 
orthodox school are very extensive and serve to cover the author's 
lack of originality. In his introduction and throughout the book 
the writer defends the unity of authorship and the post-exilic 
date of the entire book. Zechariah's visions are interpreted in 
a truly Christian manner; and as to the poetical sections, 
chaps. 9-1 1 are made to refer to the victories of Alexander the 

** QuestioncelU bibliche : la patria del profeta Nahum. Per Umberto 
Cassuto. Estratto del Giornale della Socieid Asiaiica Italiana. Volume 
ventiseiesimo. Parte Seconda. Firenze, 1914. pp. 291-302. 

*' The Visions and Prophecies of Zechariah : ' The Prophet of Hope and 
of Glory'. An exposition by David Baron. London : Morgan & Scoit 
Ltd., 1918. pp. xii + 554. 



Great, the overthrow of the Persian Empire, the advent of the 
Messiah and his rejection by Israel, while chaps. 12-14 ^^^ 
construed as eschatological and apocalyptic in character, alluding 
to a distant future, no longer distant now, when recalcitrant Israel 
will be redeemed. The book is well indexed. The text is not 
free from misprints. 

The text of the Psalter J° is reproduced from Hetzenauer's 
edition of the Latin Bible, and only a few minor changes are 
introduced. Sparse notes of an explanatory nature are given at 
the end of the book, followed by a brief vocabulary and examples 
of mottoes and phrases derived from the Vulgate Psalter. An 
introduction deals with the history of the Vulgate in general and 
that of the Psalter in particular. 

Goossens' dissertation" deals with the mooted question as to 
the existence of Maccabean psalms in the Psalter. It offers an 
exhaustive historical survey of the whole problem from the Church 
Fathers down to the latest exegetes and theologians, stating the 
reasons in great detail. As a work of reference, therefore, it is 
highly useful. But the author has no new contribution to make. 
As a member of the Catholic Church he ranges himself on the 
negative side of the question, believing that the canon was closed 
before the Maccabean period. There is a fairly good bibUography. 
The lack of an index in a work of this kind is a considerable 

Driver's Studies in the Psalms''^ are a series of essays and 
sermons on the Psalter which the late author, according to the 
editor in his preface, wished to be brought together and published 

™ The Vulgate Psalter, with introduction, notes, and vocabulary. By 
A. B. Macauiay, M.A., and James Brebner, M.A. London & Toronto : 
J. M. Dent & Sons, Ltd., 1913. pp. xxiii + 24a. 

" Die Frage nach makkabaischen Psalmen. Von Dr. theol. E. Goossens. 
{Alttestamentliche Abhandlungen herausgegeben von Prof. Dr. J. Nikel, 
Breslau. V. Band, 4. Heft.) Munster in W. : Aschendorffsche Verlags- 

BUCHHANDLUNG, I9I4. pp. xii + 72. 

■ra Studies in the Psalms. By the late S. R. Driver, D.D. Edited, with 
a Preface, by C. F. Burney, D.Litt. London : Hodder & Stoughton, 1915. 
pp. xii + 306. 


in a volume. The two most important articles had already 
appeared in print : ' The Prayer Book Version of the Psalter ' is 
derived from the Prayer Book Dictionary, while ' The Method of 
Studying the Psalter' comes from the Expositor of January- July, 
19 10. The sermons, on the other hand, had not been published 
heretofore. Needless to say, the volume, like all the works of the 
veteran Biblical scholar, is refreshing in the highest degree, both 
on account of its lucidity of argument and purity of diction. In 
his discussion on the method of studying the Psalter he gives 
a detailed exposition of some Messianic Psalms, viz. 2, 45, 72, 
no, 40, 22, 16, and shows why they are late, in most cases post- 
exilic, and why they cannot be applied to the person of Jesus. 
The sermons are built on the following Psalms : 109 (imprecatory), 
8, 15, 72, and 73. There is a good deal of repetition which may 
be unavoidable under the circumstances. The editor should be 
complimented for the great care he gave to the work and for the 

