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8 1 4 Reviews of Books 

Annals of a Yorkshire House, from the Papers of a Macaroni and 
his Kindred. In two volumes. By A. M. W. Stirling. (Lon- 
don and New York: John Lane Company. 191 1. Pp. xviii, 
361 ; viii, 365.) 

The present work is based upon papers left by Ann Spencer Stan- 
hope, including notably the letters and journal of her son, Walter Spen- 
cer Stanhope, and other papers of the Spencer and Stanhope families. 
With this material in hand, John Stanhope prepared, a half century 
ago, the rough draft of a memoir which was never completed. Mrs. 
Stirling has taken the Memoir and what is left of the papers and pre- 
pared the two volumes now published. The book opens with a chapter 
on the legend connected with Cannon Hall, which takes us back to 
the Middle Ages. The four following chapters trace the early history 
of the families of Spencer and Stanhope to the middle of the eighteenth 
century ; particularly interesting are the chapters dealing with " the old 
Lawyer ", John of Horsforth, and John of Cannon Hall, known always 
as " Squire Spencer ". The rest of the work has as its main theme the 
man who inherited both properties and effectually united the two fam- 
ilies, Walter Spencer Stanhope, " the Macaroni, the youth about town, 
the member of Parliament during forty years, the friend of so many 
of the celebrated men of the eighteenth century ". Mrs. Stirling is 
very discursive, however, and Stanhope is rather the excuse for the 
narrative than its substance. We are hardly presented, indeed, with as 
vivid a portrait of the shrewd, cool, fastidious, somewhat calculating, 
yet eminently courageous and independent squire-statesman as we might 
reasonably expect from the author's able pen. And then we are told 
rather than convinced that Stanhope's political influence was of a first- 
rate order : it is difficult to think that the fate of the empire, or even of 
the Coalition, depended upon his stand on the Yorkshire Address (II. 

183). 

The book is most valuable, not in presenting us with a life of Stan- 
hope, but in the many excellent pictures it gives us of eighteenth-century 
political and social life in country and town. In the chapter on the 
Tyrant of the North, for example, we see the inside of that social and 
political system which enabled the eccentric Sir James Lowther to domi- 
nate Westmoreland County for so many years, the machinery by which 
he set up and tumbled over his " Nine Pins " being very clearly revealed. 
Likewise, in chapter xv., there is an excellent account of the campaign 
in Yorkshire against the Coalition which resulted in the return of Wil- 
berforce for York. There is much in the book for the historian of 
manners and customs : open hospitality, the spinnet, fancy-work, hunting, 
and hard drinking in the country, and in the town the social whirl, ex- 
clusive clubs, gambling and hard drinking — we do not grow tired of 
these familiar pictures. The narrative is spiced with well-told anec- 
dotes, old and new, about famous people : Pitt, Fox, Burke, Johnson, and 
the solemn Michael Angelo ("Law-Chick") Taylor. The incident of 



Mathieson : The Awakening of Scotland 815 

Stanhope braving a mob and depriving it of its legal right of bull-baiting, 
and the picture of old John of Horsforth laying his cane over the back 
of every idler he met are especially instructive in correcting the tradi- 
tional idea of England as the country where every man's liberty was 
guaranteed by a " rule of law ". Though hardly so valuable a work as 
the author's Coke of Norfolk, the book is a welcome addition to the 
literature of English history; doubtless it might have been shortened 
to one volume without much loss, but after all a leisurely pace and a 
dilettante air reflect the spirit of the eighteenth century better than a 
more business-like tone would have done. The book is excellently 
made and contains many portraits and illustrations. Grange should cer- 
tainly read Orange at page 126 of volume II. 

Carl Becker. 

The Awakening of Scotland: a History from IJ47 to IJ97. By 
William Law Mathieson. (Glasgow: James MacLehose and 
Sons. 1910. Pp. xiv, 303.) 

The present volume is one of a series of three works by the same 
author, and those whose expectations have been raised by the reading 
of the previous two will not, in our opinion, find themselves disappointed 
when they come to read the third. In taking up the period from 1747 to 
1797, the author has fixed upon a section of Scottish history from which 
the fire and movement of covenanting times are passed away — which 
has lost the element of romance implied in a " Fifteen " or a " Forty- 
five ". Yet, while the element of romantic adventure has disappeared, 
it is no uninteresting story that Mr. Mathieson has to tell of what we 
might call the Scottish Renascence, when the rise of a literature not 
unworthy to take rank with the best went hand-in-hand with growing 
political wisdom, growing freedom and depth of thought, growing mate- 
rial prosperity, and growing enterprise, to start Scotland along the path 
on which during the last century and a half she has travelled so far. 
And just as the author in each of his previous works has risen to the 
greatness of his subject, so in this also he has not fallen short. The 
chapters on the political development of Scotland are characterized by 
an intimate and detailed knowledge of the subject, and though in some 
places one might pass the criticism that it is difficult to see the wood 
for the trees, yet the mass of facts is traversed by bold and illuminating 
generalizations, which bring the details into line, and enlivened by 
flashes of humor which prevent the work from ever turning wearisome. 

It would be difficult to praise too highly the chapters on the ecclesias- 
tical history of the period — the sketch of the struggle between the 
Moderate and Popular parties is exceedingly well done. The author 
never rises to heights of eloquence, indeed — perhaps a subject of the 
kind does not readily lend itself to such eloquence — but in this part of the 
volume his style is so thoroughly clear, his mastery of the facts is so 
complete, his narrative runs so easily, and his satire is so delightful