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FOSTER 



187 



long as this is for the same reason that a 
ten year old boy reads more stories than 
a baby. Intellectual youth is at least an 
advance over mental infancy so long as it 
is first childhood — not second. It is un- 
doubtedly our duty, as it is our pleasure, 
to help these people to grow, but we cannot 
force them, and should not try. Complete 
growth may take several generations. And 
even when full stature has been obtained, 
literature in its narrative modes, though 
not so exclusively as now, will still be 
loved and read. Romance will always serve 
as the desert in the feast of reason — and 
we should recollect that sugar is now 
highly regarded as a food. It is a pro- 
ducer of energy in easily available form, 
and, thinking on some such novels as 
"Uncle Tom," "Die Waffen nieder" and 
shall we say "The jungle"? we realize that 
this thing is a parable, which the desplser 
of fiction may well read as he runs. 

The PRESIDENT then resumed the 
Chair, and there was read a paper by Mr 
W. E. POSTER, of the Providence public 
library, on 

SOME BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON 
HISTORICAL COMPOSITION 

The following memoranda constitute a 
selection from notes which have been ac- 
cumulating in the course of several years 
of reference work, in connection with 
inquiries of historical students, and it has 
been thought that they may be of some 
service to other librarians. 

As a necessary preliminary to such a 
series of notes, some more general refer- 
ences should be cited. First of all, should 
be consulted the very useful list prepared 
by the Secretary of the American Library 
Association, James Ingersoll Wyer, Jr., en- 
titled "Bibliography of the study and 
teaching of history." This was published 
in the "Annual report" of the American 
historical association for 1899, v. 1, p. 559- 
612. This very comprehensive bibliog- 
raphy is carefully classified and intelli- 
gently annotated. There are a few earlier 
and less comprehensive lists, including the 



references comprised at p. v-vii of Dr G. 
Stanley Hall's "Methods of teaching his- 
tory," (ed. 1886). Also those in Dr Will- 
iam Preston Johnston's paper on "Defini- 
tions of history," in the "Annual report" 
of the American historical association for 
1895, p. 45-53. There are also extended 
enumerations of writers who have defined 
history, (with characterizations of their 
point of view), in Dr Robert Flint's "His- 
tory of the philosophy of history," pt. 1, 
p. 8-12, New York: C. Scribner's sons, 
1894. When Lord Acton delivered his in- 
augural address at the University of Cam- 
bridge in 1895, as Regius Professor of 
modern history, his work was based 
largely on a comparative study of different 
points of view in history. These refer- 
ences are embodied in the more than one 
hundred citations, in the "Notes" ap- 
pended to his lecture as published, ("The 
study of history," p. 75-142, London: Mac- 
millan & co. 1895). Somewhat extended 
references are also found at the begin- 
ning of a paper by the present writer, on 
"The point of view in history," printed in 
the "Proceedings" of the American anti- 
quarian society, April 25, 1906, new series, 
v. 17, p. 349-52. This paper has also been 
separately published, (Worcester, Mass., 
1906), and the present paper is largely 
based on it. 

There is also a somewhat recent volume, 
of much interest and significance, on the 
teaching of history, written by nine Eng- 
lish teachers of history. These writers — 
mainly Oxford and Cambridge men — in- 
clude so eminent names as those of Mait- 
land, Poole, Cunningham, and Ashley. The 
work was projected by the late Lord 
Acton, and was published one year before 
his death in 1902. ("Essays on the teaching 
of history," edited by W. A. J. Archbold, 
Cambridge: University press, 1901. ) With- 
in recent years also, those who have oc- 
cupied important chairs of history, both in 
this country and in Great Britain, have 
published their views on the subject with 
more or less fullness. The inaugural ad- 
dresses of the men who have occupied the 
chair of Regius Professor of history, at 



188 



ASHEVILLE CONFERENCE 



Oxford and at Cambridge, have almost in- 
variably been of commanding interest, (in- 
cluding in the last sixty years, those of 
Vaughan, Goldwin Smith, Stubbs, Freeman, 
and Firth, at Oxford; and Kingsley, See- 
ley, Lord Acton, and J. B. Bury, at Cam- 
bridge). The entries of these inaugural ad- 
dresses, and also of the annual addresses 
before the American historical association, 
1884-1905, will be found at p. 363-66 of the 
paper on "The point of view in history," 
by the present writer, already cited above. 
Besides including the precise dates, these 
enumerations include the full entries of the 
addresses, including such titles as "The 
office of the historical professor," i "A 
plea for the historical teaching of his- 
tory," 2 "The function of the historian as 
a judge of historic persons," 3 "Subordina- 
tion in historical treatment," i etc. 

