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Professor MAX SCHNEIDEWIN has presented the world with a bulky volume 
of 558 pp. entitled Die antike Humanitiit (Weidmann), in which he has brought 
together, without any attempt at literary finish, many facts and reflexions in 
regard to a theme of permanent and universal interest. The author does not 
profess to have ransacked every nook and corner of antiquity for documents, 
and the draughts he has drawn on Cicero, whom he sets up as the accepted 
type of antique ' humanity,' are so considerable that this book may be regarded 
as a companion-piece to the slighter performance of the same writer published 
in 1890, 'Die Horazische Lebensweisheit.' No wonder, then, that the work 
revives for the reader the charm of Cicero and Cicero's circle, which is not 
less real because it is exotic, which, like the charm of the winter palaces of 
Russia, is only heightened by the rigor of the atmosphere without. When we 
are with Cicero we are in good society, society that is redolent of Scipionic 
traditions, and it would be rude to scratch the skin of this and that Roman 
grandee and compare the fine Greek sentiments with the merciless downright- 
ness of Italian action. Doubtless Cicero, the novus homo, and Horace, libertino 
patre natus, were saturated with Greek ' humanity,' but the Greek must have 
the credit of it all, directly or indirectly, and there is evidence enough that 
the Hellene or Hellenist, Greek or Greekling, whichever you choose, was 
fully alive to the essential hardness of the Roman character and was fully 
aware of his own success and his own failure in the emollient process. 

But there are other sides to Cicero than the Greek side, the ethical, the 
philosophical, the humane side. He was much more than a translator of 
Panaetius, though the de Officii! has proved itself a potent book ; much more 
than a clever lawyer, though the French Revolution is said to have been the 
work of lawyers ; and in an essay which takes the form of a discourse in 
celebration of the second millennium of Cicero's birth, Professor ZlELINSKl 
has produced a sketch of Cicero's influence on the ages which forms a striking 
contrast to the work just mentioned, both in bulk and, if it must be said, in 
brilliancy. With such a champion as Professor ZlELINSKl is, the friends of 
Cicero may well take heart, for, as one reads this masterly summary of 
Cicero's after-life, Cicero im Wandel der Jakrhunderte (Teubner), Drumann's 
savagery and Mommsen's sarcasm, the bludgeon of the one and the rapier of 
the other, lose weight and point. The salient features are tipped with light, 
and the test-question, ' What thinkest thou of Cicero ?,' is most effectively put 
to the leaders of human thought and action. Cicero's immense influence 
on style is generally recognized after a vague fashion, though perhaps few 
are aware that every penny-a-liner on the daily press is swayed by his 


example and his precepts ; but his influence on the course of history at its 
critical points is a matter that only such a cross-section as ZlELINSKl has 
given us can bring to the consciousness. What Cicero did for Christianity, 
what for the Renascence, for the Reformation, for the French Revolution, — 
how he affected the leaders of those great transitional periods, this is the 
theme of an essay which combines the rhetorical swing of the panegyrist with 
the sober merits of historical research. That Augustin was converted by 
reading Cicero is a familiar story, and no one that has once read is likely to 
forget the passage in Luther's Table-talk in which he extols the man who has 
wrought and suffered above that 'ass of leisure, Aristotle' — 'weit ilberlegen,' 
he says, 'dem mussigen Esel Aristoteli'; but the influence of Cicero the 
humanitarian on Voltaire, of Cicero the orator on Mirabeau, of Cicero the 
republican statesman on the leaders of the French Revolution is not always 
present to the average mind. Vergniaud was the Cicero of the Gironde and 
denounced Robespierre in phrases borrowed from the Catilinariae, and Robes- 
pierre defended his cause and prolonged his power by a telling use of passages 
taken from the Oratio pro P. Sulla. With the close of the French Revolution 
ZlELINSKl bids the procession stop and contents himself with citing Taine to 
show the estimate in which Cicero is held by that penetrating student of 
history and literature, and with reinforcing in a brief summary the important 
lesson that with every advancing stage of culture the vision for the antique 
becomes wider and deeper and that the value of the antique is enhanced 
from stage to stage. 