Professor Eiselen is forging ahead with his Biblical Introduc- 
tion Series.'^ The first volume on the Pentateuch was well 
received owing to the simplicity of style and the lucidity of 
argument. The present volume on the Kethubim or Hagiographa 
follows the same aim and principle, viz. to give a scholarly and 
authoritative, yet plain and non-technical introduction to par- 
ticular books of the Old Testament, and it is safe to say that it 
will get the same reception as its predecessor. The volume opens 
with a chapter on Hebrew poetry, well conceived and well written. 
Likewise there is a chapter on the Wisdom literature of the 
Hebrews, preceding the Book of Proverbs. Very interesting is 
an appendix on the bilingual character of the Book of Daniel, 
where the author, in his usual fair-minded way, presents all the 
views of scholars and critics on the subject. Another appendix 
deals with the First Book of Esdras as found in the Septuagint. 
Altogether the book, though lacking originality, is interesting, 

'^ The Psalms and Other Sacred Writings : their origin, contents, and 
significance. By Frederick Carl Eiselen. {Biblical Introduction Series.) 
New York : The Methodist Book Concern, 1918. pp. 348. 


and will form a convenient text-book for students and laymen 

Viblette'* describes a pilgrimage to the Fountain of David 
and to the City of Bethlehem which serves to illustrate very 
vividly every line and sentence of the great psalm of Faith. The 
narrative, interspersed with poetical quotations, appears to be a 
mixture of fact and fancy. 

McFadyen's '^ is a companion volume to his earlier work The 
Psalms in Modern Speech and Rhythmical Form. As in the latter, 
the author gives a translation into EngUsh metre, followed by 
exegetical notes on more complicated points. His attitude is 
critical, following higher criticism in omitting obscure and un- 
intelligible passages and in emending difficult words. This 
method of procedure, though not commendable in a popular 
work, is yet legitimate ; but the author fails to point out drastic 
departures from the masoretic text, nor does he cite authorities 
for such disparities. 

Hudal presents the Catholic view with regard to the composi- 
tion of the Book of Proverbs. '* From an investigation into the 
religious and moral ideas of the book he aims to determine that 
it belongs to the pre-exilic literature of Israel, and is ' one of the 
subUmest monuments of the religion of Israel '. With this aim 
in view he analyses the text very minutely, quoting not only 
Catholic but also non-Catholic authorities in his refutation of the 
literary critics of the rational school. His conclusions are that 
neither the religious nor the ethical concepts of Proverbs require 
a post-exilic date; that the term 'wisdom' therein, both in its 
subjective and objective application, differs essentially from that 

'* In Palestine with the Twenty-third Psalm. By E. E. Violette. 
Cincinnati : The Standard Pubushing Company, 1918. pp. 68. 

'* The Wisdom Books (Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes), also Lamentations 
and the Song of Songs, in Modem Speech and Rhythmical Form. By John 
Edgar McFadyen, D.D. London : James Clarke & Co., 1918. pp. 288. 

" Die religiosen uttd sittlichen Ideen des Spruchbuches. Kritisch-exegetische 
Studie von Dr. Alois Hudal. {Scripta Pontificii Instituti Biblici.) Rom: 
Verlag des papstl. Bibel-Instituts, 1914. pp. xxviii + 261. 


found in Hellenistic or Buddhistic literature; that the moral 
principles enunciated in this book are conditioned by the legis- 
lation of the early Israelitic kingdom ; that the proverbs in their 
present form exhibit nothing more nor less than a practical 
philosophy of life such as could be evolved among any well- 
constituted and self-conscious nation, without any outside 
influence whatever; that the background of these pithy sayings 
is a national and independent community such as we find among 
the early kings of Israel. The author brushes aside the linguistic 
argument in the same bold way : the Aramaisms in the book are 
either corruptions or else hapax legomena whose meaning cannot 
be ascertained. He admits, however, that it is not impossible 
that there were later additions, and he characterizes some Aramaic 
passages as such. On the whole his arguments are elaborate, 
though they sometimes lack due weight and proper authority. It 
is to his credit that he makes use of Jewish and Protestant writers 
to a great extent. 