Since an address of less than an hour in 
duration can at best be only a bird's-eye 
view of the subject, though more effective, 
indeed, through its inevitable condensation 
— it is not strange that there have ap- 
peared from time to time extended treatises 
which aim to cover the ground in a com- 
prehensive and systematic fashion. In 
1868 the German historian, Droysen, is- 
sued the first edition of his "Grundriss der 
Historik." This vauable work has been 
translated into English, by Dr E. Benja- 
min Andrews, under the title of "Outline 
of the principles of history," Boston: Ginn 
& co. 1893. In 1889 appeared a compre- 
hensive treatise by Ernst Bernheim, enti- 
tled "Lehrbuch der historischen Methode, 
mit Nachweis der wichtigsten Quellen und 
Hiilfsmittel zum Studium der Geschichte," 
published at Leipzig, by Duncker (2d edi- 
tion in 1894). An invaluable work— and 
one which is even now the best accessible 
treatise of its kind — appeared in 1898, 
namely, "Introduction aux etudes his- 
toriques," by C. V. Langlois and C. Seigno- 
bos, Paris: Hachette et Cie. An excellent 
translation into English, by G. G. Berry, 
appeared the same year, under the title 
of "Introduction to the study of history," 



IE. A. Freeman. 2 C. H. Firth. 3 Q. P. 
Fisher. 4 A. T. M&han. 



New York: H. Holt & co. This English 
translation, moreover, has a preface of 
much value and suggestiveness, by the late 
Regius Professor of modern history at Ox- 
ford, Frederick York Powell. Still more 
recently there has been published "Die 
Wertschatzung in der Geschichte; eine 
kritische Untersuchung," by Arvid Gro- 
tenfelt, Leipzig: Veit & CO., 1903. The 
author (who writes in German), is a mem- 
ber of the faculty of the University of Hel- 
singfors, in Finland. In one of his chap- 
ters the historical method and point of 
view of Ranke, Lamprecht and other mod- 
ern historians are examined. 

Such an examination as this, of the point 
of view of individual historians, can sel- 
dom fail to be profitable; and references of 
this kind, in connection with Carlyle, l 
Macaulay, 2 Froude, s Freeman, * Gardi- 
ner, 5 and other Nineteenth century English 
historians, will be found in the paper on 
"The point of view in history," by the pres- 
ent writer, and need not be repeated here. 
One or two somewhat recent contributions 
to the discussion of the subject, however, 
may be of interest. Some of these relate 
to the ever-recurring question, "literary" 
or "scientific"? The inaugural lecture at 
the University of Cambridge, in 1903, by 
Professor J. B. Bury, the present Regius 
Professor of modern history, was an ex- 
treme presentation of the doctrine, "that 
history is a science, no less and no more," 
("Inaugural lecture," Cambridge: Univer- 
sity press, 1903, p. 7.) Its positions have 
been controverted with much skill, by sev- 
eral other writers, as follows: "The latest 
view of history," by an English historical 
writer, George Macaulay Trevelyan, in the 
"Independent review," (London, 1903), re- 
printed in the "Living age" (Jan. 23) 1904. 
v. 240, p. 193-205. Also in the "Harvard 
lectures on Greek subjects," by Professor 
Samuel Henry Butcher, of the University of 
Cambridge, London: Macmillan & co. 1904, 
p. 251-52. Also in the article by C. Litton 
Falkiner, on "Literature and history," in 



1 "The point of view in history" (foot-notes), 
p. 392, 397. 2 Same, p. 375-76. 3 Same, p. 
376-79. 4 Same, 379, 413-14. 5 Same, p. 392. 



