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II.-A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HISTORY OF THE 

TRANSMISSION OF CLASSICAL LITERATURE IN 

THE MIDDLE AGE, FROM OXFORD MSS. 

Auct. Rawl. 99, besides other pieces, of which I will only men- 
tion the Heroides of Ovid, contains in a handwriting of the thirteenth 
century three Latin treatises, all of them of some interest, not 
only for the study of the Middle Age and the history of Middle 
Age Latin, but as showing what Roman writers were most familiar 
at that time to the learned. All three treatises have been pub- 
lished, the second of them no less than three times, and each time 
without any knowledge of previous editors. 

The first is Alexander Neckam's de nominibus utensilium. The 
second is the ' Phale tolum ' of Adam Balsamiensis. The third is 
the Dictionarius of John de Garlande. Of this last I shall say 
nothing, as its interest is purely medieval and linguistic. It is 
printed, from a MS in the British Museum, in Thomas Wright's 
'A Volume of Vocabularies,' I, p. 121 sqq. 

Neckam's treatise is occupied with an account of the various 
implements used in the occupations of every-day life, indoors and 
out, including even the names of fishes, birds, and other animals 
used for cooking or other purposes. It has been edited by 
Wright, Vocabularies, I, pp. 96 to 119, from a Cottonian MS in 
the British Museum, Titus D. XX, with excerpts from Paris MSS 
supplied by M. Delisle ; also by Scheler, from a Brussels MS, in his 
Lexicographie Latine du XII et XIII sieclc, 1867. l There is 
another but imperfect thirteenth century copy of it in a MS in 
the library of S. John's College, Oxford, numbered 178 in Coxe's 
Catalogue. Neckam lived, according to Wright, 1157-1217. 

The substratum of the de nominibus utensilium is Isidorus' 
Origines, a manual of universal knowledge compiled in the seventh 
century, and which still waits to be edited adequately ; for the 
numerous quotations from Latin poets which it contains, no less 
than the correct spelling of the vast number of out-of-the-way 
words explained, demand a more exact collation of early MSS 

1 Republished from Jahrbuch fiir romanische und englische Literatur, Vols. 
VI, VII, VIII. 



l6o AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHILOLOGY. 

(which exist in plenty) than has yet been given to the world. 
Besides Isidorus, Neckam quotes Horace, 1 Lucan," and Juvenal ; 3 
he has also unmistakable references to the Moretum and the 
Ciris. 

1 proceed to give these in the order of the Bodleian MS, adding 
the variants from Wright's MS (W), S.John's 178 (J), and Scheler's 
Brussels codex (S). 

P. 2, in a list of delicate meats : 

turtur allecia gamarus dimidio ouo confrictus. 

Confrictus, also W. Constrictus, Paris 7679, S. 
The passage is Juv. 5, 84, 85 : 

Sed tibi dimidio constrictus cammarus ouo 
Ponitur, exigua feralis cena patella. 

The variant confrictus is interesting. No such word is given by 
Forcellini ; but confrixari seems to have been used in the sense 
of 'frying with' by Theodorus Priscianus, a medical writer of the 
fourth century. The word is glossed in the MSS by frie~. 
P. 4, in a list of birds of prey : 

nisus alietus cirri prepeti infestus. 

Circi perpeti, W and S. 

Here the superiority of the Bodl. MS is very perceptible. Alex- 
ander refers to the end of the Pseudo-Vergilian Ciris, 527 sqq. 

Illi pro pietate sua . . . 

Reddidit optatam mutato corpore uitam 

Fecitque in terris haliaeetos ales ut esset : 

Huic uero miserae, quoniam damnata deorum 

Iudicio patriaeque et coniugis ante fuisset, 

Infesti apposuit odium crudele parentis . . . 

Sic inter sese tristis haliaeetos iras 

Et ciris memori seruant ad saecula fato. 

P. 5, in a list of clothes to be worn by the dairy-woman (andro- 
chid) : 
cuius indumenta in festiuis diebus sint matronales serapeline (-pelline, W). 

This is the xerampelinas ueteres of Juv. 6, 519. The Bodl. MS 

'Amite leui, Epod. 2, 33. Non ego uentosae plebis suffragia uenor, Ep. I 

19. 37- 

2 I 503 : Naufragium sibi quisque facit. 

3 Probably nichiteria in the following passage (p. 104 in Wright's edition) 
Assint etiam stratilates quibus decertantibus statelum maneat inconcussum 
quibus uictoriam et belli finem consequentibus uictoriarum scripta utpote 
nichiteria punctis publicis non inlaudabiliter conmittantur, is from Juv. 3, 68. 



CLASSICAL LITERATURE IN THE MIDDLE AGE. l6l 

has an explanation in the margin, serapeline, i. e. seron siccum 
quia in tempore sicco uestis ilia apta est. 
P. 14, bottom: 

Habeat etiam bostar rusticus noster et presepe hoc equis illud bobus aptandum 
et si aliquantulum arideat prosperitas fortune blandientis. H(rubricated)abeat 
etiam agazonem et mulionem et in equitio equro admissarium. 

