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JSTOR helps people discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content through a powerful research and teaching platform, and preserves this content for future generations. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization that also includes Ithaka S+R and Portico. For more information about JSTOR, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org. II.— ON THE SEPARATION, BY A WORD OR WORDS, OF TO AND THE INFINITIVE MOOD. Our infinitive, where to precedes it, having been generally, of old, dativo-gerundial, it is pertinent, at the outset, to note, in con- nexion with phrases on the model of " able to thoroughly bake bread," such a phrase as " conducive to thoroughly baking bread." Bake, as here used actively, originated, by. detrition, from the gerund bacanne, which further contributed, along with a verbal substantive, towards the development, what between corruption and confusion, of the present participle baking. With reference to expressions typified by to thoroughly bake, 1 three points, constituted by their age, the extent to which they have found favour, and the motives which have led writers to em- ploy them, are successively to be examined. First, however, it is in place to exhibit a specimen or two of the remarks which they have called forth from those whose attention they have attracted. Mr. Richard Taylor wrote, in 1840:' "Some writers of the present day have a disagreeable affectation of putting an adverb between to and the infinitive." On this there is little to observe, except that Mr. Taylor, as he obviously supposed himself to be censuring a modernism, must have read the English literature of past times either sparingly or carelessly ; and that, if he had re- flected awhile, perhaps he would have discovered, at least on the part of adepts in composition, some more respectable reason than " affectation " for their sanction of the verbal arrangement which he disrelished. From the late Dean Alford I next quote a paragraph, in which, as to circumspectness, information, and logic, his philological char- acteristics are displayed much at their average. It is as follows : " A correspondent states [sic] as his own usage, and defends, the 1 " To adopt and scrupulously observe rules." " Nor to utter or even harbour resentment." It is not to be said that, in these clauses, " to " does double duty, and belongs to " scrupulously observe " and " even harbour." Rather, there is an ellipsis of to between the adverb and the verb. 2 At p. xxx of his edition of Tooke's Diversions of Purley published that year. 18 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHILOLOGY. insertion of an adverb between the sign of the infinitive mood and the verb. He gives, as an instance, ' to scientifically illustrate? But, surely, this is a practice entirely unknown to English speakers and writers. It seems to me that we ever regard the to of the infinitive as inseparable from its verb. And, when we have already a choice between two forms of expression, ' scientifically to illus- trate ' and ' to illustrate scientifically,' there seems no good reason for flying in the face of common usage." 1 In this judgment, Dean Alford distinctly lays claim to complete acquaintance with the scope and contents of a universal negative ; and it rarely happens that a pretension of this kind can confront, with safety, any but vulgar and uncritical receptiveness. The cer- titude of decanal instinct, however confidently professed, is not, forsooth, to the eye of science, so conclusive as a demonstration of Euclid. With tiresome frequency, Dean Alford has betrayed how insufficiently he was qualified, as a student of English, to arbitrate positively on a matter of usage. Nor, in the comments before us, does he simply evince his unfamiliarity with the byways of our vernacular phraseology. 