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II.— LATIN INSCRIPTIONS AT THE JOHNS HOPKINS 
UNIVERSITY. 

VI. 1 

This article is devoted to a part of the sepulchral inscriptions 
of the Johns Hopkins collection. Except where a definite state- 
ment is made to the contrary all of them are of Roman origin. 

48. Slab of white marble 0,31 m. wide and 0,56 high with the 
following inscription : 

D • M 

A E L I A E • P • F • 

P H O E B E S 

Q V AE • VIX • AN N • X • 

MEN S • II • D • XXI • 
P-AELIVS-PHOEBION-ET 
AELIA • IANVARIA- PAREN 
TES • FECER • ANIMVLAE • DVLC • 
HIC • ANIMA • DVLCIS • TERRA • TE6ITVR 

The letters are well and deeply cut and in some cases still pre- 
serve traces of minium. This stone seems to have come from 
the same burial place as VI, 10948, which was found " in vinea 
Naria via Salaria" (Marini) about 1741-42 : d. m. s. | Aeliae p. 
fil. Phoebes | quae vix(it) ann(os) x, m(enses) ii, d(ies) xxi. j 
P. Aelius Phoebion et Aelia | Ianuaria, parentes, filiae | dulcis- 
simae fecerunt et | sibi et suis libert(is) libertabusq(ue) | poster- 
isque eorum. h(uic) m(onumento) d(olus) m(alus) a(besto). | In 
fronte p(edes) vii ; in agr(rum) p(edes) vii s. This is of course 
the general stone for the whole lot, whereas our inscription 
marked only the resting place of little Aelia Phoebe. Another 
Aelia Phoebe appears in VI, 10949, but she was a daughter of 
one T. Aelius. The use of animula as a tender epithet for the 
dead is not unusual and is found with dulcissima in VI, 7947. 
Still more common is anima, especially with dulcis and dulcis- 

'The preceding articles of this series appeared in this Journal, XXVIII, 
1907, pp. 450 ff.; XXX, 1909, pp. 61 ff., I53ff. ; and XXXI, 1910, pp. 25 ff., 
251ft 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS. 



167 



sitna. Another instance is seen below in number 50, and a full 
list of examples is given by Olcott, Thes. Ling. Epig., I, p. 3H-5- 
49. Small slab of white marble, 0,24 m. wide and 0,17 high, 
originally part of a double tablet from a columbarium. At the 
left is the hole for one of the nails by which it was attached to 
the wall, but on the right side, which is roughly broken, remain 
some traces of the conventional pattern which divided the 
tablet perpendicularly into two approximately equal parts. The 
inscription, which is cut in fairly good letters, is as follows: 

C N • A E M I L I 0/ 

F E LI C I 
S VCCESSVS •(/. 

B -D-S* M, 



At the end of the third line there is a trace of a lost letter, 
probably L, standing for liberius. The abbreviation in the last 
line for b(ene) d(e) s(e) m(erito) is common : cf. number 69 below. 
50. Slab of white marble, 0,60 m. wide and 0,36 high, bearing 
the following inscription, carefully cut in small letters of a style 
closely resembling the scripiura aduaria : 




DOMVI AETERNAE CONSECRATAE 6 



AGILE IAE PRIMAE Q • E AVGVRIAE 
VXORI SVPRA AETA.TEM CASTISSIMAE ET 

pvdicissimae • et frvgalissimae qvae innocenter 
maritvm • et domvm • eivs amavit omnia de se 
merenti fecit q • 0ppivs secvndvs maritvs et sibi 
tempore qvo svm genita • natv.ra • mihi • bis denos tribvit 
annos qvibvs completis septima deinde die • resolvta 
legibvs otio svm perpetvo • tradita haec mihi • vita • fvit 
oppi ne metvas lethen • nam stvltvm • est ■ tempore • et om 
ni • dvnc • Mortem • metvas • amittere gavdia • vitae • 
mors • etenim « hominvm • natvra • non ■ poena • est • 
cvi • c0ntigit • nasci • instat • et • mori • igttvr • 
domine oppi marite ne doleas mei • qvod praecessi 
svstineo in aeterno toro adventvm tvvm 



VALETE SVPERI • ET ' CVNCTI • CVNCTAEQVE • VALETE • 

This inscription was published in VI, 11 25 2 on the basis of a 
copy made by Gatti, whose reading varies from the stone only in 




168 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHILOLOGY. 

the placing of a few points. The most striking feature here, as 
in number 81 below, is the metrical character of certain parts of 
the inscription, for example, of lines 10 and n where we find two 
complete hexameters : 

Ne metuas Lethen nam stultum est tempore et omni 
Du(m) mortem metuas amittere gaudia vitae. 