Admissarium, S. Emissarium, W, J. 

Elsewhere ' I have suggested that bostar should be restored to 
Catull. CXV 1 for instar of MSS. The MSS of Neckam gloss 
the word bouerie (Bodl.), buverie (W). In the list of farm stock 
which immediately follows, the word which W and S give from 
their MSS as cicuros (S), ciciros (W), is correctly written in the 
Bodl. codex tituros, with the gloss ex ariete et capra. I should 
not have thought this worth mentioning had not Scheler ridicu- 
lously conjectured cicures. Noticeable as a word which in classical 
Latin is only poetical (Terentianus Maurus 1958 quotes as by 
Livius Dirige odorisecos ad certa cubilia canes) is the word 
odorinsecus, glossed in the Bodl. MS brache, in S bracket, in W 
braze he. All the MSS give the n. 

P. 16: 

Postmodum a mola granum constringi et dissolui et sinceratum foraminibus 
cribri eliquari. 

Conpingi, SWJ. Et dissolui om. J. Scinceratum, SW. Eli- 
quare, SWJ. 
A very interesting reference to Moret. 40-42 : 

Transfert inde manu fessas in cribra farinas 
Et quatit : at remanent summo purgamina dorso. 
Subsidit sincera foraminibusque liquatur 
Emundata Ceres. 

P. 20, top : 

Et notandum quod porticulus dicitur malleolus quo nauta dat signum sociis 
suis unde plautus in suo carmine dicit ad loquendum et ad tacendum habeatis 
porticulum. 

Nota quod J. Malleus, S. Suis. om. S. In suo carmine om. SJ. 
Ad loquendum sume porticulum, S. In W the extract is abridged 
to Vel porticulum habe. J has unde planctus ad tacendum et ad 
loquendum porticulum habeat. 

The passage is Asin. 111, 1, 15, where the MSS of Plautus give: 
Ad loquendum atque ad tacendum tute habeas portisculum. 
Neckam, however, here draws from Isid. XIX 2, 13, where MSS 
1 In Hermathena for 1886. 



162 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHILOLOGY. 

generally (including one of the eleventh century in my own Col- 
lege Library) give Ad loquendum atque tacendum (-turn, Trin.') 
tute habes porticulum. 

It seems worth while to add here, though it has no connexion 
with Latin literature, what Wright states to be the earliest allusion 
to the mariner's compass. 

P. 1 8 in the Bodleian MS : 

Habeat etiam acum iaculo suppositam rotabitur et circumuoluetur donee cuspis 
acus orientem respiciat, et sic comprehendunt naute quo tendere habeant (the 
other MSS debeant) cum cinossura latet in aeris turbatione quamuis Stella ilia 
ad oceanum numquam tendat propter circuli sui breuitatem. 

I come to the second of the treatises contained in our MS. It 
has been three times published, as I learn from Hertz's Praefatio 
to his edition of A. Gellius, pp. xxxiv-v; by Haupt, from a 
Leipzig MS, in Berichte der Sachsischen Gesellschaft for 1 849, p. 276 
sqq. ; by Hoffmann Fallersleben (Neuwied and Koln, 1853), from 
a K61n MS ; lastly, by Scheler in the work mentioned above, from 
a MS at Bruges. 

Between the end of Neckatn's treatise and the beginning of this 
second, which, for convenience of reference, I shall call the ' Phale 
tolum,' from the two first words, is written in a small hand, which 
Mr. Merray assigns to the later thirteenth century, a short 
account of its aim. Phale tolum &c. In principio huius libelli 
potest queri que sit materia, que causa suscepti operis. quis 
titulus, et que utilitas. materia est talis sunt mea materies omnes 
(? omnis) conspectus in agris. ac inuenta domi mea sunt pharrago 
libelli. Causa suscepti operis est petitio magistri anselmi qui mul- 
tociens pro epistolarum suarum leuitate multum redarguit. titulus 
talis est. Hie incipit oratio magistri ade paruipontani. Utilitas 
est ut perlecto libro et intellecto diuersarum rerum uocabula 
extranea congnoscamus. 

The writer calls himself, in the course of the treatise (p. 279 
Haupt, p. 5 Fallersleben) Adam Balsamiensem in the accusative, 
and more exactly describes himself (p. 283 H., p. 9 F.) as natione 
anglicus, patria balsamiensis, genere beluacensis, mansione iam 
diutiore quam uoluissem parisiensis. The natural meaning of this 
is that his ancestors came from Beauvais and settled in England, 
perhaps at Balsham ' in Cambridgeshire, as Haupt suggests. He 

1 Or was he called before his sojourn in France Adam de Baume? In one 
passage (p. 4) he states that on his return from Paris one of his female relatives 
was censured by the rest quod me ut in puericia mea consueuerat adam balsame- 
ensem conpellerat (a mistake for conpellarat) nee magisterii nomen adiecerat. 
In the Bodl. MS balsameensem is superglossed i. dulcem. 