The Book of Job, owing to its peculiar form, has attracted 
wide speculation as to its archetype. From time immemorial 
scholars tried to trace its origin to one foreign country or another, 
claiming that the ancient Hebrews themselves had no sense for 
this type of literature, and hence must have derived it from some 
outside source. Now Dr. Kallen " believes that the Book of Job is 
a Greek tragedy in Hebrew, specifically modelled after Euripides. 
This theory of Greek ancestry is not new. As Prof. Moore 
points out in his learned introduction, it was advanced as early as 
the beginning of the fifth century by Theodore of Mopshuestia, 
an astute teacher of the ancient church and an iconoclast of 
Biblical tradition, and was restated a thousand years later by 
Theodore Beza in a course of lectures delivered in Geneva. 
Kallen, however, adds a new element in ascribing to Job a speci- 
fically Euripidean character, with its deus ex machina and its 

'■^ The Book of Job as a Greek Tragedy, restored, with an introductory 
essay on the original form and philosophic meaning of Job, by Horace Meyer 
Kali-en, and an introduction by Professor George Foot Moore. New York : 
Moffat, Yard & Co., 1918. pp. xii + 163. 


Striking use of the chorus. He conceives of a Palestinian hakam 
visiting Egypt or the Syrian coast about 400 before our era, and 
witnessing there a play of Euripides, possibly Bellerophontes, 
which resembles Job in story and expression. This hakam on 
his return to Palestine undertakes to imitate the Greek play by 
casting the legend of Job in its mould, including a prologue, agon, 
messenger, choruses, epiphany, and an epilogue. The result is 
a tragedy in four acts with three intervening choruses. Kallen 
proceeds to reconstruct such a tragedy from the present Hebrew 
text, not by radical emendations and excisions, but mainly through 
transpositions and rearrangement of the text. Thus passages 
which critics stamp as interpolations he assigns to the much 
vaunted chorus, slicing them in between the acts : ch. 28 in 
praise of wisdom is introduced after 14; ch. 24. 2-24 on the 
oppressor and oppressed after 21; and ch. 40. 15-41, 26 on 
Behemoth and Leviathan after 31. Elihu is the coryphaeus, his 
speech being slightly condensed, while the Voice out of the 
Whirlwind is the deus ex machina. Kallen accounts for the 
present disarranged text by the conjecture that, when the Greek 
form was noticed by the scribes, they displaced the choruses and 
incorporated them within the argument in order to make them 
less offensive. . This certainly is an ingenious hypothesis, and it 
is significant that Prof. Moore styles it 'a serious hypothesis 
which invites serious consideration from Biblical scholars and 
students of literature '. However, with all its plausibility, its 
verisimilitude is quite remote, not alone because of the incon- 
gruity of the circumstances accompanying the authorship to 
which Kallen has to resort, but more so on account of internal 
evidence of the Book of Job itself. It has been noted more than 
once that in style and diction Job resembles the great Arabic 
classics, whose wealth of imagery and exuberance of phantasy 
are hardly matched in Indo-European literatures. Moreover, the 
range of ideas in the various dialogues is not such as could not 
be developed independently by a Semitic people, whatever we 
may say against their philosophical accomplishments. As to the 
epic or dramatic form, it must be remembered that the argument 


exsikntio is not cogent. There may have been more dramatic 
compositions in circulation among the Hebrews, which for some 
reason or another were not included in the Bible. We must 
remember that the canon as it came down to us represents only 
a portion of ancient Hebrew literature, ' a survival of the fittest '. 
Besides, Canticles is a dramatic poem on a par with Job ; and 
yet it is intensely Jewish, both in subject matter and purity of 
style. That it is of very late origin and bears resemblance to 
the poems of Theocritus is not altogether sure. Wellhausen and 
Driver still placed it in the tenth pre-Christian century ; and as 
to resemblance, it is more akin to many Arabic than Greek 
poems. Dalman's Paldstinischer Diwan is full of specimens of 
this art. And yet many attempts had been made in the past to 
dramatize Canticles and reduce it to a Greek level. Dr. Kallen 
himself, it is evident from the preface, is very cautious in not 
considering his thesis as anything but an hypothesis. In his 
innermost heart a doubt seems to be lurking that perhaps there 
is more fiction in it than truth, more romance than actual fact. 
' I feel ', he says in the preface, ' that what I have set down in 
this volume is sublimation of such conjecture concerning the 
Book of Job as historic method permits. But contrariwise, it 
may be — romance '. As a mere dramatization of Job the work 
is commendable, though it exhibits some glaring anomalies. 
Thus the addition of the Shema is, to say the least, puerile, while 
some transpositions and rearrangements are quite precarious and 
unwarranted. The change in Job's last speech (42. 6) introduced 
for the sake of dramatic truth has no philological foundation 
whatever. But perhaps we should not hold a philosopher 
responsible for matters of philology. Indeed, the best part of 
the book is the essay on the Joban Philosophy of Life wherein 
Kallen shows himself a thinker along original and independent 