2 The " practice " which he disapproves is, he says, "entirely unknown to English speakers and writers"; and, accordingly, his correspondent, unless to be counted as nobody, wrote in a foreign tongue. Besides this, we are given to understand that it is with " common usage " alone that the " en- tirely unknown " expression is at variance. Simultaneously, then, one and the same turn of speech is quite unprecedented and is merely of rare occurrence. Furthermore, that which approved itself to the Dean as an inflexible maxim, namely, that the infini- tival to is always to be succeeded immediately by its verb, must, in order to its validity, be warranted by an appeal to the absolute consensus of good usage ; but, since this consensus cannot be challenged on his behalf, the maxim falls to the ground. Probatory passages akin to those subjoined, but many genera- tions earlier than the earliest of them, are, very likely, producible. 1 A Plea for the Queen's English (2d ed. 1864), p. 188. 8 If Dean Alford had so much as been minutely conversant .with a writer whose "Works," so-called, he edited in 1839, he would have been aware that " to scientifically illustrate''' 1 is matched, in a single small volume by Dr. Donne, five times, at least, as I shall presently point out. The verb experience, of which, according to Dean Alford, "no instance . . . occurs till quite recently," is also seen at p. 165 of the same volume; and, as it was there in print in 1633, so it had then been in print for upwards of a century. TO AND THE INFINITIVE MOOD. 19 Yet it is something to be able to show that the speciality of con- struction here investigated can be traced back as far as to Wyclif's coadjutors and first disciples, if not to Wyclif himself.' " For this was gret wrikyoinesse, to this manere trete there brother, that algatis mekeli dide so grete kyndness agen ; and it was an opyn untreuthe, to this manere hate her God." Select English Works of yohn Wyclif, edited by Mr. Thomas Arnold, M. A. (1869-1871), Vol. I, p. 175. " And it hadde betre be to hem to nevere have resceyvcd Cristendom, but gif thei enden trewely in Goddis comaundementis." Ibid., Vol. Ill, p. 196. - " So oure good God byndith us not to evermoi'e trowen" etc. English Works of Wyclif hitherto Unprinted, edited by Mr. F. D. Matthew (1SS0), p. 349. "Also the popis lawe biddith men to not here the massis of prestis that ben comyn lechours." Ibid., p. 418. " To not do veniaunce," " to not obey" " to not wel assent," " to not misheros," " to not assent." An Apology for Lollard Doctrines* (Camden Society, 1842), pp. 33, 38 (two extracts), 43, 84. " Forsothe Y say to you to nat swere on al manere." " But Y say to you to not agein stonde yvel." St. Matthew, v, 34, 39, in the earlier Wyclifite trans- lation of the Bible, dating about 1389. In an anonymous romance, 4 apparently of the same age as some of the works just quoted, occurs " for to notfalle." Although, for perhaps the first half of the fifteenth century, I can bring forward nothing to my present purpose, others will, without question, intersperse the gap with numerous relevant citations. Bishop Pecock's Repressor, the probable date of which is about 1456, is thickly strewn with expressions like forto first geve, for to 1 Though not a single sentence of all that has been handed down as from the pen of Wyclif can unhesitatingly be averred to have reached us in his very words, yet many of the writings attributed to him and to his followers, and even the extant manuscripts of some of those writings, certainly belong to the fourteenth century. 2 See also ibid., Vol. I, pp. 63, 76, 171, 202, 204 ; Vol. II, pp. 256, 303, 304, 361 ; Vol. Ill, pp. 225, 264, 369, 409. In these places, freely, meekly, not, quemely (becomingly), thus, and truly are disjunctive. Here, and elsewhere in these notes, and also where only two or three words are quoted connectedly in them, the spelling is modernized. 3 It is singular that neither of the two greatest authorities on Wyclifite liter- ature, the Rev. Dr. Walter W. Shirley and Mr. Thomas Arnold, takes the least notice of this work. The opinion of the Rev. Dr. J. H. Todd, its editor, touching its authorship, deserved, at least, passing mention. For reasons why I am disposed to think that it is not to be assigned to Wyclif, see Modem English, p. 49, foot-note 3. 