POSTER 



189 



the "Monthly review" (London, 1904), re- 
printed in the "Living age" (June 4) 1904, 
v. 241, p. 621-28. See also a very trenchant 
article in the "New York Evening post," 
Dec. 19, 1903. A middle ground is convinc- 
ingly advocated by Professor Charles Hard- 
ing Firth, the present Regius Professor of 
modern history at the University of Ox- 
ford, in his inaugural address, ("A plea for 
the historical teaching of history," Oxford, 
Clarendon press, 1905, p. 8). 

Mr Firth's predecessor, Frederick York 
Powell, was a strong upholder of the 
"scientific" view. His inaugural lecture, 
(delivered in 1894), is not accessible as a 
whole, in print, but his position on the 
subjects is made very plain, in the collec- 
tion of his writings, reprinted in the re- 
cent memoir of his life, by Oliver Elton. 
(Oxford: Clarendon press, 1906, 2 v.) There 
is a very illuminating study of Frederick 
York Powell's views, by Professor H. 
Morse Stephens, published as a review of 
Mr Elton's work, in the "American his- 
torical review" (April, 1907) v. 12, p. 648- 
52. Other noteworthy reviews of this work 
are to be found in the "Nation" (April 4, 
1907) v. 84, p. 311-12, and the "Athenaeum" 
(London), Dec. 29, 1906. 

Although no formal treatise on the sub- 
ject came from the hands of the great Ger- 
man historian, Ranke, few writers have 
so profoundly influenced writers of history 
everywhere. His dictum, "I will speak 
only of the thing as it actually was" (Ich 
will nur sagen wie es eigentlich gewesen 
1st"), is widely known, as is also that of 
Lord Acton, in advocating a position of 
complete "detachment," in historical treat- 
ment. Elsewhere in this same lecture of 
Lord Acton's, ("Lecture on the study of 
history," London: Macmillan & co., 1895, p. 
51), be commends in Ranke what Michelet 
calls "le desinteressement des morts." 
Ranke's insistence on the avoidance of a 
"subjective" treatment is also admirably 
outlined by his pupil, Dr H. von Sybel, in 
an article in the "Historische Zeitschrift." 
v. 56 (1886), p. 474. 

Yet, influential as has been the influence 
of Ranke among the historical writers of 



all countries, it seems plain that it did not 
sufficiently recognize the bearing upon his- 
torical methods, of the doctrine of evolu- 
tion. Indeed, it is precisely here, where 
Ranke failed of being so thorough-going 
as the conditions demanded, that Lam- 
precht has gained a wider recognition. 
Consequently, the revolution which has 
been going on during the last quarter 
century in Germany, as to historical 
method, has come to be, in large part, a 
conflict between the ideas of Ranke and 
those of Lamprecht. This conflict is well 
depicted by Mr Earle W. Dow (in an arti- 
cle entitled "Features of the new history," 
in the "American historical review," 
April, 1898, v. 3, 448), who maintains 
that the new historical point of view asks 
not "Wie ist es eigentlich gewesen?" (as 
Ranke did), but rather "Wie ist es eigent- 
lich geworden?" Still further light on the 
commanding influence of Lamprecht on re- 
cent historical discussion in Germany may 
be had from W. E. Dodd's article, "Karl 
Lamprecht and Kulturgeschichte," in the 
"Popular science monthly" (Sept. 1903) v. 
63, p. 418-24. See also the reviews of Lam- 
precht's "Deutsche Geschichte," by James 
Tait, in the "English historical review" 
-July, 1S92) v. 7, p. 547-50, and (Oct. 1893) 
v. 8, p. 748-50; and by Dr Camillo von 
Klenze, in the "American historical re- 
view" (April, 1907) v. 12, p. 633-36. Lam- 
precht's recent volume, ("Moderne 
Gschichtswissenschaft," Freiburg in Breis- 
gau: H. Heyfelder, 1905), is translated into 
English by E. A. Andrews, under the title, 
"What is history? Five lectures on the 
modern science of history," New York: 
Macmillan co., 1905. This suggestive vol- 
ume, in which Lamprecht not only asks 
the question, but replies by pronouncing it 
"applied psychology," (p. 29), is reviewed 
(by "A. G.") in the "English historical re- 
view" (July, 1905) v. 20, p. 604, and by 
Dr A. C. Tilton, in the "American histori- 
cal review" (Oct., 1905) v. 11, p. 119-21. 