In line 15 also we have a complete iambic senarius: 

Sustineo in aeterno toro adventum tuum, 

and in line 9 the latter half of a pentameter : haec mihi vita fuit. 
Similarly the last line, except at the beginning, is a good hex- 
ameter: *■ *j \j ■*■ superi et cuncti cunctaeque valete, and slight 
changes produce the same result in line 12 : Mors etenim natura 
hominum, non poena (deorum) est. 1 That most of these passages 
are due to literary reminiscence is very probable and the sources 
of some of them are pointed out in the brief notes which follow. 
Line 2. Auguria is a nickname, as is shown by Q • E (=quae 
et): compare Auguriorum in VI, 10269. I ts use as a cognomen 
and finally as a nomen naturally follows. See the examples in 
Thes. Ling. Lat. II, 1370, 47 ff. 

Line 8. With resoluta legibus compare Sil. It. xi, 36, resolutam 
legibus urbem ; though of course legibus has not the same force 
in the two passages. 

Line 10. With the exception of the first words we have an 
almost exact quotation from the Disticha Catonis (II, 3, p. 
223 B.) Linque metum leti ; nam stultum est tempore in omni, 
dum mortem metuas, amittere gaudia vitae. This seems to be 
the earliest testimonium to the Disticha, but as we cannot fix the 
date of the inscription, it avails little in determining the date 
of Cato. a 

Line 12. Not only the thought but the expression of this and 
the following line is derived from Seneca, who repeatedly gives 
voice to similar sentiments. The writer of the inscription was 
probably thinking of a passage in the De remediis fortuitorum 
(II, 1 in Haase III, p. 447) which reads: morieris, ista hominis 
natura est, non poena, and in this reminiscence bears the earliest 
witness to a work which some scholars have refused to acknow- 
ledge as Seneca's. The case for Annaean authorship is some- 

1 This was suggested by Buecheler, Carm. Epig., 1567, who grouped 
together a number of epitaphs of this character. 

*Cf. C. Hosius, Rhein. Mus. 50, 1895, p. 300; Buecheler, Carm. Epig., 
p. 858 ; Schanz, Gesch. r5m. Litt., § 519, p. 34. 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS. 169 

what strengthened by the immediately following reflection of a 
passage in Seneca, Epist. 99, § 8, omnis eadem condicio devinxit : 
cui nasci contigit, mori restat. Other passages of Seneca which 
have a bearing are Dial. XII, 13, 2, ultimum diem non quasi 
poenam, sed quasi naturae legem adspicis; Nat. Quaest. VI, 
32, 12, mors naturae lex est; Epigr. I, 7 (Poet. Lat. Min. IV, 1), 
lex est, non poena perire. 

Line 14. Ne doleas is a common beginning for the hexameter 
in epitaphs, e. g., Buecheler, Carm. Epig., 775 and 1407. 

Line 15. With aeterno toro compare XI, 1122, et iuxta coniunx 
meritos testatur honores Aeternum retinens consociata torum, and 
III, 2490, aeterno iungit pia membra cubili. 

Line 16. Valete superi: cf. V, 4078, valete ad superos. For 
superi in the sense of superstites see note on number 89 below. 

The phrase anima dulcis et innocua of the left ansa has its 
parallel in a Christian inscription of the year 388 given by 
De Rossi, 370, anima dulces innoca. See also V, 170, animae 
innocuae and note on anima dulcis in number 48 above. With 
in bono of the right ansa compare a Christian inscription in 
Marucchi, n. 108, Attice, spiritus tuus in bono. 

51. Small columbarium tablet, 0,18 m. wide and 0,10 high, 
with the usual holes at the ends and the nail on the right side 
still preserved. It is now in the possession of Dr. R. V. D. 
Magoffin, Johns Hopkins University. The inscription, cut in 
fairly good letters, is as follows : 

L • ALBATIVS 
PRIMIO 

The gens Albatia is rarely attested and seems to belong to 
Etruria. In XI, 1355 two officials of the collegium fabrum tig- 
nuariorum at Luna are Q. Albatius Corinthus and Q. Albatius 
Verna, and Phlegon Trail. (Ill, 609 Muller) mentions 'AXBaria 

Saftipa rroXeas Xlapfxys. 

52. Travertine pigna from Palestrina, 0,25 m. in height, with 
the following inscription on the shoulder : 

ALBINIVS 

The name Albinius appears twice at Praeneste, namely XIV, 
2968 and 2974. Here the absence of praenomen as well as the 
character of the cutting arouse suspicion of the genuineness of 
the inscription, which is rightly rejected by Dessau, Eph. Epig., 



170 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHILOLOGY. 

IX, p. 450. Of the antiquity of the pigna itself there can be 
no doubt. 

This inscription was published by Magoffin, American Journal 
of Archaeology, XIV, 19 10, p. 51. 

53. Front portion of a circular urn of white marble, which 
now measures 0,22 m. in width and 0,205 ln height. On a sculp- 
tured tabula ansaia (0,13 m. wide and 0,14 high) is cut in good 
letters the following inscription : 

CN • ANN AEQ 
E V N O M O 
CALT1LIA 
6 E N I C E, 
C0IV6 • B • Mjf. 

At the lower right hand corner a portion of the stone is broken 
away, carrying with it a part of the M and almost all of the F, 
which like the O in the first line ran over on the surrounding 
molding. As a rule, C and G are hardly to be distinguished 
on this stone : only in the initial of the fourth line is the form at 
all characteristic. 