4 Knight of La Tour-Landry, p. 50. This work is referred, by its editor, Mr. Thomas Wright, to about A. D. 1372. 20 AMERICAN" JOURA T AL OF PHILOLOGY. so seie,' etc., etc. Three parts in four of the Repressor yield upwards of thirty such instances. Especially noteworthy, among them, are the following : " Whanne ever he takith upon him for to in neighbourli or brotherli maner cor- rcpte his Cristen neighbour or brother," etc. P. 2. " The more able, as bi that, he schal be forto perfitli, sureli, and sufficiently undirstonde Holi Scripture," etc. P. 43. " Therefore it is no nedeme forto, as here in this booke, encerche the writingis of Doctouris," etc. P. 71. " Oon maner is bi tiranrie, which is forto, in alle decdis of oz'erte, awaite and performe her owne profit oonli," etc. P. 299. In another treatise by Bishop Pecock, which may have preceded the Repressor by a few years, we find "forto so more witnesse," "forto it bileeve" "forto in it bitake"" 1 etc., etc. Not long before or after 1471, Sir John Fortescue 3 wrote : " It is not good for a kyng to oversore charge his people." For upwards of fifty years subsequently, I have, again, nothing in point to produce ; though it cannot be doubted that the authors belonging to that interval would, if examined closely, be found to afford many samples of the stamp of expression here considered. In the extracts which follow, the context of the phrases quoted will, for the most part, be copied but very briefly, where not omitted altogether. " To newe reedefy the castell." Lord Berners, Froissart (1523-152 5), Vol. I, p. 120. " To not believe it." Tyndale (1533), in Works, etc. (Parker Society), Vol. Ill, P- 234. " To flatly gainsaye." Rev. Dr. Thomas Stapleton, A Fortresse of the Faith, etc. (1565), fol. 23. " To truly performe this my will." Marie, Countess Dowager of Northumber- land (1572), in Wills and Inventories (Surtees Society), Vol. II, p. 7. " To covertly hide one flasket in the rushes." Sir John Harington (1608), in Nugae Antiquae (ed. 1804), Vol. I, p. 381. 1 Pp. 5, 25. Single words elsewhere interposed are aright, it, meekly, not, them, thereby, therein, therewith, well. Add by their power, in them, on him, so richly, the more likingly, the rather, thereby thus, wisely and duly. -A Treatise proving Scripture to be the Rule of Faith (168S), pp. 26, 34, 36. In other places, as at pp. 18, 27, etc., the single words not and so are separative. The work here named comprehends, as' printed, only about a third of the whole; and its genuine title is The Book of Faith. See the Repressor (i860), Introduction, p. xxxii, note 2, and p. lxvii. 3 Works (1869), p. 462. TO AND THE INFINITIVE MOOD. 21 " To judicially weigh," " to strongly sustaine" " to always have" " to well rule or governe," "to well rule one's selfe." Rev. Dr. John Donne (died 1631), The Auncient History of the Septuagint (ed. 1633), pp. 47, 51, 107, 127. " To but onely retume home," " to both strike and thrust" James Hayward, The Banish'd Virgin (1635), pp. 20, 101. " To injuriously oppressed Henry, Earl of Monmouth, Translation of Biondi (1641, etc.), Books I— III, p. 112. " To grosly make the Scripture like a nose of wax." Rev. John Eaton, The Honey-combe of Free justification, etc. (1642), p. 282. " To either place himself." Rev. Dr. Henry More, Conjectura Cabbalistica (1653), p. 246. " To either believe or misbelieve a thing." Id., Enthusiasmus Triumphatus (1656), p. 10 (ed. 1662). " To either excuse , complete, or," etc. Id., A Collection of Several Philosophical Writings (1662), The Preface General, p. ix. " To better regulate" Anon., The History . . . of China (1655), p. 149. " To well manage our affections." Sir Thomas Browne (died 1682), True Christian Morals, I, 24. " To fully convince myself." Samuel Pepys (1699), Diary, etc. (ed. 1875, etc.). Vol. VI, p. 197. " To first acquaint your Grace with it." Rev. Dr. Richard Bentley (1716), Works (1836, etc.), Vol. Ill, p. 479. " To utterly abandon" Rev. Myles