As already stated, the foregoing references 
are by no means intended to be exhaus- 
tive, but a selection only, from the mass of 
material to which the publications cited at 



190 



ASHEVILLE CONFERENCE 



the beginning of this paper will supply a 
clue. 

Mr W. C. LANE then presented the 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON 
RESOLUTIONS 

Ladies and gentlemen, the Committee on 
resolutions has two resolutions which have 
been referred to it from the floor, and it 
has other resolutions of its own to present 
in regard to the kindness which we have 
received at Asheville. The first resolu- 
tion referred to the Committee relates to 
copyright. The Committee has taken the 
liberty of re-wording this, and expects that, 
in its present form, it will be acceptable to 
all members of the Association, and will 
constitute a true expression of their opin- 
ion in regard to the present condition of 
the copyright bill. 

A bill having lately been reported to 
Congress which amends and codifies the 
existing law with respect to Copyright — 
a subject of vital concern to all members 
of this Association, 

Resolved, that the members of the Ameri- 
can Library Association here present ex- 
press their approval of the provisions of 
the Copyright Bill in its present form so 
far as these provisions affect the interests 
of libraries, 

Resolved, that they record their thanks, 
(1) to the Committee appointed by the 
Executive board which represented the 
Association before the Copyright confer- 
ence and prevented the inclusion in the 
first draft of the bill of unfavorable re- 
strictions; (2) to the Library copyright 
league which took up the work at the point 
reached by the Committee, and in the hear- 
ings before the Joint Committee of Con- 
gress and by public discussion helped to 
make plain the justice of granting still 
greater freedom to libraries in the impor- 
tation of books, and contributed to secur- 
ing the provisions at present embodied in 
the Copyright Bill. 

Adopted. 

Mr LANE: We have all been pleased 
to hear good news from our old friend and 
senior ex-President, Mr P. M. Crunden, of 
St Louis. The Committee desires to find 
a means of sending Mr Crunden our good 
wishes. It therefore presents the follow- 
ing: 



The American Library Association in 
session at Asheville, N. C, 500 strong, 
sends cordial greetings to its senior ex- 
president, with assurances of keen grati- 
fication at the continued news of return- 
ing health, and expresses the hope for his 
speedy and complete recovery. 

Adopted unanimously by rising vote. 

Mr LANE: It is one of the pleasant 
duties at the close of a conference to say 
"Thank you" to those who have been hos- 
pitable and kind to us. Your Committee 
on Resolutions therefore proposes that the 
thanks of the Association be recorded in 
the following form: 

The American Library Association at 
the close of the Asheville conference of 
1907, desires to express its most hearty 
thanks for all the hospitality it has re- 
ceived, and its appreciation of the kind 
welcome that has been accorded to it. 

It would especially record the courtesies 
and attentions extended to it by its hosts, 
both official and private: — 

The Asheville library association 

The North Carolina library association 
and its cordial President, Mrs Annie Smith 
Ross 

The Asheville board of trade and Mr 
W. F. Randolph, its Secretary 

The City of Asheville as represented by 
Judge J. C. Pritchard 

The State of North Carolina in the per- 
son of the Lieut. Governor, the Hon. F. T. 
Winston 

Mrs A. C. Bartlett 
and the proprietor and guests of the Manor 
Hotel whose hospitable receptions were 
greatly enjoyed by the many who attended 
them. 

It would also thank all those citizens 
who have manifested their good will by 
contributing to the comfort and pleasure 
of the Association. 

It cordially thanks the Asheville electric 
company for having afforded many mem- 
bers a most enjoyable glimpse of the de- 
lightful surroundings of Asheville. 

Nor does it forget the admirable reports 
of the sessions and meetings of the Con- 
ference supplied by the local press, by 
the "Asheville Citizen" in particular. 

To Professor W. P. Trent, of Columbia 
university, the Association owes a debt of 
gratitude for his kindness in delivering a 
most scholarly and suggestive address, as 
it does also to Miss Mary E. Wood, libra- 
rian of Boone college, Wuchang, China, 
for her interesting description of library 
work in that distant region.