All who admire the scholarship, the precision, the balance of M. Henri 
Weil will be glad to have in a convenient volume the collection of his papers 
entitled Atudes sur le dramc antique (Hachette). Nearly all these studies 
belong to a recent period. One, it is true, goes back to the remote date 1847, 
one to 1864, but of the remaining eight there is none older than 1886, and the 
eighth deals with the important work of M. Masqueray, Les formes lyriques 
de la tragedie grecque, which was published as late as 1895 and is still awaiting 
the notice it deserves in this Journal. It is a book which M. Weil justly 
praises for the exhaustive command of the literature, its wide scope, its 6ne 
appreciation of the ffioQ of the lyric measures of tragedy. M. Weil's admi- 
ration of Wilatnowitz' s Herakles, the subject of another chapter, is frankly 
expressed, while he preserves the independence of his judgment in details, a 
hard thing to do, if one yields at all to the rush of that fervid genius. Zieliri- 
ski's ayav with all its minute subdivisions M. Weil cannot bring himself to 
accept, but he recognizes, as some have refused to do (A. J. P. X 383), the 
popular element that lies at the basis of the comic debate, and compares the 
quarrel between tanner and sausage-seller in the Knights with the altercation 
of the modern carnival. "On pense," he says, 'a notre carnaval: deux 
masques se provoquent, se criblent de lazzi ; on fait cercle autour d'eux, on 
les encourage, on les excite, comme fait le chceur de l'antique comedie. De 
pareilles scenes n'etaient sans doute pas rares dans les joyeux ebats des 
Dionysiaques." In another article M. Weil takes up M. Decharme's book, 
Euripide et l' esprit de son th/dtre. M. Decharme is especially emphatic on the 


atheism and rationalism of Euripides, and here, as elsewhere, M. Weil has a 
wise word of caution. True, every scholar knows that atheism does not mean 
the same thing in Greek as it does in English (A. J. P. XVII 362), but it was 
well worth the while to say (p. 105): "Si l'on dit que le theatre d'Euripide 
agit comme un dissolvant sur les vieilles fables et les croyances populaires, on 
dit vrai, mais on ne dit pas tout. Euripide n'a pas seulement ebranle les 
opinions recues, il a puisamment contribue a repandre une conception plus 
haute du divin, qui devait etre celle de l'avenir." In the same paper Dorp- 
feld's theory of the stage comes up. M. Weil minimizes the difference 
between the old view and the new, but holds after all to the raised wooden 
stage, and the words i-nl rijs am/vfjc are to him a stone of stumbling, as they 
have been to many philologians (A. J. P. XVIII ng). "II faut vraiment," he 
says, "beaucoup de bonne volonte pour traduire [ces mots] par pres de la scene 
plutflt que par sur la scene" and after the appearance of Dorpfeld and Reisch's 
book he adds : " Tout le monde ne se persuadera pas non plus que les acteurs 
sont appeles ol airb aKijvf/c parcequ'ils sortaient de la ckt/vt)." 

Mr. MARCHANT has added Book VI to the three books of Thukydides he has 
already edited, II, III, VII (Macmillan). The text is based on Hude's, but 
the editor shows his wonted independence in minor matters. There is a 
chapter of new explanations headed 'Some Cruces' which will be read with 
interest by Thukydidean scholars. An adjutant and admirer of Dr. Ruther- 
ford's, Mr. Marchant has learned from his master the importance of a sharp 
formulation of Attic usage, and his work shows advancing appreciation of 
syntactical phenomena. As he has referred to this Journal (XIII 259), apropos 
of the negative in c. 81, 5, it may be as well to say that I cannot see any call 
for ' mobility ' in order to understand so simple a case as rt/v jrpoc r//mr ixOpav /if/ 
av (3/mxslav yev6/ievt/v. The article with the participle gives, as it often does, 
the impulse to the negative fir/, and the resolution is not what Mr. Marchant 
has, f/ ovk av jipax^la ykvono, but t/ /if/ av jipaxtla ykvono, the so-called 
characteristic relative (ij = i/tiq) taking fir/. See A. J. P. I 54, 56, and for 
rel., fiy av, opt. comp. Dem. 19, 313; 20,161; 21, 203; Plato, Phileb. 20 A ; 
Legg. 839 A, 872 D. For a parallel use of /if) av c. partic. see Dem. 54, 40 
6 /it/Sev av 6/i6oa{, with Sandys' note. This is one of the many points that 
show the importance of an historical survey for the appreciation of syntactical 
phenomena. It was only when the participle was consciously employed as 
the shorthand of a hypotactic sentence that the neg. /if/ could be used with it. 
Pindar's /if/ awitic (N. 4, 31) is a distinct advance not only on Homer, but 
also on Hesiod, whose j3ooc . . . /if] Teronvlr/c (O. et D. 591) is under the domi- 
nation of the imperative opt. el?/. 

Dr. Rutherford's Introduction to his Scholia Aristophanica (Macmillan) is 
a prolonged growl over the uncongenial work that has cost the leisure of no 
less than seven years. Aiafu Aioti/iov. The subject-matter of the scholia of 
the Codex Ravennas, he says, would not have tempted him to edit them. In 


fact, " the direct value of any corpus of scholia as a commentary upon the text 
to which it belongs is in no degree commensurate with its indirect value as 
evidence, on the one hand, of the manner in which classical texts have been 
manipulated at different periods in the history of learning, and, on the other 
hand, of the kind of corruption and interpolation to which they have been 
exposed." We know the note from the Introduction to his Fourth Book of 
Thukydides. Still, a man might be worse employed than in laboring over the 
Greek scholia. It is higher work than the preparation of an index, and the 
preparation of an index is better than making canons of Greek usage on the 
basis of imperfect induction. It is something to have to one's credit two 
such stately volumes as these. The third volume is still due, the volume that 
is to contain Dr. Rutherford's conclusions, drawn from his seven years' study 
of the scholia ; and while we are grateful for all that these two volumes hold, 
it is the third volume in which we shall behold the flower of the Scottish thistle. 