54. Tablet of pavonazzetto, 0,35 m. wide and 0,14 high, with 
the usual holes at the ends and with deeply cut lines in the form 
of a tabula ansata. The stone came from outside the porta 
Salaria and bears the following inscription, which is well cut, 
though in a somewhat vulgar style : 

ANTISTIA • VR BANA 

FECIT • AEDICVLAM • SIBI 

ET • L • ANTISTIO • ILISSO 

FILIO • SVO 

IS VIXIT ANNIS XVIII 

The use of aedicula with reference to the tomb or a part of it is 
very common at Rome though rarely found elsewhere. Thus the 
phrase fecit aediculam occurs again and again in the sixth 
volume of the Corpus, e. g. VI, 11685, 12677, I 5547> *7652, 
22584. The use of Ilissus as a cognomen or as a slave's name is 
not very common, but may be seen in IX, 484, Q. Atilio Q. 1. 
Ilisso, and possibly also 4909 (see Mommsen's note). The 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS. 171 

absence of the father's name as well as the coincidence of the 
nomina of mother and son points to illegitimacy. 

55. Tablet of white marble, 0,445 m - wide and 0,18 high, 
bearing the following inscription : 

CN • ANTONI • LAVMEDI sic 

AEMILIAI • D • L • HELICONIAI 
CN ■ ANTONI • CN • L sic 

MOSCHIONI 

The letters are deeply cut and square, showing a certain lack of 
finish which recalls the work of late republican times, though I 
should not venture to assign it to so early a period. The fourth 
line and most of the third, as indicated by the inclined capitals, 
were cut in rasura, but no traces of earlier letters, if such existed, 
remain. LAVMEDI is the dative of Laumedes or Laomedes, 
which seems to be otherwise unattested either in Greek or in 
Latin. Compare, however, the equivalent form AswfuySijr which 
occurs in I. G., II, 1010; XII, 293, 4; ib. 277, 142 (Thasos). 
Since therefore the dative is required, the graver should have cut 
ANTONIO in both instances. The dative in -ai is not unknown 
during the empire, e. g. VI, 921, Antoniai Augustai of the time 
of Claudius. Gnaeus as a praenomen in the gens Antonia is 
very rare, but occurs, e. g., in IX, 5428 (Falerio), Antonia Cn. 
fil. Picentina. 

56. Tablet of marble, 0,305 m. wide and 0,22 high, with two 
holes for nails, one on the left at the top and the other on the 
right at the middle. The inscription, well cut in a style that can 
scarcely be later than the middle of the second century and still 
showing abundant traces of minium, runs as follows : 

dIs • mAnibvs 
appvleiae • gratillae 

VIX • AN • XIIII • M • VI • D • XV • 
FECERVNT • 
CN -COSSVTIVS • APRICLVS 
ET • APPVLEIA • LOCHIAS • 
PATRONI • VERNAE • KARISSIMAE 
ET • L • APPVLEIVS • REGILLVS ■ TATA 

All these proper names are already well attested. Of the cog- 
nomina Lochias is the most common and Apriclus the least 



172 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHILOLOGY. 

frequent. It occurs, however, in VI, 1057, (7), 42, T. Anneius 
Apriclu(s) and the feminine Apricla in VI, 16694 an °l J 7794- 
TATA in the last line seems in this case, as often, to mean 
grandfather. 1 

57. Small tabula ansata, 0,24 m. wide and 0,095 high, from a 
columbarium. The nails are still preserved in the holes at the 
ends. The marble, which was worked to a smooth surface only 
on the front, bears the following inscription : 

ATTICA 

TIB • CAESERIS • LElB sic 

The letters are well formed and deeply cut and still show traces 
of minium. The date seems to be after 4 A. D., when Tiberius 
was adopted by Augustus, but before his accession in 14. The 
very natural error CAESERIS occurs also in IV, 2308, VI, 
9492 and XIV, 2519. The use of the long form of I in El ( = i), 
though seen not rarely in republican inscriptions, is more common 
in the first century. 2 

58. Small slab of marble, 0,23 m. wide and 0,30 high, 
roughly chipped and broken on all sides, yet with slight injury 
to the inscription. The text, which is cut in fine square letters 
of a good period, runs as follows : 

C • A V I L I V S 

MENOFHl LVs 

FRON I M E 

FECIT • FILIA 

DVLCISSIMa 

QVAE-VIXI/ 

ANNIS • X I II 

DIEBVS -XVII 

Above FILIA in the third line FRONIME was added in small 
cramped letters, whether by the same or a later graver it is 

1 For a detailed discussion of the use of this and similar childish words, see 
W. Heraeus, die Sprache der rom. Kinderstube, in Archiv f. lat. Lex., XIII, 
148 ff., and especially 155. The examples in C. I. L. VI are given by 
Harrod, Latin Terms of Endearment etc., pp. 53 and 57. 