Kaplan and Mohr " cherish a plan to make Hebrew literature 

" ,T^^ ."inio .'•1 jNi'BNp fjor nso ntotripoi n-rwi nriDK nbio 


more attractive through artistic illustrations based on Jewish 
tradition. The Book of Esther, beautifully ornamented with 
figures and vignettes in the Lilien style, is their initial step, and 
bears great promise. The ornaments on the title-page are made 
up of the letters O and X (initials of "inDX rhifo) in various com- 
binations intertwined with myrtle wreaths (allusion to Esther's 
Hebrew name Hadassah). In the middle of the page there is 
a circle of twelve stars, alluding to the twelfth month Adar, and 
within the circle a wreath of thorns pointing to the Midrash, 
which says that every passage beginning with TTil deals with some 
misery or tribulation. A Persian royal crown, two sceptres, and 
a seal ring ornament the upper part, while the lower space con- 
tains an inkwell, feather, and rolls of papyrus. The whole is very 
tasteful. So are the six illustrations by the painter S. Mohr 
accompanying the text. Very impressive is the first, showing 
Mordecai in grief, the third representing Esther in her innocent 
beauty, and the fifth showing Esther before the king begging 
mercy for her people. The type is splendid, and leaves nothing 
to be desired. 

Hooper's book'" is 'dedicated in admiration and to the 
honour of all our brave conscientious objectors who by their 
defiance are defeating militarism '. This sympathy with the 
conscientious objectors, i,ooo of whom are said to be in prison 
in England for their unflinching belief and unswerving conviction, 
is evident throughout the book. The doctrine of force, it seems 
to be the author's opinion, is execrable in whatever shape or 
form whether applied by one nation to another or by one class 
of people to another. The purpose of the book is to prove that 
Daniel is a Maccabean work, written during the turmoil of 
Antiochus IV Epiphanes (about 165 B.C.) to console a terribly 
persecuted people. Daniel is not historical but visionary. The 
author discusses both the stories and visions of Daniel and their 
relation to the so-called Maccabean psalms and the book of 
I Maccabees. One chapter deals with the Zoroastrian elements 

" Daniel and the Maccabees. By Edwin B. Hooper, M.A. With fore- 
word by E. L. Hicks, D.D. London : C. W. Daniel Ltd., 1917. pp. 124. 


of Daniel, viz. the belief in angels and resurrection. Finally, 
a parallel is drawn between the Maccabean struggle and the 
present war of Europe : here like there a small nation is struggling 
against a mighty empire, and now as before, God will not be found 
on the side of the big batallions. 

Dr. Szekely's Bibliotheca Apocrypha '" is a creditable and com- 
mendable piece of work. Owing to its fullness of detail it should 
prove useful to both teacher and pupil, though its Latin garb 
must necessarily limit its wider use. The general introduction 
deals with the use, origin, character, and teaching, especially the 
eschatology of the Apocrypha, and winds up with an extensive 
and almost exhaustive bibliography. The discussion is then 
taken up of the Sibylline Oracles, which, though not strictly 
BibHcal, are related to the Bible by reason of their prophetic 
character. They are divided into Jewish, Christian, and profane 
oracles. Other apocrypha treated are the Book of Henoch, the 
Assumption of Moses, the Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch, Fourth 
Esdi-as, the Book of Jubilees, Letters of Solomon, Third Esdras, 
Third Maccabees, the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, the 
Psalter of Solomon, the Prayer of Manasseh, Fourth Maccabees, 
the Ascension of Isaiah, Fragments of lost apocrypha, and the 
Book and Apocalypse of Elijah. The books known among 
Protestants as deuterocanonical, like Ecclesiasticus and Tobit, are 
omitted, since they are canonized in the Catholic Church and 
are already included in the Vulgate. The scope of every book is 
given in full outline : first comes a history and Uterature of the 
work, then the contents in brief, and finally a discussion of the 
literary character, origin and authorship, and the language of 
the prototype. The author manifests great linguistic knowledge, 
especially in dealing with the Book of Henoch and its multiple 
versions. It is to be hoped that the second volume, which is to 