The most striking characteristic of Professor Tyrrell's edition of the 
Troades (Macmillan) is the sympathetic discernment with which he has 
brought out the poetic vein of Euripides. In so doing he has made free use 
of translation — now an apt rendering of his own, now an extract from Mr. 
Way's brilliant version. The book is meant for boys, and, as Professor 
Tyrrell justly remarks, ' a boy should not be encouraged to think that the 
Greek poets were bald and frigid.' How soon the attention of the student 
should be called to the dissonances of Euripidean style, designed or not, is 
another matter. Dr. Verrall's ' Euripides the Rationalist ' would not be a 
good book to put in the hands of a beginner in Euripides, and the young 
student would be rather puzzled than edified by a demonstration of the 
contrarieties of the diction and the syntax of Euripides, the matching of cloth 
of gold with cloth of frize. The metres are not neglected, as in so many 
English editions, but it is to be regretted that Professor Jebb's example has 
not been followed and that Schmidt's schemes have not been reproduced. It 
seems rather late in the day to cite Dr. Kennedy's views in the matter of 
Greek metres. 

Dr. Sandys' edition of the First Philippic and the Olynthiacs of Demosthenes 
(Macmillan) is marked by his unfailing adequacy. Every side of his author is 
treated with sound judgment, excellent taste and rare command of the litera- 
ture. The proof-reading is good. An odd mistake occurs p. 36, §25 (critical 
note), where read 'suus locus est infinitivo supra §12, Bl.' By the way, if 
Blass means to differentiate between participle and inf. in the two passages, 
he sees too much. §12 reads: t'i to kuXvov if aiirov iarai fiaSi^civ ottoi 
fiovlerai; §25: tic avrov kuAvbsi devpo fiadit,ovTa ; As (iaSli^ovra is condi- 
tional, = eav ftaSi^y, the difference is naught. In conditional relations inf. 
and part, often meet, a'laxwolpjv av av-i'Atycdv (X. Mem. 2, 6, 37) =ei avriAk- 
yoifu = avTikiyeiv. See Hertlein (1853) on X. Cyr. 3, 2, 16. 


An esteemed correspondent sends to the Journal the following note on 
Fugner's Lexicon Livianum, Fasciculus III, s. v. ad, cum gerundio vel gerun- 
divo, which seems to belong to the black list of Brief Mention : 

" The following incorrect references have been noticed: 28, 9, I for 28, 29, 
1, p. 432, 8 ; 44, 19, 4 for 41, 19, 4, p. 44L 1 ; io, 55, 4 for 10, 35, 4, p. 447, 16 ; 
25, 35. 4 for 25. 36, 4> P- 448, 24; 31, 47, 2 for 31, 46, 2, p. 448, 38 ; 23, 34, 9 
for 29, 34, 9, p. 457, 23. In a few instances the Lex. fails as a guide for the 
Weissenborn ed.: 4, 11, 5 triumviri ad coloniam Ardeam deducendam is not 
given p. 428, 2 (creo), nor p. 457, 40 (triumviri). 40, 24, 5 ad quod celebrandum 
is not given p. 434, 39. 42, io, 8 ad quam pestem frugum tollendam . . . 
missus, ingenti agmine hominum ad colligendas eas coacto. The first gerun- 
dive is not given s. v. mitlo; the second is not given p. 426, 19, where is given 
9, 21, 3 magno exercitu coacto ad eximendos obsidione socios." 

Brief Mention has received the following note from Dr. J. Keelhoff, of 
Antwerp: "Sur 1' expression tl fiti Sia cf. Rost, Griech. Gram., 7te Aufl., p. 641, 
note: 'Zu erganzen (Plat. Gorg. 516 E) ovk iveTveaev, also der reine Gegensatz 
des im Hauptsatz enthaltenen Praedikates, wie immer bei dieser Wendung.' 
Votre explication [A. J. P. X 124, XVI 396, XVII 128] se rencontre done avec 
celle de Rost, ce qui augmente encore les chances de probability. On trouve 
de bien bonnes choses dans cette syntaxe qu'on ne consulte plus guere." To 
my mind the explanation is so evident that it only needs to be stated, and I 
am not surprised that so sensible a grammarian as Rost was had reached the 
same formula, which, however, does not occur in the earlier editions, to which 
alone I had access.