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oreae (= aureae). Just so what he quotes from the Haupt 
glosses (No. 496) : face ' clastna ' is Latin ; clasma pace will have 
been the true reading, as is evident from Corpus Gloss, (ed. 
Hessels), C 460 clasma pax turba; Mone 409, 92 clasina (= 
clasma) pace mal; W.-W. 504, 27 clasma mal; W.-W. 376, 31 
clasma clam oftfte wed oftfte waera. What the same Hall takes 
from W.-W. 515, 39 wefaesten 'castle' is in reality swa swe 
faesten, as is evident from the lemma quasi arx. 

Otto B. Schlutter. 

Boue, Barboter, Barbotjiller. 

The derivation of these French words is still an open question, 
and the explanations thus far suggested are far from being satis- 
factory. It is intended to show here that a plausible solution 
may be found by determining a common etymology for these 
three words, and showing how, through regular phonetic process, 
they were evolved from the same root. 

No reasonable etymon has yet been indicated for boue. Dar- 
mesteter (Diet. Univ.) declares its etymology to be unknown; 
Cohn does not mention the word ; Korting, after Diez, proposes 
the Kymric root baw, but such a form could only give an o in 
French. The Old French forms of the word are boe, later boue 
and also broue — the last, however, must not be allowed to com- 
plicate the question. It sprang up under the influence of brotiet, 
that goes back to a Low Latin brodum or brodium (It. brodo, 
broda, brodetto), the meaning of the word being 'thick soup of a 
darkish color.' The cause of the contamination is therefore 

Boue, I believe, originates from a Low Latin form bota. The 
word is found in Ducange as botta ; but since the law in French is 
reduction of geminated consonants, bota must also have existed. 
This etymon is also suggested by Scheler : its meaning is that of 
mare in French, 'a stagnant pond or a puddle of water.' An 
instance quoted by Ducange goes far towards showing the close 
relation existing between the meaning of this word and that of 
'mud': Liber Recognitionum servitiorum Domini: "Juxta fan- 
giam de la Botta d'Ouraux." 

The word barboter 'to splash in the water or in the mud' 
strengthens this opinion. *perboiare can be logically admitted 

NOTES. 89 

from bota (the French form being apparently irregular on account 
of the preservation of the /; but this I hope to explain satisfac- 

Bota would regularly give boe > boue, the <w-sound being 
retained for the same reason that it remains in amour, ipoux, 
avoue, etc., viz. on account of the labial consonant that precedes. 

Boue gave birth to the verb boer or bouer, and ajy was intro- 
duced for the purpose of breaking up the hiatus (cf. badare> 
baer~>bayer). As for the addition of the prefix per, there is no 
need of explanation ; and the initial p changed into b by a very 
simple assimilation — one, moreover, frequent in Low Latin (see 
Probi Appendix: opobalsamum, not ababalsatnum; plasta, not 

So the history of these forms would be the following: 

bota~> boe> boue 
*perbotare >parbouer>parbouyer> barbouyer. 

Barbouyer therefore meant 'to besmear with mud,' the literal 
meaning it has still in French; hence, 'to soil,' and also 'to speak 

Now, in regard to the orthography barbouiller instead of 
barbouyer. We must bear in mind that it may be, after all, a 
mere graphic influence exerted either by the French form bouillir 
or the Italian barbogliare. I have not met with this word in the 
oldest French texts. The earliest example quoted by Littre" is 
from Calvin, and it is very likely that already in He de France, at 
least, there was confusion between the two sounds of y and /, or 
rather that in this territory /had become y, and that we have to 
deal with another graphic representation of y. 

Coming back to barboter, we understand now why the t was 
kept, viz. to establish a distinction between two words constantly 
used in popular speech. This explanation is a plausible one and 
clears up an otherwise very much confused question of etymology. 
It recommends itself to scholars in this respect, that it finds for 
popular words a popular source without making it necessary to 
account for them by analogies drawn from the completely evolved 
forms of a kindred language— an expedient always hazardous, to 
my mind. 

Chicago, Oct. 29, 1895. R.ENE DE POYEN-BELLISLE.