'" Bibliotheca Apocrypha. Introductio historico-critica in libros apocryphos 
utriusque testament! cum explicatione argumenti et doctrinae. Scripsit 
Dr. Stephanus Szekely. Volumen primum : Introductio generalis, Sibyllae 
et Apocrypha Vet. Test, antiqua. Friburgi Brisgoviae : B. Herder, 1913. 
pp. viii + 512. 


contain other minor apocrypha of the Old and all the apocrypha 
of the New Testament, will soon make its appearance. 

Schulte offers a thorough Catholic treatment of the apocry- 
phal book of Tobit." The first half of the book is devoted to 
textual criticism and a comparison of the various versions of 
Tobit, while the second half constitutes a commentary, both 
textual and exegetical, arranged by chapters. Some chapters are 
supplemented by excursuses on some special topics. A good 
bibliography accompanies the introduction. The author abstains 
from theorizing and confines himself to a mere exposition of the 
text and a summary of accomplished results. In doing this he 
naturally leans towards Catholic expositors. He rejects the alle- 
gorical interpretation of Anton Scholz and clings to the historical 
character of Tobit as adopted by the Council of Trent. Still he 
considers it as not impossible that there may have been an 
allegorical meaning alongside with the historical. Of all the 
versions and translations the Vulgate, the author believes, has 
preserved the original text best. Jerome tells us that he used an 
Aramaic text which was rendered for him into Hebrew. Appar- 
ently this text was truer and more exact than the Aramaic text 
underlying the Septuagint. 

Paul Heinisch investigates the relation between Greek philo- 
sophy and the Old Testament.'^ In a former brochure he 
discussed this relation as reflected in the Biblical books that 
originated in Palestine. Now he deals with' the influence of 
Greek philosophy on the Septuagint and Book of Wisdom, which 
in the Catholic Church forms part of the Old Testament canon. 
He finds that this influence was rather superficial, extending 

*' Beitrdge zur Erkldrung und Textkritik des Buches Tobias, von Dr. 
Adalbert Schulte. {Biblische Siudien herausgegeben von Prof. Dr. O. 
Bardenhewer in Miinchen. Neunzehnter Band, zweites Heft.) Freiburg 
im Breisgau : Herdersche Verlagshandlung, 1914. pp. 145. 

*2 Griechische Philosophie und Altes Testament. II. Septuaginta und Buch 
der Weisheit. Von Dr. Paul Heinisch. {Biblische Zeitfragen, siebte Folge, 
Hefts.) Erste und zweite Auflage. Miinster in Westf. : Aschendorffsche 
Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1914. pp. 40. 


oftentimes to the borrowing of philosophical terminology but 
never to the actual perception, not to say belief and conviction. 

In a series of three lectures Naime " traces the development 
of theological speculation in Alexandria as revealed in the Greek 
Sirach, Wisdom, Philo, and the Epistle to the Hebrews. The 
claim is made that there is a continuity between these various 
products of Alexandria. From a blind faith based on a detached 
divinity of the earlier Alexandrines was ultimately developed the 
idea of the manhood of God and the doctrine of sacrifice. The 
book is evidently a product of its time, preaching sacrifice to war- 
torn and blood-bespattered mankind. 