5 J. Christiansen. De apicibus et i Iongis inscriptionum latinarum, p. 28 f. 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS. 173 

impossible to determine. In MENOFHILVS too in the second 
line some later unskilled hand attempted to change the F to a 
P. Owing to the chipping away of the stone, letters have been 
lost at the ends of lines two, four, and five ; possibly also of lines 
six and seven, though on this last point one may not speak with 
confidence. The gens Avilia, or Avillia, as it more commonly 
appears on the stones, is well attested both in Italy and in the 
provinces. 1 Strangely enough we find another Avillius Men- 
ophilus in VI, 34596, L. Avilli L. 1. Menophili. 

59. Fragment of marble whose extreme measurements are 
0,175 m - wide (at the bottom) and 0,13 high (at the right side)* 
The inscription, which is scratched rather than cut in a very 
vulgar style, is as follows: 




To complete this we seem to need at the beginning of the first 
line a praenomen and AV and at the beginning of the second 
line IV, thus making it read [M(?) Au]rel | [iu]s Secu | nduss (?) 
A I urelia. The former S in the third line is written within the 
V and seems to be superfluous. 

On the other side of this stone is scratched a picture of the 
crudest sort which displays about as much artistic skill as the 
graffiti of idlers usually show.* In the middle is represented 
something that looks like an erect tombstone coming to a point 
at the top. In the main field of this tombstone is a rough draw- 
ing of a human figure with large head and very slender body and 
legs. Above the hesd in the triangular space at the top is the 
word PIVS. Behind the tombstone — if such it is — stands a 
horse, hidden for the most part, but showing his head on the 
right and his haunches on the left of the stone. Above the 
horse's head is a circle and above that again a bird, and on the 
other side above the horse's haunches is an X with a character 
like a reversed N beneath it. To frame some ingenious theory 

1 Fullest list of occurrences in Thes. Ling. Lat., II, 1451. 

8 Examples of such drawings may be seen in Not. d. Scav., 1904, p. 155, 
1907, p. 546, and in Wuensch, Sethianische Verfluchungstafeln aus Rom, 
pp. 8 ff. 



174 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHILOLOGY. 

in explanation of all this would not be difficult, but it seems wiser 
as well as nearer the truth to say that its significance is not 
apparent. 

60. Lower part of the front of a marble cinerary urn, 0,39 m. 
wide and 0,115 high. Between the bases of the fluted pilasters 
which marked the corners is the space set apart for the name of 
the dead. The inscription, which is well cut, though not in the 
finest monumental style, is as follows : 

FLORA • BAEBIA • > • L 

The gens Baebia is one of the old plebeian families of Rome and 
gave to the Republic men of high rank in both peace and war. 
Flora is very common as the name of slaves and freed women and 
of course the particular Baebia who was her patrona, cannot be 
identified. Other recently discovered members of the gens are 
reported in Not. d. Scav., 1899, p. 79 ; 1903, p. 351 ; 1905, p. 300 
and L'Ann. Epig., 1903, nn. 189, 234, 363. 

61. Small marble tablet, 0,21 m. wide and 0,125 high, still 
preserving the nails by which it was attached to the wall of the 
tomb. The inscription, which is well cut and of a good period, 

is as follows : 

C • CALPVRNIVS 

C • L 

SABINVS 

The names are too common to call for remark. Even a Calpur- 
nius Sabinus occurs in VI, 14196 and a Calpurnia Sabina in VI, 
14249. 

62. Pigna of travertine from Palestrina, 0,38 m. in height, 
ornamented with a conventional leaf pattern on the throat. The 
inscription, which is well cut in letters probably of the second 
century b. C, consists of the single word 

CAMELI A 

This family is well attested at Praeneste in XIV, 3080-3084. 
The Camelia of 3083 doubtless belongs to an earlier generation 
on account of the form of L with the acute angle at the base. 1 

1 This inscription was first published by Magoffin, 1. c, p. 52, n. 4. Dessau, 
Ephem. Epig. IX, p. 450 is clearly mistaken in identifying it with XIV, 3083. 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS. 1 75 

63. Marble cinerary urn in the form of a temple, measuring 
0,26 m. wide, 0,21 deep and 0,265 high to the peak. The roof is 
carved to represent a covering of leaf-shaped tiles and has an 
antefix at each corner. In the pediment are sacrificial emblems 
in relief, the patera in the centre, the pitcher at the left, and the 
sprinkler at the right. Between the pilasters which stand at the 
corners is the usual space for the inscription, which is carefully 
cut in a good style and reads as follows : 

DlIS • MANIBVS 

CLAVDIO 
ALEXANDRO 

Here again the names are very common. In VI, 4469 we have 
C. Claudius Alexander, ib. 14912-3 Ti. Claudius Alexander and 
ib. 34856 Claudius Alexander. On the form DIiS, which occurs 
also in number 71 below and in VI, 19878, see Christiansen, 1. c, 

P- 33- 

64. Sepulchral altar of white marble, now broken into two 
pieces, 0,255 m * wide, 0,16 deep, and 0,66 high, with the usual 
volutes at the top and the urceus and patera on the sides. In the 
top are five holes, one at each corner and one in the centre, for 
the metal clamps by which some object was attached. The 
inscription, surrounded by the usual moldings, is well cut in the 
monumental style and reads as follows : 

D • M 
TI • CLAVDIO 

P ROC LO • F E 
CIT • F LAV I A 



urceus PRIMITIVA patera 

COI VGI • SVO 

BENEMERENTI 

HOMINI BONO 

This inscription was first copied in the latter part of the fifteenth 
century by Iucundus and appears in C. I. L., VI, 15231. Here 
the editors, following Rambertus, have called the stone urna 
instead of ara and have accepted the text as given by Armellini, 



176 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHILOLOGY. 