Davies, Athenae Britannicae (1716), Vol. II. P- 345- " To just waft them over." Defoe, A New Voyage, etc. (1725), p. 152 (ed. 1840). " To occasionally throw." Miss Catherine Talbot (1752), in Miss Carter's Letters to Miss Talbot, etc., Vol. II, p. 74. " To far exceed." Edmund Burke, A Philosophical Enquiry, etc. (1756), Part III, Section VI. " To effectually stifle." Id., Works (ed. 1826), Vol. XII, p. 69. " To boldly assert." John Wilkes, The North Briton, No. XIX (1762). " To exactly resemble" Samuel Foote, The Patron (1764), Act I, Scene I. " To quite bereave one of one's wits." Charles Dibdin, The Quaker (1777), Act I, Scene I. " To even bearwith." Madame D'Arblay (1778), Diary and Letters (ed. 1842, etc.), Vol. I, p. 55. 1 " Milton was too busy to much miss his wife." Dr. Johnson, Life of Milton (1779)- " To completely remove your fears." Frederic Pilon, He Would be a Soldier (1786), Act V, Scene I. 1 No writer that I know of is so fond as Madame D'Arblay of the sort of disjunction for which she is here adduced. But a single quotation must answer as a specimen of the scores furnished by her Diary and Letters, novels, and Life of her father. Among her intercalations, as in " to even bear with," are absolutely, again, as little, both, constantly, coolly, entirely, frequently, instantly, quietly, quite, really, sometimes, thus, wholly. 22 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHILOLOGY. " To directly advance." Mr. Hammond (1787), in Olla Podrida, No. 34. " To fully believe." Robert Southey (1801), in Life and Correspondence, Vol. II, p. 156. " To entirely subside." S. T. Coleridge (1802), in Essays on His Own Times (1S50), p. 5S7. " To clean wife me out." Charles Lamb (1827?), in Letters (1837), Vol. II, p. 211. " To sharply cliaracterize" William Taylor, Historic Survey of German Poetry (iS 3 o),Vol. Ill, p. 378. •' To not unfreatiently make excursions," "to still furthei' limit the hours." William Wordsworth (1843), Prose Works, etc. (1876), Vol. Ill, pp. 205, 209. " In order to fully appreciate* the character of Lord Holland," etc. Lord Macaulay, Critical and Historical Essays (1843), Vol. Ill, p. 315. " To of ten furnish" Mr. Thomas De Quincey (1850), Works (ed. 1862, etc.), Vol. XVI, p. 120. " To justly estimate." Mr. Herbert Spencer, Social Statics (1851), p. 124. " To first imperfectly conceive" " to perpetually repeat" " to positively assert" Id., Essays, etc., Vol. 1 (1858), p. 242 ; Vol. II (1863), p. 203 ; Vol. Ill (1874), F- 2 57- " To rigorously criticize," " to openly reassert." Bp. C. J. Ellicott, in Cambridge Essays (1856), pp. 158, 178. " To actually mention." Mr. Matthew Arnold, On Translating Homer (1S61), p. 72. " To somewhat abate" " to actually group" Id., Schools and Universities on the Continent (186S), Preface, p. viii, and p. 207. " To humbly offer" Id., Culture and Anarchy (1869), p. 95. " To clearly understand." Mr. John Ruskin, Unto this Last (1862), p. 82. " To gradually awaken" Mr. John W. Hales, in Essays ona Liberal Education (1867), p. 306. " To notably increase" " to rudely enforce" Dr. Henry Maudsley, The Physi- ology and Pathology of the Mind (1867), pp. 207, 208. " To straightway deny" " to clearly realize." Id., Body and Mind (1870), pp. 57, 102. " To nearly ruin." Mr. W. R. Greg, Literary and Social Judgments (1868), p. 445, foot-note. " To just hand him the letter." Mr. Charles Reade, Put Yourself in his Place (1870), Vol. Ill, p. 32., " To perfectly realize" Mr. Winwood Reade, The Mai-tyrdom of Matt (1872), p. 171. " To continually spread." Bp. Samuel Wilberforce, Speeches on Missions (1874), p. 116. " To rationally demand." Mr. St. George Mivart, in Essays on Religion and Literature, Third Series (1874), p. 220. " To really express." Mr. Richard Congreve, Essays, etc. (1874), p. 479. " To t/wroughly understand." Bp. Ullathorne, Mr. Gladstone's Expostulation Unravelled (1875), p. 22. 