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8o2 Reviews of Books 

that Sir James Ramsay's full and temperate treatment of the subject 
should be. The citations from Stubbs to illustrate the problem of 
scutage (p. 42) are unfortunate, and in view of the following quotation 
from McKechnie, superfluous; reference to Round, Maitland, and 
Baldwin would have been more to the point. In his use of proper 
names Sir Archibald shows an irritating disregard alike of ordinary 
usage and self-consistency — thus he uses Roncaille and Roncaglia, Gau- 
frid and Geoffrey, Waldeve and Waltheof indifferently, and surely it is 
rather late in the day to be writing of Benedictus Abbas and Matthew 
of Westminster. Misprints, not of a very serious character, occur on 
pp. 16, 32, 33, 95, 109, 138, 302; on p. 21, line 18, nostri protectionis 
should probably be nostra protectionc; on p. 232, line 20, an eo seems 
to be wanted, and on p. 249, for Julius, read Lucius. 

There is a copious index and the book is well printed on light paper 
that makes it pleasant to hold. 

Gaillard Thomas Lapsley. 

Types of Manorial Structure in the Northern Danela^v. By F. M. 
Stenton. Customary Rents. By N. Neilson. [Oxford Studies 
in Social and Legal History, edited by Professor Paul Vino- 
GRADOFF, volume IL] (Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1910. Pp. 
iv, 96; 219.) 

The two papers included in this second volume of the scholarly series 
edited by Professor Vinogradoff refer to a period that lies midway 
between the two essays in the earlier volume. One of those papers con- 
cerned itself with the later Roman Empire, the other with the eve of the 
Reformation. These belong in the Middle Ages proper. They are on 
closely allied topics. Although one purports to be a description of certain 
types of rural organization in northern England, the other an explanation 
of various customary rents paid by tenants, they reduce themselves alike 
to studies in the terminology used in the records of medieval manors. 

Such studies are very laborious to the writer, but most useful to other 
students. They require minute and prolonged investigation, skill in 
analysis and comparison, and a sustained enthusiasm to carry through 
what must at best be a meagrely rewarded task. And yet such accurate 
studies lie at the basis of all subsequent constructive work, if the work 
is to be solidly founded. It was the great distinction of the late Professor 
Maitland that he performed both functions with equal effectiveness. It 
can hardly be considered derogatory to Mr. Stenton to say that he does 
not show a skill in presentation or a power of imagination that gives his 
work great constructive value, and that it must be estimated on the 
basis of its contribution to our knowledge of detailed facts. 

The " Danelaw " to which he refers is the six mocjern counties of 
York, Lincoln, Nottingham, Derby, Leicester, and Rutland. In this 
region the author makes a careful study of the meaning and connota- 
tions of the terms, " berewick " and " soke ", as used in Domesday and 

Stenton and Neilson : Manorial Structure 803 

other early documents, and finds marked differences from the social con- 
ditions characteristic of other parts of England. The classes of men and 
their duties, as described in the Rectitudines, for instance, which prob- 
ably refers to southern England, bear no real or close correspondence to 
what is found in the Danelaw. The second part of Mr. Stenton's essay 
is devoted more particularly to the meaning of the word " manor " itself 
as used in his district, or in varying senses in different parts of his 
district, and there is much of suggestive interest in his analysis, though 
it can hardly be even summarized here. In their bearing on the greater 
problems of early English history, Mr. Stenton's researches seem, to the 
reviewer at least, clearly to look toward the greater rather than the less 
freedom of the peasantry in earlier times ; and to minimize the influence 
of the Norman conquest, except as it hastened and somewhat modified 
changes already in progress. 

No living student probably is better fitted to compile a glossary of 
manorial terms such as forms the second paper in this volume than 
Miss Neilson. Her former studies of the manors of Ramsey Abbey, and 
others, were marked by insight and power of comparison, as well as 
tireless industry, and this enumeration of various kinds of customary 
" rents " paid by medieval manorial tenants shows the same qualities, and 
is drawn from an astonishingly large group of sources, printed and 
manuscript. The word " rents " as applied to these varied payments, 
however convenient, seems to us unwise The modern suggestion of 
that word is entirely different, laying stress rather on simplicity than on 
diversity of payment ; nor as a medieval term has it that recognized tech- 
nical meaning. The almost infinite variety of manorial payments can- 
not, as this essay proves, be simplified by applying a single name to 
them. Apart from this general name, however, we have in this list 
the first extended, inclusive, and authoritative classification and defini- 
tion of these terms, and it will be of the greatest service in manorial 
study. Some six or seven hundred such terms are defined, or at least 
discussed. Many of these innumerable forms of " silver ", " penny ", 
" gavel ", " Scot ", " bote ", and " geld " are doubtless the same payments 
under different names, but even with this deduction their number and 
variety are striking. Miss Neilson, in addition to defining them as far 
as possible as they are used in contemporary documents, has introduced 
some degree of simplicity into the mass by classifying them according 
to their origin, as payments made primarily to the landlord, to the king 
and the Church, and subordinately to this, according as they arose from 
the agricultural duties, the servile status, the duties of purveyance, 
church responsibility, piety, contract, or other source. As a result there 
are few aspects of the life of a medieval peasant that do not come 
under review as a result of this enumeration. 

E. P. Cheyney. 

AM. HIST. REV., VOL. XVI. — 52.