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NOTES. 471 

t'Se is a frequent word for and in Cyprian and in Homer. Twenty- 
six times in the Iliad with the variant ^Se everywhere except B 511, 
585, 1 219 = 165, 175, T 285. Eleven times in the Odyssey with 
ri8e as a variant, 8 604, X 337, 626, x 34 1 > + 2 %9- Twice in the 
hymn to Demeter, once in that to Aphrodite. Antigone 969 is the 
only example in tragedy. 

With the Cyprian w (jj bvF&voi w ... fiaaCKevs 60, 6,^ 8o>koi w 60, 16). 
Deecke compares the vv with imperatives in Homer and »»» in 
Attic tragedy. Herodotus has vvv very rarely : <£<?/>e wv, II 105. 
The only instance of the use of vv in prose literature is Aretaeus, 

p. 66 ." drap r/Se revovra r)&e vv pits l-vv fWafffi akyeovai. AretaeUS, 

like Lucian, strove to follow the Ionic of the fifth century. But 
neither has Herodotus nor Hippocrates the form vv, which is 
therefore to be accounted one of the pseudo-ionisms of the 
sophistic Renaissance period. 

ra in No. 135. to 'ETeoSii/ia, nidi recalls 1 347, KvKka>\jf rij, 7Ti'e oii/oi/. 

t^ is very rare in Attic (Cratinus, Eupolis). With the vocative cf. 
UovKvbaiia, M 23 1. The Lith. t£ is not a perfect parallel to 7-5 on 
account of the circumflex of the latter. The r) of t>) must there- 
fore be regarded as Ionic-Attic and equivalent to the S of ra. 
There are no cases of hyperdorism in Cyprian ; 6aras is a mere 
blunder of Hesychius. 

Correspondences in syntax and in form between the dialects of 
Cyprus and Arcadia and that of Homer are treated in detail in 
my paper on the Arcado-Cyprian dialect in the Transactions of 
the Amer. Phil. Assoc, Vol. XVIII. This brief summary may 
also cast a side light upon the position occupied by the language 
of Herodotus, still sadly in need of an interpreter. 

Herbert Weir Smyth. 

The Etymology of FIRMETTON and FRIMDIG. 

The word firmetlon, which occurs in the Anglo-Saxon version 
of Orosius' History (Sweet's ed., p. 186, 6), has for some time 
pursued me with its mystery. The context offers no difficulty of 
interpretation. The keenly exciting incident of Hannibal's unlawful 
siege of Saguntum, as related by Livy (Lib. XXI, cap. 6-10), is 
described, or rather referred to by Orosius with characteristic 
brevity and unscientific straining after moral application. The 
Anglo-Saxon translator, however, did not content himself with his 


author's conciseness, " Legatos Romanorum ad se missos injuriosis- 
sime etiam a conspectu suo abstinuit," but expanded the passage 
to make clear that the embassadors were to enjoin upon Hannibal 
to raise the siege and to quit his warfare. It is in this expansion 
that firmetton is employed : they asked or requested him to desist 
(cf. Livy : " et Hannibali denuntiarent ut ab Saguntinis, sociis 
populi Romani, abstineret "). 

That firmetton has hitherto been correctly translated cannot, 
therefore, be questioned. It contains the element of 'petition,' 
' request,' and may also have had something of a highly official 
character corresponding to that of the Latin denuntiare ; but its 
occurrence in the literature, so far as has been observed, is restricted 
to this one instance, so that any nearer approach to its specific 
meaning is cut off. 

Cosijn, in his Altwestsachsische Grammatik (I, p. 54, §29 ; II, 
p. 167, §123), adopts the infinitive firmettan, and ventures to 
analyse the form into the parts firm- (<^frim or /rem) and -eitan, 
but no explanation of firm- is given by him nor, so far as known 
to me, by any one else. 

Adopting the division firm + ettan, I would suggest that firm 
is made up of the Germanic base freh ' to ask,' and the concrete 
suffix -mo. Stems of like formation may be found in Kluge's 
Nominale Stammbildungslehre, §88 (cf. also §§152 f. and 184), for 
example, O. N. Ijdme (Germanic base leuh), and O. H. G. zoum 
(Germanic base touJi). In perfect accord with these formations, I 
would construct the Germanic stem *freh-mo-, which would next 
become *fremo. With equal regularity the development in 
Anglo-Saxon would then be as follows : *fremo- ]> *frimo- (cf. 
nimari), and by metathesis *firmo- {cl.frimdig and firmdig) ; to 
this nominal stem we have now but to join the common infini- 
tive ending -ettan (<^ at/an) to obtain the verb firmettan with 
just the form and meaning desired. 

I see a confirmation of this argument in the unexplained adjec- 
tivefrimdtg (later frymdt) ' desiderans,' ' requirens.' It contains, 
as I think, the same nominal stem J 'rim <^ *freh-mo-, which, curi- 
ously enough, it has preserved both with and without metathesis, 
as cited above. 

James W. Bright.