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Professor Merriam's work is always careful, thoughtful, suggestive. 
and his edition of Herodotos {Books VI and VII, Harpers), though not 
elaborated with so much love as his Pkaeacians (see A. J. P. I, p. 468), is 
worthy of special note as a real contribution to the study of his author. 
The grammatical observations are especially valuable, and show minute 
knowledge of the whole field. Much is due to his personal research ; how 
much does not always appear, as his plan has precluded his giving credit to 
others, but as lie has made exceptions here and there, it would have been 
as well if he had referred the statement in regard to the articular infinitive 
in Herodotos to Dr. Allinson, who was at the pains of making the count 
(Trans. Am. Phil. Assoc. 1878, p. 14). The exact statistic is not at hand, 
but one of my students made an examination as to the use of the third 
attributive position in Lucian, which led me to modify my statement in 
Justin Martyr, Apol. I, c. 6, 7. Professor Merriam's note (VI 22, 3), 
coincides with my original impression. This is not the place to discuss the 
troublesome question of 'coincident action' in the participle, to which 
Professor Merriam comes back, and it must suffice to remark simply that in 
practice it would be better to keep those sentences in which the actions 
coincide, as with (j>Hdvo>, rvyx&vo, and the like apart from those in which the 
participle represents the object of sensation, as after anova, 600. The failure 
to do this has obscured the results of his acute observation (comp. VI 29, 11 
and 129, 21). Cobet accuses Herodotos of a lax use of the imperfect, a point 
that it would have been well to meet more fully than Professor Merriam has 
done; but each man maps out his grammatical work in his own way, and 
Professor Merriam has given us so much that is valuable that one is not 
disposed to quarrel about minor matters. Of especial interest are the 
rhetorical notes, in which good use has been made of the Greek rhetoricians, 
who have until lately been too much neglected. Perhaps, however, it would 
have been well to warn young students by putting pseudo- before Longinus. 
The judicious use of epigraphic evidence is also to be noticed as a good 
feature. Of translation Professor Merriam has been somewhat too chary, 
considering the stage at which Herodotos is taken up, and the commentary 
is so good that we wish there were more of it. The proof-reading seems to 
be even better than in the White and Seymour series ; at least a fairly 
careful reading of the notes has only revealed trifles that correct themselves. 
Here and there the references are not fortunate, but on the whole a better 
edition within the limits is seldom found, and those limits are not made, as 
is so often the case, to exclude all that is original, penetrating, suggestive. 

This number was nearly made up before the reception of Professor 
HObner's monumental work (Exempla Scripturae Epigraphicae Latinae a 
Caesar is Dictator is Morte ad aetatem Iustiniani. Consilio et auc tori tat e A cade- 


miae Litterarum Regiae Borussicae. Edidit Aemilius Huebner. Corporis 
Inscriptionum Latinarum Auctarium. Berolini : apud Georgium Reimerum 
MDCCCLXXXV), and a fuller notice must be reserved. In the Prolegomena 
(pp. i-lxxxiv) the story of the book is told and its plan unfolded. It is a record 
of wonderful energy and zeal, and a masterly exhibit of unique attainments 
in the forms of Latin epigraphy. The vast material had never been 
handled before in this way. The rude woodcuts of the earlier time, the 
seductive but inaccurate copperplates of a subsequent period, only gave 
sporadic specimens, and it was not until Ritschl called emphatic attention 
to the importance of epigraphic palaeography that the study had its new 
birth. Those who were students at Bonn in 1852-3 will remember the 
lively interest excited by the epigraphic programmes published at that 
time, especially by the paper on the noted inscription of the Duellian 
Columna Rostrata, with its admirable lithographic illustration. It was 
from Ritschl that Professor Hubner caught his enthusiasm for epigraphic 
studies, and this volume, beginning as it does with Caesar's death, is the 
sequel of the Priscae Latinitatis Monumenta Epigraphica. In the prole- 
gomena we read of the museums that were ransacked, of the technical 
difficulties that had to be overcome, the weather-worn stones that resisted 
the seductions of the squeeze, the high-perched monuments that could not 
be reached by ladders. The editor has an army of obliging friends — and 
no man deserves them better — without whose active assistance the work 
could not have been accomplished. But to so thorough an expert the denial 
of personal vision at any point must have been painful. The questions of 
detail to be solved were numberless. What was to be renounced in con- 
formity with any reasonable economy ? What was to be secured at all 
hazards ? To all such questions Professor Hubner makes us parties, and 
thus gives a personal interest to his work and enlists our sympathies while 
adding to our knowledge. The drawings were made in outline after 
squeezes, and when squeezes failed, after photographs, and then reproduced 
by phototypography. The scale of the drawing is carefully indicated in 
every instance, and though it has been found necessary in long inscriptions 
to give only specimen lines, the whole inscription is transliterated in full 
below, for the pedantry which would make the use of such a book difficult for 
the beginner is foreign to a man of Professor Hubner's wide sympathies. 
Besides, even the most experienced epigrapher would like to be spared the 
trouble of hunting up the full text through the long series of the CIL. 
The chapters on the various branches of epigraphy, the artisan and his tools, 
the blunders of the cutters and the blending of styles, are followed by what 
is technically of the very highest importance — an exhaustive treatment of 
the forms of the letters, in the discernment of which Professor Hubner's 
skill and experience give him conclusive authority. But only an epigrapher 
can justly measure the work of an epigrapher, and it would be a mistake 
to anticipate the detailed review. It is becoming more and more evident 
year by year that American scholars are not content to leave this field 
entirely to their European colleagues, and though nothing can be a substitute 
for immediateness of vision, still what can be done should be done, and 