Cronichetta, 1878, p. 192, who reports the location " in vinea via 
Salaria nova ad dextram paullo ultra coemeterium Priscillae ". 
The only variant from his reading concerns the separative point 
in the last line, which does not appear on the stone. The synco- 
pated form Proclus for Proculus is by no means rare: similarly 
Procla for Procula. The phrase homo bonus appears in a Chris- 
tian inscription of Mauretania (Dessau, 7762) and also occurs six 
times in the sixth volume. See Harrod, 1. c, p. 35. 

65. Tablet of white marble, 0,37 m. wide and 0,20 high, with 
the following inscription : 

D • M • CLAVDIAE • EVTYCHIAE 

VALERIA • OLYMPIAS • MATRI 

PlISSIMAE • ET • L ■ VALERIVS • TERPNVS 

COIV6I-CARISSIMAE-ET-C-PLAETO 

RIVS • AMABILIS • FECERVNT 

ET-SIBI • ET-SVIS- POSTERISQVE 

• E O R V M • 

The letters are fairly well cut, but are probably not earlier than 
the end of the second century. The form of G in the fourth line 
and the regularly closed loop of P among other indications are 
suggestive of the later period. The names are all well known ; 
even the combination Claudia Eutychia occurs in VI, 15411-18 
and 34922. On the ways of writing piissimus in the inscriptions 
with reference to the I longa, see Christiansen, 1. c, p. 34. 

66. Cinerary urn of marble, 0,585 m. wide, 0,355 deep, and 
0,22 high, from outside the porta Salaria. This urn is plainly 
but tastefully made, lacking almost entirely the ornamental carv- 
ing with which many urns are overloaded. There are two com- 
partments each with its own cover, and on the front, surrounded 
by the usual moldings, is the following inscription, carefully cut 
in good letters of early imperial times : 

COELIAE • Q • L • ATHENAIDI 

Q • COELIVS • PRIMVS 

PATRONVS 

From the same quarter comes the inscription VI, 34984, Coelia 
Aphrodisia and in the columbaria are 6892, Q. Coelius Q. 1. 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS. 177 

Bacchius, and 7899, Q. Coelius Hermes. But the name is 
common and no connection is suggested as more than possible. 
Probably the most prominent Q. Coelius is the praetor of VI, 
91 who made a dedication to Concordia in the reign of Tiberius. 
67. Small tablet of grey marble, 0,195 m ' wide and 0,095 high, 
from outside the porta Salaria. It is now broken into two almost 
equal parts and bears the following inscription in letters of a 
careless and vulgar style : 

COSCONJA • CALITYCHE 
VIXSIT • ANNOS • XVIII 
LETO • DATA* EST • PR • IDVS • IVL 
IDIBVS • ED&TA • EST 

IVLLO • ANTONIO • AFRICANO • COS 

This stone owes its chief interest and importance to the fact that 
it bears the names of the consuls of 10 B. c. and thus has a defi- 
nite date. Iullus Antonius was the son of the triumvir and was 
addressed by Horace in Carm. IV, 2. The spelling of his name, 
which appears wrongly as Iulius or lulus in many manuscript 
sources not only of Horace but of other authors, was finally 
established by an inscription discovered on the Esquiline in the 
spring of 1888 (VI, 30974). This inscription is a dedication to 
Mercury by Augustus in 10 B. c. and gives the names of the 
consuls as Iullo Antonio Africano Fabio cos. Further testimony 
comes from VI, 12010, M. Antoni Iulli | patris 1. Rufionis and 
now again from our inscription. 1 The mention of Africanus 
Fabius Maximus by his first name only is due to lack of space, 
as well as to the fact that Africanus was well known as a cogno- 
men. This is also the reason why the Chronographus of the 
year 354, the Fasti Hydatiani, and the Chronicon Paschale all 
report Africanus and Maximus as the consuls of the year 744 
A. U. C. 2 

1 This question has been sufficiently discussed by Huelsen, Berl. Phil. 
Woch., 1888, 667; Mommsen, Hermes, 1888, 155 ff. = Phil. Schriften, i87f. ; 
Buecheler, Rhein. Mus., 1889, 317; Gatti, Bull. Com., 1888, 235 f. and tav. 
XII ; Pros. Imp. Rom., svv. 

8 See Bull. Com., 1888, 236 f. 



178 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHILOLOGY. 