The Translations of Early Documents, initiated by the Society 
for Promoting Christian Knowledge, are progressing apace. As 
an introduction to the series Ferrar '* gives a bird's-eye view of all 
the apocrypha and pseudepigrapha that originated within the 
three most fateful centuries. It is a very brief introduction (27 
books are covered by 100 small-sized pages), necessitating dog- 
matic statements instead of lengthy discussions. Fortunately, his 
summaries are based on the best authorities, notably Dr. Charles' 
Apocrypha and Dr. Oesterley's The Books of the Apocrypha. The 
Book of Jubilees^' is well edited from Charles' larger edition. 
Likewise The Third Book of Maccabees?^ The Fourth Book of 

*' The Alexandrine Gospel (Sirach, Wisdom, Philo, The Epistle to the 
Hebrews). By the Rev. A. Nairne, D.D. {Liverpool Diocesan Board of 
Divinity Publications, No. XVII.) London : Longmans, Green, & Co., 1917. 
pp. 126. 

'* The Uncanonical Jewish Books. A short introduction to the Apocrypha 
and other Jewish writings 200 B. c.-a. d. 100. By William John Ferrar, 
M.A. London : Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1918. 
pp. 112. 

'* The Book of Jubilees, or The Little Genesis. Translated from the 
Ethiopic Text by R. H. Charles, D.Litt., D.D. With an introduction by 
G. H. Box, M.A. {Translations of Early Documents. Series I : Palestinian 
Jewish Texts.) London : Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 
1917. pp. 224. 

8« The Third {-Fourth) Book of Maccabees. By C. W. Emmet, B.D. 
{Translations of Early Documents. Series II : Hellenistic-Jewish Texts.) 
London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1918. pp. 46 + 76. 


Maccabees, on the other hand, constitutes a new translation in a 
fluent style patterned after the bombastic Greek. An introduc- 
tion with the customary detail accompanies it. The Apocalypse of 
Abraham,'" being here translated for the first time into English, is 
accompanied by profuse notes and prefaced by a lengthy intro- 
duction. The latter deals very learnedly with the contents of the 
book, the Slavonic text, date of composition, the original language, 
gnostic elements in the text, its theology and general importance, 
and bibliography. The text of the composite Ascension ofJsaiah^'^ 
is that of Charles' translation published in 1900. The Rev. Box's 
introduction is guided by the researches in Charles' most com- 
plete and important edition of this book. Bate's translation of 
the Jewish-Christian Sibylline Oracles '" is well done and deserves 
commendation. It reads smoothly and fulfills the purpose of 
a popular version. It is a fresh rendering from the Greek inde- 
pendent of earlier editions. In some places it is superior to 
Lanchaster's version in Charles' Apocrypha. The introduction 
deals first with the Sibylline tradition in Greece and Rome and 
then with the Jewish-Christian oracles, their analysis and date, 
their doctrine and eschatology, and their place in early Christian 
literature. There is also a note on the Nero legend as reflected 
in these early religious sibyls. The translation of Joseph and 
Asenath^ is made from M. Batiffol's edition of the complete 

" The Apocalypse of Abraham. Edited, with a translation from the 
Slavonic text and notes, by G. H. Box, M.A. With the assistance of 
J. I. Landsman. {Translations of Early Documents. Series I : Palestinian 
Jewish Texts.) London : SdciEXY for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 
1918. pp. 100. 

8' The Ascension of Isaiah. By R. H. Charles, D.Litt., D.D. With an 
introduction by the Rev. G. H. Box, MA. {Translations of Early Documents. 
Series I : Palestinian Jewish Texts.) London : Society for Promoting 
Christian Knowledge, 191 7. pp. 62. 

«» The Sibylline Orades. Books III-V. By the Rev. H. N. Bate, M.A. 
( Translations of Early Documents. Series II : Hellenistic- Jewish Texts.) 
London : Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1918. pp. 118. 

'" Joseph and Asenath. The Confession and Prayer of Asenath, daughter 
of Pentephres the Priest. By E. W. Brooks. {Translations of Early 


Greek and Latin texts, published in 1889-90 [Studio Fatristica, 
fasc. I and TI). Here and there varia,nts are introduced to 
improve the continuity of the narrative. Passages not contained 
in the Greek text but found in other versions are recorded in an 
appendix. The introduction summarizes the character and nature 
of the work, as well as its origin and composition. 