1 Substituted for "fully to appreciate," for which see the Edinburgh Review, Vol. LXXIII (1841), p. 561. TO AND THE INFINITIVE MOOD. 23 " To innocently rot." Mr. Leslie Stephen, History of English Thought, etc. (1876), Vol. I, p. 440. " To utterly destroy." Major R. D. Osborn, Islam under the Arabs (1876), p. 166. " To still keep" ''to somiichaslook" "to again approach." Mr. W. H. Mallock, The New Paul and Virginia (1878), pp. 7, 73, 82. " To punningly translate? Mr. T. L. Kington Oliphant, The Old and Middle English (1878), p. 73. " To hastily borrow" Rev. Dr. F. G. Lee, The Church under Queen Elizabeth (1880), Vol. I, p. 22. Other sources than those which have here been laid under con- tribution, even if they were restricted to creditable living authors, would increase, to an indefinite extent, the preceding array of citations and references, which, moreover, might be augmented by recourse to almost any chance number of almost any first-class English journal of the last fifteen or twenty years. The question of usage, as concerns the matter in hand, consequently calls for no further particulars of proof. The expressions observed on simply exemplify an extended application of the principle which has given us the verbs anneal, backslide, foretell, gainsay, half -bind, misbelieve, outlive, overthrow , partake, undersell, tiproot, withdraw, and so on, with the obsolete tobreak, torend, etc., etc. The original of to fufil—fulfyllan, in Anglo-Saxon, — rwas to full fill, that is to say, to fully fill; and time might give us to full-appreciate, if we had as frequent occasion to speak of " appreciating fully " as our forefathers had to speak of " filling full," or " accomplishing." Though words and phrases are employed by very few persons save in passive sequacity of others, yet those who introduce them, and equally those who accept them deliberately, are generally influenced by something better than, for instance, a love of singu- larity or of innovation. And especially is this true of words and phrases which succeed in winning the practical suffrages of good speakers and writers. We are under no necessity, therefore, of setting to the account of " affectation," as a learned editor, already mentioned, has done, their choice of locutions like to fully appre- ciate. By this verbal collocation some of them, at least, it may be, conceive that they express notional incomplexity more directly than it is expressed by fully to appreciate, or by to appreciate fully ; just as is the case with to uphold, in comparison with to hold up, " defend," or with to revisit, in comparison with to visit again. 24 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHILOLOGY. How it has come to pass that professional authors so voluminous as Dr. Johnson, Lord Macaulay, and Mr. De Quincey are seen to furnish, so far as appears, only one example, each, of the phrase- ology under discussion, it would be fruitless to inquire. It is, however, somewhat remarkable, that the consideration which prompted those scanty examples, whether it was that which has been suggested above, or whether it was a desire of terseness, or of euphony," did not operate to multiply them in the pages of the vigilant stylists who have thus just countenanced their type. FlTZEDWARD HALL. 1 Now and then we come upon a sentence of which, if we stop short of altering its infinitive, the apparent nonsense can be removed only by resorting to such a construction as that here treated of. " I hope not much to tire those whom I shall not happen to please." Dr. Johnson, Rambler, No. I. Many would now write: "I hope to not much tire," etc. And Dr. Johnson, in his letters to Mrs. Thrale, has, most unclearly, " I think not to stay here long," and '• the black dog I hope always to resist," Take, again, the sentence, quoted and commented on by Mr. Goold Brown: " Honour teaches us properly to respect our- selves." The ambiguity of this may be obviated by putting " to properly respect" or, still better, by ending the sentence with the adverb. Mr. Brown, referring to Burns's " to nobly stem," observes : " The right to place an adverb sometimes between to and its verb should, I think, be conceded to the poets." Grammar of English Grammars (ed. 1873), p. 661.