Probably no name shows more varied orthography than the 
cognomen of our Cosconia. The form Callityche is of course the 
most common, but Calityche is found also in VI, 26265, 2 ^333 
and Bull. Com., 1907, p. 197; Calithyce in VI, 11018, 27615, 
33649; Caletyce in Not. d. Scav., 1909, p. 461 and Bull. Com., 
1906, p. 315 ; Calytice in Bull. Com., 1906, p. 99 ; Callituche in 
VI, 4510, 6185, 18302 ; Callityce in VI, 10676 ; Callytyche in VI, 
16537. Burial on the next day after death was unusual in 
ancient as in modern times, but examples are recorded in the 
humbler walks of life and especially in Christian inscriptions. 
In this case the season may have had its influence. Other 
instances are Marucchi, Epigrafia Crist., n. 328, recessit die 
Mercuris ora viii et deposita die Iovis Iduum Maiarum ; ib. n. 

341, defunctus est diae (?) Saturni et sepultus diae (?) 

Solis vi Kal. April. ; Not. d. Scav., 1908, p. 465, recessit viii Id. 
Aug. deposita est in pace vii Idus Augustas ; Bull. Com., 1905, 
p. 310 [in pa]ce v Idus D[ecembris] .... dep. iiii. The use of 
XS for X at this period and the old formulaic expression leto 
datus quoted by Varro, L. L. vii, 42 and Festus, p. 336, 34 (de 
Ponor) are too well known to require further comment. 

68. Tablet of white marble, 0,18 m. wide and 0,18 high, with 
the following inscription carefully cut in a good style : 

D A D V C V S 

LAMILLAE • SER 

VIXIT • ANN • XX 

CARVS SVlIs 

MA SOROR • FEC 

The most interesting of these names is Lamilla, which I do not 
recall having met with elsewhere. It is, however, a diminutive 
from Lamia and similar in formation to Plotilla, Domitilla and 
Albucilla. 1 Daduchus as a name of slave or freedman is found, 
for example, in VI, 12651, 16716 and Not. d. Scav., 1902, p. 133, 
and Ma occurs in VI, 12471, Oppia Sp. f. Ma, ib., 2356, Orbia 
Ma, and XIV, 3157, Ma. On the common form SVllS, see 
Christiansen, 1. c, p. 33. 

1 Paucker has discussed personal names in -ilia in Kuhn's Zeitschrift, 
xxiii, pp. 184-8. 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS. 179 

69. Marble tablet, 0,225 m - w >de an ^ °> r 9 high, with the 
following inscription, which is deeply cut but in a somewhat 
vulgar style : 

D • M • 

CN • DOMITI D LIB 
HYMNI • V • A • TV • M • 
V-D- XXIII -FECIT -HE 
RACLIA MATER • FIL • 
sic PIINTISSIMO • D S • B • 
M 

Hymnus and Heraclia or Heraclea are well known as names of 
slaves or freedmen and need no comment. The abbreviations 
D S • B • M signify d(e) s(e) b(ene) m(erito): cf. no. 49 above. 

70. Pigna of travertine from Palestrina, 0,33 m. in height, with 
the following inscription on the base : 

C • FABIVS 

Dessau regards this with suspicion and relegates it to a footnote 
in Ephem. Epig., IX, p. 450; on the whole his suspicion seems 
well grounded. The cutting of F in particular, with short middle 
stroke, looks like the work of a modern graver. 

71. Tablet of marble, 0,265 m. wide and 0,135 h>gh> with a 
conventional waving pattern at the top, a tree on each side and a 
wreath and two snakes at the bottom. The inscription, care- 
fully cut in good letters, is as follows : 

DI I S • M ANIB VS 

arbor FABIAE • TERTVLLAE arbor 

VIXIT • ANNIS • XXV 

anguis anguis 



For the form DI1S, see the note on number 63 above. 

72. Marble slab of triangular shape like the pediment of a 
building, measuring 0,44 m. wide at the bottom and 0,195 highj 
13 



180 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHILOLOGY. 

and lacking a small fragment on the right side. The inscrip- 
tion, which is cut in a good style of the early part of the second 
century, reads as follows : 



D£? M 




FELICI • CAES* 

N' • SER • VERN • Q • V • AN • 

XIIII • MENS • X • DIEB • VII • 

FEC • M • VLPIVS • AVG • LIB • PACATVS 

ET • CAELIA- VENVSINA • PARENT • F • B ■ M 

SIBI • SVISQ • POSTERISQ ♦ SVORVM • 



f 



D(is) M(anibus). Felici, Caes(aris) n(ostri) ser(vo) vern(ae), 
q(ui) v(ixit) an(nis quattuordecim), mens(ibus decern), dieb(us 
septem), fec(erunt) M(arcus) Ulpius, Aug(usti) lib(enus), Paca- 
tus et Caelia Venusina parent(es) f(ilio) b(ene) m(erenti) e[t] 
sibi suisq(ue) posterisq(ue) suorum. 