The Biblical Antiquities ascribed to Philo " is a curious work 
and has a peculiar history about it. Like The Chronicles ofjerah- 
meel, published by Dr. Gaster not long ago, it belongs to the class 
of literature known as Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha which 
flourished in Palestine in great abundance during the first century 
of the new era. Many of these stories, which were circulated for 
religious edification, were lost to the ■vyorld at an early date, and 
are only now coming to light again in a secondary or tertiary 
translation. Like The Book of Jubilees, The Antiquities was com- 
posed in Hebrew, then translated into Greek, and finally a Latin 
translation was made from the Greek : and of all these versions 
only the Latin is extant. It was perpetuated in manuscript until 
the sixteenth century, when it experienced five printed editions, 
but since then it was relegated to oblivion and nothing was heard 
of it. In 1893 the present translator, Dr. James, published four 
Latin fragments of this apocryphal work in Texts and Studies, 
II, 164 ff., not being aware of their earlier publication during the 
sixteenth century and their ascription to Philo. Only in 1898 the 
late Dr. Leopold Cohn, the well-known editor of Philo, in an 
article in the J.Q.R., X, 277 ff., called attention to this long- 
forgotten work, its import and contents, its origin and character- 
istics. As Dr. Cohn points out, the book is a product of the end 
of the first century c.e. That it could not have been written 
before the destruction of the Second Temple is proved by a 

Documents. Series II: Hellenistic-Jewish Texts.) London: Society for 
Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1918. pp. 84. 

w The Biblical Antiquities of Philo. Now first translated from the old 
Latin version by M. R. James, Litt.D., F.B.A. {Translations of Early 
Documents. Series I : Palestinian Jewish Texts.) London : Society for 
Promoting Christian Knowledge, 191 7. pp. 280. 


cryptic allusion to this event in the text, and moreover, its adop- 
tion by the Christian Church shows that it could not have been 
composed much later than 100 c.e. The Latin translation must 
have been made in the fourth century, perhaps towards the end 
of the third. The language, as Dr. Cohn shows, is a vulgar Latin 
with many Graecisms and peculiar neologisms. It is closely 
related to the idiom of the Itala, the old Latin translation of the 
Bible, which was likewise made from the Greek, and Xo Jubilees, 
Assumption of Moses, Ascension of Isaiah, and IV Esdras. The 
work is ascribed to Philo because it always appeared in company 
with genuine works of the Alexandrian philosopher, just as the 
Fourth Book of Maccabees is often ascribed to Josephus because 
it happened to be in the same manuscript with works of the 
Jewish historian. As to the contents, it covers Bible history 
from Adam to the death of Saul, but, as the translator points out 
in his introduction, the original manuscript must have continued 
the story to a much later date, probably down to the Babylonian 
captivity. The character of the narrative is midrashic and hag- 
gadic : the writer draws not only upon known but also unknown 
haggadas and legends. Like the author of Chronicles he gives 
elaborate genealogies, inventing many names to please his fancy. 
Moreover, he supplements existing narratives, especially if these 
are laconic in the Bible. Thus he invents many incidents in the 
life of Kenaz, the first judge, who is only briefly mentioned in 
the Bible. His source, though obscure and no longer to be 
ascertained, must have been some kind of popular tradition. 
His purpose, as stated above, is purely religious, and consists in 
exhorting the people to imitate the good deeds of its leaders. 
Dr. James' translation, the first translation into a modern tongue, 
is based on a fairly representative selection of textual authorities 
and may be said to be quite reliable. An attempt is made to 
follow the idiom of the Authorized Version as closely as possible. 
Passages taken verbatim from the Bible are identified and referred 
to the source on the margin. Notes accompany the text, but 
these are too meagre and not sufficient to elucidate obscure 
passages Especially defective is the part dealing with the 


identification of legends in talmudic-midrashic literature, in which 
the editor fails to go beyond the effort of Dr. Cohn. However, 
it must be remembered that this is not a critical edition and that 
the editor was limited in space. His best effort is found in 
the long and learned introduction dealing with every phase of the 
new apocryphon, and also in the appendix dealing with various 
readings and corrupt passages. Another appendix on the vocabu- 
lary of the Latin version is based mainly on Dr. Cohn's study 
mentioned above. It is to be hoped that a critical edition of 
the Latin text together with a translation will soon be published. 

Joseph Reider. 
Dropsie College.