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even this slight aid is apparent in the notes to the French and 
Latin works. But withal, the illustrative notes upon the sources 
of stories and phrases in the English work show a decided 
improvement on those in the first volume. The Latin works 
are treated with less detail of illustration, as they are regarded 
as historical documents rather than as literary efforts, but the 
frequent citations of parallel passages from Ovid, and from the 
poems of Peter Riga and Alexander Neckham, incline one to 
judge Gower's Latin verse as centos rather than as original 

Trinity College, Durham, N. C. GEORGE L. HAMILTON. 

Ancient Athens, by Ernest Arthur Gardner, Yates Professor 
of Archaeology in University College, London; formerly 
Director of the British School at Athens; author of A Hand- 
book of Greek Sculpture, etc., etc. Illustrated. New York, 
1902. The Macmillan Company. 8°. Pp. XVI, 579. 

The need of a new work on Athens, presenting within the 
covers of a single book a comprehensive and at the same time 
scholarly treatment of the topography and monuments of the 
ancient city in the light of recent discoveries, has been growing 
more and more acute during the past few years. Those who have 
felt this need will feel grateful to Professor Gardner for his work 
on Ancient Athens. Its comprehensiveness will be seen from the 
list of its chapters: I. Situation and Natural Features; II. The 
Walls of the Acropolis and the Town; III. The Acropolis before 
the Persian Wars; IV. The Town before the Persian Wars; V. 
Early Attic Art; VI. The Acropolis in the Fifth Century; VII. 
The Parthenon; VIII. The Erechtheum and the Temple of Victory; 
IX. The City in the Fifth and Fourth Centuries; X. The Theseum, 
the Asclepieum and the Theater; XL The Ceramicus; XII. 
Athens in Hellenistic and Roman Times; XIII. Pausanias in 
Athens; XIV. The Piraeus. The author's method is thus seen 
to be chronological in the main. The effect of clearness and con- 
nectedness resulting from the method is enhanced by the author's 
gift of clear, orderly, and concise statement. 

Although Professor Gardner's aim, according to his publishers, 
is " to give an adequate and at the same time popular account 
of ancient Athens", his work can be called popular only in a very 
limited sense. It is true that its pages are not heavily weighted 
with references, and that the minutiae of some of the disputed 
questions are relegated to notes at the ends of chapters; but the 
employment of long passages of Greek as prefaces to chapters, 
the frequent quotation of Greek in the text, and the general 
assumption that the reader is conversant with the topography 
and monuments of ancient Athens are hardly marks of popular 


treatment. Nor can the author's style be called popular. Pure 
and clear as it is, it is not characterized by the ease and grace 
which are naturally expected of one who addresses the wider 
audience. The author's face is rarely seen in his page, and when 
it does appear, it is always impassive. It is vain to watch for it 
to be lighted by a relieving gleam of humor. 1 Professor Gardner 
keeps to his work; his sober wishes never learned to stray. If 
the reader is not fascinated by the subject itself, the author's con- 
densed, matter-of-fact, unsmiling style will hardly carry him 
along in its current. 

But these defects exist only when the book is considered as a 
popular work. When it is considered from the right point of view, 
the so-called defects are seen to constitute the merits of the work. 
The fact is that Ancient Athens is a work for an audience of 
students — not only the close circle of specialists, but the wider 
circle of all classical students and teachers, especially those whose 
interest has been stimulated by travel in classic lands. It will be 
of interest and value to specialists because of its admirably 
concise, clear and impartial summaries of views on disputed 
questions, and because Professor Gardner never fails to take 
a stand of his own and lend the important weight of his own 
authority to one or the other of the parties to the dispute. He 
is always fair, and never dogmatic. As might be expected of the 
author of A Handbook of Greek Sculpture, he is conservative, 
and avowedly so (p. VI). He holds with Frazer and against 
Dbrpfeld (p. 210) that the early temple of Athena on the Acropolis 
was not rebuilt after the Persian Wars; he states his own opinion 
(p. 449) "that the use of the raised proscenium or Xoyuov as a 
stage for the actors is established by very clear evidence in the 
case of the later Greek theater, and this analogy would lead one 
to expect some such platform in the Greek theater of earlier 
times also"; he agrees with Leake, Curtius, and others of the 
older school of topographers in holding (pp. 535-8) that in 
Pausanias I 8, 3 "Enneacrunus was certainly in the bed of the 
Ilissus", and "that it and the other buildings mentioned with it 
are inserted here for some reason out of topographical order." 
He cites the Bologna head, identified by Furtwangler as part 
of a copy of the Lemnian Athena, "as a concession to a theory 
admitted by many archaeologists " (p. 255). 

But it is to the wider circle of students of Greek literature and 
art that Professor Gardner's work will be more welcome. For 
them the work is invaluable as a clear-cut and up-to-date pre- 
sentation of what students of Greek culture ought to know and 
desire to know. It can be called popular, then, only in that it will 
appeal to the larger audience of scholars. 

It will be regretted by many that Professor Gardner has not 
seen fit to give his audience, composed as it will be entirely of 

1 There is a single possible exception, p. 159, foot-note. 


seekers after information, more aid in the form of references to 
ancient and modern literature. Many Who are not fortunate in 
having the specialist's knowledge would be glad to be referred 
more often to classical authority. Of still greater service would 
have been a few more select references to the literature of modern 
scholarship. Grouped conveniently in one place at the end of 
chapters, or of sections of chapters treating single monuments 
or questions, such references would in no way detract from the 
appearance of the work, and would add greatly to its value to 
the student. 

As to other features of the book, in binding and general make-up, 
it is a companion to Mau-Kelsey: Pompeii, Its Life and Art. 
Among its 179 illustrations are eight photogravures and nine 
maps and plans. The photogravures are as perfect as could be 
wished. Among maps and plans every one will miss that of the 
city of Athens, whose insertion seems to have been intended 
(p. 538), but which one looks for in vain. The photographic 
illustrations are in the main good, with the exception of some 
few in which a wide sweep of city or landscape is reduced to so 
small a space as to confuse and obscure the outlines of individual 
features (e. g. pp. 2, 8, 12). On pp. 6 and 7 the eye is offended 
by the projection of the illustrations beyond the edge of the print 
of the page. The page in this work is not so pleasant and 
harmonious as that of the Mau-Kelsey volume; the size of the 
type and the wide spacing are a trifle out of keeping with the 
serious content of the text, and the effect of type, spacing and 
margin, especially at the top of the page, is to make one uncom- 
fortable. There are a few typographical errors which will not 
please Professor Gardner, as for example: p. 149, southwest for 
southeast; 154, Sparta for Spata; 160, des deutsches Institut; 
164, oenochoae. 

But thought of the few faults of the work, both literary and 
mechanical, vanishes from the mind of the reader as he accom- 
panies the author in his admirable presentation of this most 
fascinating subject. Professor Gardner's Ancient Athens ought 
to be on the shelf of every student and teacher of the classics, 
and of every other person who delights in the reconstruction 
of the home of the most interesting community of the ancient 
Greek world. 

University of Wisconsin. GRANT SHOWERMAN. 

Dante and the Animal Kingdom. By Richard Thayer Hol- 
brook, Ph. D. New York, The Columbia University Press. 
376 pages. 

Voltaire says of Dante, ' Few people understand his oracles. 
He has commentators, which perhaps is another reason for his