CLASSICAL LITERATURE IN THE MIDDLE AGE. 163 

studied in Paris ' twelve years (p. 279 H., 4 F.), and then returned 
to England. It is the reception he met with on his return which 
he ingeniously works up into a narrative containing all the more 
out-of-the-way words for utensils, processes, and objects of every 
kind which his reading suggested to him. Like Neckam he draws 
chiefly from Isidorus ; but occasional references may be found to 
Paulus Diaconus, Gellius, Nonius, and Priscian, from whom he 
seems to have got the word conquexerat (Haupt, p. 276). The 
Bodleian MS, as compared with either Haupt's or Fallersleben's, 
is sufficiently good to repay a careful study ; but here I shall con- 
tent myself with citing side by side the variants of these MSS, and 
a fourth, used by Scheler, in two passages where Adam has quoted 
Gellius. 

Bodl. p. 5 (fol. 152 of the collective MS). 

Post cenam artem liricines et tibicines audire iocundabamur. deerant 
autem liticines quos lituo cantare dixit iudex tesselinus in lectionum antiquarum 
conmentariis. sed etiam sciticines deerant quos apud sitos . i . sepultos canere 
dicit acteus capito in coniectaneis. 

Iudex, Bodl. FHS ; tessellius, S ; cesellius, F ; cerellius, H ; 
uindex or index cesellius, MSS of Gellius ; sitientes, H ; citos, S ; 
sytos, F ; canere solitos, F ; ateus, F ; ateius, H ; hactenus, S. 
The passage is from Gell. XX 2, where see the app. crit. of Hertz's 
new edition. 

Bodl. p. 6 : 

Deerant tela iacula gladii quorum nomina in historiis ueteribus reperiuntur. 
hec sunt soliferrea gesa (gesea, FH ; jesa, S) sparri (so S ; spari, FH) rumpni 
(rumi, FH ; ruini, S) rumpie (gestri, FHS) mensacule (so S; mesancule, FH) 
rumpie simbones (sinbones, S ; sibones, FH) uerutenses clunacula (dunacula, 
F ; climacula uel clunacula, S) ligule (lingule, FH ; lingula, S) dominacula (om. 
FHS). de quo genere nenius (meuius, H ; neuius, FS) in tragedia hesonia 
(? hesoma, as S ; hesiona, FH) dixit (om. FH ; ait, S) si nemini (si memini, H ; 
om. S) morem gerere (gerere morem, FH ; ingerere moram ut S) uidear hii me 
ligulauerunt ligula (uidear lingulauerunt me ligula, S ; uidear lingua uerum 
lingula, FH). 

This passage is from Gell. X 25. The line of Naevius is 
strangely corrupted in Bodl. and S ; probably from m of uerum 
looking like nt and then being joined to ligula. The MSS of 
Gellius agree with F and H in giving lingua uerum lingula. Hertz 
prints it thus, after Klussmann : 

[A.] Sine mi gerere morem uidear lingua. [B.] uerum lingula. 

1 Whence he was called Adam Parvipontanus (Adam du petit pont), if the 
identification found in the introduction above quoted and generally admitted 
is correct. 



164 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHILOLOGY, 

And this is certainly what the MSS most naturally suggest. But 
a negative seems imperatively demanded, as Ribbeck, following 
Sverdsioe, gives 

Ne mihi gerere morera uidear lingua, uerum lingula, 
or perhaps 

Sine mihi morem gerere uidear ligula, uerum haud lingula, 

' let me follow my will not with words, but with the sword.' 

The verse is alluded to by Varro also, L. L. VII 107 : Multa 
apud poetas reliqua esse uerfra, quorum origines possint dici, non 
dubito, ut apud Naeuium in Hesiona enimuero (so K. O. Miiller ') 
gladii lingula. This suggests another possibility : 

A. Sine mihi morem gerere uidear lingua — B. enimuero lingula, 

'with my tongue — nay rather, with my sword.' In any case (1) I 
prefer to keep Klussmann's sine mihi, (2) to place morem after 
mihi (so the Bodleian codex of the Phale tolum), on the allitera- 
tive principle by which the early poets were so greatly dominated. 

Robinson Ellis. 

1 The oldest and best MS of the de 1. latina is Laurentianus 51, to, of which 
51, 5 is probably a copy. Both give, as Dr. Anziani specially informs me, ut 
apud neuium. In esionam uero gladii lingula a lingua. K. O. Miiller thought 
that m of esionam was an error for«. the abbreviation of enim. There is, how- 
ever, much ingenuity in Groth's conj. in Hesiona, mucro gladii lingula a lingua ; 
mucro having been corrupted into m ttero.