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VI.— A MEDICAL PAPYRUS FRAGMENT. 

Among the writer's Greek papyri there is one, unfortunately 
mutilated, which, while not precisely literary in character, pre- 
sents some points of more than ordinary interest. Like the 
Oxyrhynchus papyrus CCXXXI V, it contains a series of medical 
prescriptions. Where alternative remedies for the same ailment 
are given, they are introduced by aXA^, much as in the Oxyrhynchus 
papyrus, which employs aXAo. Parts of three remedies are pre- 
served in the fragment. It is not clear for what the first was 
designed, but alum ((TTvirr^pla) and a sort of wax ointment scented 
with rose (^pcar?) pobivrj) were among the drugs recommended. 
The previous wiping (jrpoaTroowxciv) of the part affected or of 
some instrument or utensil used, is also enjoined. The second 
disorder prescribed for seems to have been leprosy ; no other 
way of completing Xenp^ seems more probable. It is doubly 
annoying here that the lines should be fragmentary, in view of 
the interest attaching to this disease and to ancient methods of 
dealing with it. Two treatments are prescribed. Of the second 
of these practically nothing remains. The first seems to have 
consisted in part at least of external applications, perhaps of 
some ointment in which dry pitch and possibly the blossom of 
some plant were ingredients. It is possible, however, that the 
word partly lost before tov avdovs was x]aX*oC and that the refer- 
ence is to that avdoi xoXkoO, as the ancients called the scaly 
' efflorescence ' formed on the cooling surface of the heated 
metal ; cf. the scholium on Nicander, Th. 257. As in the first 
prescription, the instructions include a wiping (neptudaaeiv'), here 
probably of the part affected, perhaps to remove any excess of 
the substance applied that might remain. Or as the noun lost 
before >/™xp<? seems to have modified TreptVao-o-6, the wiping may 
have been intended to cool and soothe the diseased parts. 
Galen's expression, n^pi/iarr* airoyya ^tp/xw (14, 424, 3) suggests 
uir6yy\(o ylrvxp<p irepLpao-cre here ; but the last trace before y^vxp^ 
cannot belong to <•>. It might be t of anoyyat, but adscript t does 
not appear elsewhere in the papyrus. 



328 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHILOLOGY. 

As in the case of the Oxyrhynchus prescriptions, these are 
written on the verso of a papyrus the recto of which had pre- 
viously been used for some document, probably an account, as 
several amounts in artabae of grain are clearly legible on the 
recto. While the recto preserves no date, the hand is of a sort 
common in the second century a. d., and the later use of the 
papyrus for the medical prescriptions probably fell in the second 
or third. It thus belongs in time as well as in subject matter, 
with the Oxyrhynchus medical papyrus already mentioned. The 
papyrus came from K6m Ushim in the Fayum. It measures 
cm. 6 by 16. The hand is a well-formed and fairly regular semi- 
uncial, not of the best literary type, but very far removed from 
the ordinary cursive hand of Roman documents. The spaces, 
such as are sometimes called " half-paragraphs ", in 11. 6 and 13, 
seem further to favor the view that the manuscript was not a 
mere private copy, made for the writer's own use, as many 
literary works written on the verso of old documents doubtless 
were, but a more careful and formal writing, perhaps designed 
for sale. The only punctuation is a high point in 1. 6, at the end 
of the first prescription. A blank space of cm. 2 is left after it 
before the beginning of the second prescription, and a similar 
space seems to have been left (1. 13) before the third. The lines 
are from the upper part of the column, and cm. 1. 7 of the upper 
margin are preserved. Little if anything is lost from the right- 
hand margin of the column; at the left something is lost, but 
how much cannot be certainly determined ; hardly less than four 
or five letters, however, for the lost beginning of 1. 8 pretty 
certainly contained the concluding letters of frlpas and the 
opening letter, or letters, of ?x]a\Kov i and probably some inter- 
vening word or words, besides. 

J 8lff fllCVOS (TTVITT-qp 

tar? Jf KCKavfict/Tjs fit 

J 77 KTJpOOTT] poblVqY 

jpa 7rpoano(Tpr]^\_ 
5. as J#€t TTjv €7ret<£ama[v? 

]€7ret fiet * Xenyjf 
] . . vpov X L 7TLcrTje £ij[ 
pas ? ^JaXxou rov avBovs 

jKoyjsa? e/x/3aXe cis k[ 



A MEDICAL PAPYRUS FRAGMENT. 329 



10. 


~\\kov irvpos XPOT'L 




]£*? tv XP l€ €ls & € P 




]i yfrvxp® 7T€pifiacrcr€[ 




] aWrj wuf . ]m; . iv 




Jaiov 7raXat 


15. 


].( ) • • • ofiiBiv ( 




> Xi 




]vpi 


Here the papyrus 


breaks off. 


5 *• eirufidveiav 




7 *• irtcnTrjs 





)»[ 



Many forms and sorts of cnwr^p/a (alum) were known to Greek 

Writers On medicine ; a^iari}, orpoyyvX^, darTpayaXoaTr), ^aXieim, TpixiTis f 

nXivOlnsy nXcuuTis, vypd, Alyvnrir], MtjXLt], are some of the names 
applied to them. The first letter of 1. 2 might belong to 
aTvnTT)p[ta]s, were it not that 11. 7 and 8 lead us to expect a 
greater lacuna at the beginning of lines. Even as it is, K€Kavficvr)? 
probably limits orvHTifpftar . K^pton? pobivr) (1. 3), the ceratum rosaceum 
of Appuleius, seems to have been a recognized preparation of the 
ancient pharmacopoeia. upoa7roap.r)x €lp t0 ° 0* 4) 1S met w ^ tn i* 1 
Dioscorides (1, 144) Oribasius (2, 417, 9) and Galen (13, 374 
C). *Em$ai/«a (1. 5), while not primarily a medical term, is used 
by medical writers in describing symptoms. Paul of Aegina, for 
example, says that leprosy manifests itself in Tpaxvanos cm<f>ap€ia?. 
The restoration nlaaa vypd is suggested by Dioscorides (1, 95), 

who speaks of Tri<r<ra vypd and TTiaa-a £r]pd '. f) 8e £r)pa maaa €^top.(vr)5 
ttjs vypds yip€Tai* icaXeircu dc avrrj vvr ivioav 7raXi/i7Tt<rora. That Theo- 

phrastus too recognized the same distinction, though under a 
different terminology, is implied in his irirra a>p? ; and the corre- 
sponding nlao-a tySrj occurs in Hippocrates. The imperatives 
en@a\c and cvxp", 11. 9 and 11, recall some of the directions of 
Galen and of the Oxyrhynchus prescriptions, where imperatives 
singular and aorist participles largely constitute the verbal 
mechanisms. 

A third medical fragment, of a more formal character than the 
two mentioned, is preserved in the Cairo Museum (No. 10160) 
and will be found in the University of Chicago Decennial Publi- 
cations, Vol. V, pp. 5, 6. 

The University of Chicago. EDGAR J. GOODSPEED.