The imperial master of Felix was doubtless Trajan, the patro- 
nus of M. Ulpius Pacatus. The use of Venusina as a personal 
name is not common, but may be seen, for example, in IX, 771. 
For the comparatively rare use of the ascia on inscriptions from 
Rome, see note on number 24 above in the fourth article, p. 28. 

73. Marble tabula ansala, 0,36 m. wide and 0,155 high, with 
the following inscription in fairly good letters : 

L • FIRMIO • VITALI 

CLAVDI A ■ M ETHE 

ET • SIBI • FECIT 

None of these names is rare. The most interesting is Methe 
(ni6rj) which is well attested as a slave name in both Greek and 
Latin and recalls such suggestive names as Phiale and Dipsas, 1 
though these of course do not belong to the class of abstract 
nouns used as personal names. 

74. Block of marble 0,44 m. wide, 0,16 high, and 0,12 thick 
with fluting on the back which shows that it was once part of a 

'Phiale in Iuv. 10, 238 ; Dipsas ... ex re nomen habet, Ovid, Am., 1, 8, 2 f. 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS. 181 

pilaster. On the front in good letters of the first or early part of 
the second century is the following inscription : 

SOLO • DO NATO -AT- FLAVl 
NICEROS • LlB • SIBI •( 

lIbertabvsqveI 

It is evident that these lines are incomplete and that about half 
of the inscription is missing at the right. Under these circum- 
stances it is of course impossible to identify this T. Flavius 
among the many of that name, although the generous gifts of 
T. Flavius Syntrophus to his freedmen, as attested in VI, 10239, 
at once come to mind. The more common expression to indi- 
cate a gift of ground for a tomb or monument is locus datus or 
locus donates, e. g. XIV, 197 and 995. 

75. Slab of marble, 0,13 m. wide and 0,515 high, in the con- 
ventional tombstone shape with rounded top and projecting 
points at the upper corners. It is broken horizontally into two 
pieces somewhat above the middle. The upper portion, which 
measures 0,13 m. wide by 0,20 high, bears the following inscrip- 
tion, fairly well cut in a style that probably does not much ante- 
date the year 200 A. D. : 

X D • M' 
T • F L A V I 
E V T Y C H E 

'FLA VI A' 

CALLITYCHE 

CONIVGI • BENE 

X M E R E N T I 

7ECIT' 

The genitive Euiyche for Eutychae occurs also in VI, 18059, 
T. Flavi Sp. f. Eutyche. The nominative appears in VIII, 5236, 
M. Antonius Eutycha and XIII, 6423, Eutychas disp(ensalor) 
and the dative in XIV, 2408, L. Acilio L. f. Pompt. Eutyche. 1 

'Dessau supplies a final syllable, thus: Eutyche[ti] ; but this seems quite 
unnecessary. 



182 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHILOLOGY. 

Other forms of the name of course are common, e. g., VI, 
18058, T. Flavio Eutycheti and Not. d. Scav., 1905, p. 118, 
T. Flavius Eutychus. For the spelling of Callityche see above 
on number 67. 

76. Slab of marble, 0,295 m. wide and 0,34 high, rounded at 
the top, with the following inscription cut in a good style of the 
latter part of the first century : 

D • M • 

T-FLAVIO-T* F 
QVIRINA • RY 
THIMIANO • FE 
CIT • RYTHYMVS 
PATER • AVG • L • 
VIXIT • ANNIS • 
DVOBVS • MENSI 
BVS • OCTO • DIE 
BVS • DECEM 

In the fourth line a later hand attempted to change the first I to Y. 
The name Rythymus, so far as my observation goes, is un- 
attested. It seems to be derived from the Greek pv6fi6s with the 
insertion of Y which may be due to some obscure analogy. If 
we might assume that Rythymus is merely a graver's error for 
Euthymus, a possibility suggested to me in correspondence by 
Dr. Dessau, all difficulty would disappear. The reading on the 
stone, however, is perfectly clear and admits of no doubt as to 
what was actually written. The son of the imperial freedman 
was given his father's cognomen in the secondary form Rythi- 
mianus just as in IX, 1506 the third son of M. Cosinius Priscus 
was called M. Cosinius Priscianus. 1 It is worthy of remark also 
that he is assigned to the tribus Quirina, the tribe of the Flavian 
imperial family which originally came from the neighborhood 
of Reate. 2 

77. Slab of white marble, 0,52 m. wide and 0,45 high, with 
conventional molding at top and bottom, but roughly broken at 
the sides. It may have been the middle portion of the front of a 
sarcophagus, and bears the following inscription in well cut 

1 Marquardt-Mau, Privatleben, p. 24, n. 5. 2 Suet., Vesp., I. 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS. 183 

letters of a period not earlier than the latter part of the second 
century ; 

D • M 

F L • P R I M I T I V A • F E.C [# 
SIBI • ET • RESTITVTO • CONI[w 
61 •CARISIMOSVO'ET sic 

LIBERTIS-LIBERQVAEPOS sic 

TERISQVE'AEORVM tic 

H • M • O H • B • N • S • 




The spelling CARISIMO has its parallels in VI, 20094, 2I2 73> 
29324 and elsewhere, and the substitution of AE for short open 
E as in LIBER(taous') QVAE and AEORVM is common. The 
significance of B in the last line is unknown to me, unless it be 
merely a graver's error for E in the usual formula h(oc) m(onu- 
mentum) h(eredem) e(xterum) n(on) s(equetur). This stone, 
like number 72 above, adds one more to the comparatively small 
number of instances of the ascia found at Rome. See note on 
number 24 above in the fourth article, p. 28. 

