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[Vol. XXII. No. 548 

This apparently furnishes, afc least, a straw pointing in the 
direction I have been moving in my study of the Maya hiero- 
glyphs. Cyrus Thomas. 

Washington, D.C., July 15. 

Historical Statements in Century Dictionary Contradicted by 
Other Authorities. 

Napier's rods (or bones), a contrivance commonly attributed to 
John Napier (1550-1617), but in fact described in the Arithmetic 
of Oronce Finee (1532).— Century Dictionary under rod. 

Die erste Beschreibung gab Nefer in seiner Rabdologia (Edin- 
burg, 1617). — Vorlesungen uber Geschichte der Mathematik, von 
Moritz Cantor, zweiter Band, Seite 660. 

The earliest known writers on the subject (magic squares) were 
Arabians, among whom these squares were used as amulets. — 
Century Dictionary, under magic. 

The earliest known writer on the subject was Emanuel Mosco- 
pulus, a Greek, who lived in the fourth or fifth century, and 
whose manuscript is preserved in the National Library at Paris. 
—Encyclopedia Britannica, under magic squares. 

These seem to me to be contradictions. I should be glad to see 
the truth in regard to these historical facts plainly set forth by a 
reader of Science. Geo. A. Miller. 

Eureka College, Eureka, 111., July 24. 

The Cambojan Khmers. 

Owing to some irregularity in the postal delivery I have only 
just received Science for June 9, else T should have sooner asked 
leave to put in a claim of priority in connection with Dr. Mau- 
rel's new views regarding the " Aryan " origin of the Khmers, re- 
ferred to by Dr. Brinton in that issue. Personally I avoid the 
expression ' < Aryan or Indo-European stock " as confusing and 
applicable far more to linguistic than to ethnical groups. 
" Caucasian," used in Blumenbach's sense, be 

But if 
substituted for 

6 'Aryan" Dr. Brinton will find, by consulting the Transactions 
of the British Association for 1879, that fourteen years ago I con- 
clusively showed that the Khmers should be grouped not with 
the surrounding Mongolic, but with the Caucasic division of 
mankind. In the " Monograph on the Relations of the Indo-Chi- 
nese and Inter-Oceanic Races and Languages," read before the 
association, and again before the Anthropological Institute and 
printed in the journal of that society for February, 1880, and is- 
sued separately by Tmbner at same date, I argued generally that 
" both of the great Asiatic types conventionally known as Cau- 
casian and Mongolian, have from prehistoric times occupied the 
Indo-Chinese peninsula," and particularly that here the Caucasic 
stock is represented by the widespread Khmer group, that is to 
say, the Cambojans proper, the Kuys or Khmerdom (" original 
Khmers"), as the Cambojans call them, the Stiengs, Charays, 
Chams and many others, some still in the tribal state, some long 
civilized or semi-civilized. It is the civilized that mainly engage 
Dr. Maurei's attention, and that he rightly regards as Aryans 
(read Caucasians), but wrongly supposes to have migrated in 
comparatively recent times from India to Indo-China, "bringing 
with them the Aryan culture of that country as proved by the 
stately ruins of Ang-Kok (read Ongkor-Vaht)." There was no 
such migration " probably about the third or fourth century of 
the Christian era," for the Khmers are not recent arrivals, but 
the true aborigines, as shown by the presence of the Khmer- 
dom and the kindred wild tribes, and also by their untoned poly- 
syllabic speech, radically distinct both from the Indo-Chinese 
toned monosyllabic group and from the Indie (Sanscritic) branch 
of the Aryan, hut closely allied to the untoned polysyllabic Ma- 
layo-Polynesian linguistic family. 

This point, which I think I have established to the satisfaction 
of most ethnologists and philologists (Professor Sayce amongst 
others), is of far-reaching consequence. It affords the solution of 
the extremely difficult problem connected with the presence of 
Logan's "Indonesians," my Caucasians, side by side or intermin- 

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gled with the true Mongoloid Malays throughout the Oceanic do- 
main (Indian and Pacific Oceans). But my object here is merely 
to establish my priority claim for the American readers of Science, 
who are referred to the above quoted monograph for the detailed 
treatment of these interesting questions. A. H. Keane. 

79 Broadhurst Gardens, South Hampstead, N. W., July 21. 

Sound and Color. 

Without in the least doubting the accuracy of Di\ Wallian's 
curious observations respecting the appearance of color about the 
heads of public speakers, I would just suggest the possibility of 
another explanation. 

I have myself frequently observed, when listening to various 
preachers, a patch of rich blue color near to the head of the 
speaker. I have always attributed this, however, to the well- 
known effect upon the retina of fatigue from the continued im- 
pression of one color giving rise to a phantasm of the complemen- 
tary color. The face of a speaker is some tint of flesh color. The 
eye of the listener is fixed upon the face, and in a short time the 
complementary phantasm makes its appearance, always some tint 
of blue or purple, according to the complexion of the speaker. 

This will not, of course, explain all the phenomena mentioned 
by Professor Underwood and Dr. Wallian, but it is a factor which 
should not be forgotten in discussing the subject. 

F. T. Mott. 
Leicester, England. 


A Biographical Index of British and Irish Botanists. By James 

Britten and G* S. Boulger. London, West, Newman & 

Co., 1893. 203 p. 

Messrs. Britten and Boulger have republished in book form their 

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Washington, D. C, July 22. 


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with that of the Modern Languages," published by Ginn & Co., 
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