such a work as Professor Hiibner's brings antiquity much nearer to every 
one of us. 

Professor Wilkins's edition of the Epistles of Horace (Macmillan & 
Co., 1885) shows familiarity with the ' literature,' which is nowadays an 
indispensable recommendation, and brings into the student's sphere many 
much needed corrections of vague or mistaken notions as to orthography, 
etymology and construction. The more simple phenomena are solved by 
reference to Roby's Grammar, which enjoys an extraordinary authority in 
England, and to the P. S. G., which darkens counsel by terminology. In 
more difficult questions the teacher or advanced scholar is brought into 
contact with more special works, and is thus led to acquire a larger know- 
ledge of what has been done than is always comfortable to a certain order of 
minds. The text is conservative, but Dr. Wilkins is by no means 
superstitious in his conservatism, and adheres to the tradition only because 
he cannot put faith in the emendations that have been proposed, and the 
reasons for the unfaith that is in him he knows how to give clearly and 
cogently. The revision of the current parallels, which he has undertaken, 
is much needed everywhere ; and as the difficulty in commenting on Horace 
is to omit, no one will complain that the familiar hederae sequaces of Pers. 
Prol. 6 is missing at Ep. 1, 3, 25. If it was needful to mention river gods 
at Ep. 2, 1, 193, then Verg. Georg. 3, 29, or Ovid, A. A. 1, 223 would have been a 
little nearer than the passages actually cited. Perhaps the well-worn dimidium 
facti qui coepit habet (1, 2, 40) might have been lighted up a little by Auson. 
Epigr. 83 : Incipe : dimidium facti est coepisse ; superfit | dimidium : rursum 
hoc incipe et efficies. There are some indications that the commentary was 
committed to the printer as it was prepared. So notes are repeated, as 1, 2, 
46 and 1, 17, 36, and the same subject is treated with different degrees of ful- 
ness, as on 1, 1, 6 and 1, 18, 66, comp. also 1, 1, 13, and 1, 18, 58. The eight- 
page index does not give even an approximate notion of the value of the 
commentary. — Dr. Wilkins has naturally much to say about Keller, and 
every one will welcome the appearance of Keller's convenient text -edition 
of Horace (Q. H. F. opera edd. O. Keller et I. HAussner, Leipzig, Freytag, 
1885). In the Praefatio the critical principles of the famous Epilegomena 
are insisted on. The type is beautifully clear. The text is preceded by 
a conspectus metrorum which follows the traditional system, and by passages 
from the Greek poets, which Horace is known or is supposed to have 
imitated. If we only had more ! The retranslation into Greek explains many 
Horatian problems. — Mr. Verrall's remarkable Studies in Horace, a book 
which has engaged the attention of all Horatian scholars, will receive 
examination in an early number of this Journal. 

Dr. Holden's edition of Plutarch's Gracchi (Cambridge, University 
Press, 1885) has all the excellences that mark the work of this unwearied 
scholar. He has chosen these two lives because of the momentous problems 
involved, and because Plutarch, as he thinks, is seen here at his best. An 


elaborate introduction enables the student to understand the movement of 
the times, and the commentary and lexical index provide everything that can 
be reasonably desired for the elucidation of the text and the guidance of 
the young Grecian through the peculiarities of Plutarch's grammar and 
vocabulary. Goodwin is the standard of reference, but Hadley-Allen is 
also cited at times with advantage. The mechanical execution is beautiful, 
as is to be expected of the Pitt Press, but middle-aged eyes rebel against 
so much nonpareil Greek, and the proof-reader has evidently himself grown 
weary at times. So in the Greek of p. 61, which was taken at random as a 
specimen, there are from ten to a dozen misprints in accentuation and 
spelling. Further examination shows that the specimen is no specimen, but a 
' sport,' and the writer of this note has learned by long and sad experience 
extreme leniency in such matters. B. L. G.