78. Tablet of marble from a columbarium, 0,43 m. wide and 
0,13 high, with the usual nail hole at each end. The inscription, 
which is cut in good letters of a comparatively early period of the 
empire, reads as follows : 

OLL • II 
FLAVIA • D • L • SALVIA • 

PATRONO • DAT • OLLA • T • D • S • P 

D • FLAVIVS • D • L • BARNAEVS 

These cognomina are not very common but Salvia is, for 
example, the cognomen of a freedwoman in VI, 25842 and Ephem. 
Epig. VIII, p. 135, n. 529 and Salvius of a freedman ib., p. 129, 
n. 503. Barnaeus, too, occurs in V, 8905 and in Cicero, Att. xiv, 
19, 1. For the usual ollam dat we find dot olla(m) not rarely 
used, as in VI, 3994, Gemina 1. Augustae | ornatrix | Irene 1. 
suae dat olla. Similarly ib. 3936, 4094, 4265. Dat ollam on the 
other hand appears ib. 3967, 4012, 4107, and dat oll{am), ib. 



184 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHILOLOGY. 

4065, 4102, 4236. The initial letters in the second line probably 
signify t(itulum) d(e) s(ua) p(ecunia). 

79. Thin tablet of marble, 0,205 m - wide and 0,105 high, with 
the following inscription carefully cut between guiding lines 
scratched on the surface : 

GARGONIA • C • L 

ANOTALE sic 

H -S-E 

On the other side of the tablet, cut less carefully but apparently 
by the same hand, stands the same inscription with the misspell- 
ing corrected and the separative points in the last line omitted : 

GARGONIA • C • L • 

ANATOLE 

H S E 

The immediate discovery of his error seems to have led the 
graver to reverse the stone and repeat the inscription. The 
names are rather uncommon, though well attested in the inscrip- 
tions. For example, we find Gargonia Valentina in VI, 18886, 
Aelia Anatole ib. 11607 and Licinia D. 1. Anatole in Not. d. Scav., 
1900, p. 579. 

80. Tablet of marble, 0,32 m. wide and 0,20 high, inscribed 
with good letters of the early imperial period. An incised con- 
ventional pattern surrounds the text, which reads as follows : 

Dls • MANIBVS 
L • GELLI • FELICIS 
VALERIA • ONOMASE 

VIRO-SVOET-SIBI 
POSTERISQ • SVIS • FECIT 

The third line was erased in antiquity but not so completely as 
to make decipherment impossible. Another L. Gellius Felix 
appears in VI, 18964 and Onomaste as a cognomen of freed- 
women is fairly common, e. g., XIV, 1233, 3774 and 3832, 
Rubellia L. 1. Onomaste. 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS. 185 

81. Slab of white marble from outside the Porta Salaria, 
0,25 m. wide and 0,345 high, broken into two parts by a violent 
blow, doubtless of a workman's pickaxe. The stone is roughly 
broken also at the bottom. The inscription, which is cut in 
small but well made letters, reads as follows : 

P . GRATTIVS . SP . F 

COL . CELER 
Hie • EGO NVNC • IACEO • GRATTIVS 
INFEL1X • SVB • TEGMINE • TERRAE 
5^"B-A-R-B-A • DEPOSITA • PERAGE] 
TERTIv\- ET • vIcE j*SIM 3£M<'AlfNVM 
INFELIX • INtHGIirar^SVBlECTVS 

ACERBE • MORTE • NEFANDA 
OCCISVS • CALCE • ET • MANIBVS • EXTRA 
10 FATVM • PROTRVSVS • IN HAS • TENEBKAS 
HOC • OPTO • MORIARE • MAlIs • EX 

EMPLls • CRVCIATVS • ET • IPSE 
NEC • TE NVNC • LICEAT • QVO • ME 
PRlVASTl • LVMEN • VIDERE 
15 ET • TV • DES • POENAS • QVA S • MERVISt /"^ 
DEFENSVS • INlQVI 
VOS • NVNC • CONSJ 

This text was first published in Not. d. Scav., 1900, p. 578, by 
Gatti, whose copy varies from the stone only in its omission of 
four separative points and in its failure to record seven of the 
eight examples of the I longa. These errors, however, were for 
the most part corrected in Bull. Com., 1901, p. 103. Two other 
inscriptions from the same region seem to show that a collegium 
funeraticium was organized in the familia of P. Grattius: Bull. 
Com., 1902, p. 88, n. 4, P. Gratt[ius] P. 1. Heracl[a], | mag(ister) 
de[sign(atus)] and ib. 1901, p. 103, P. Gr[attius P. 1.] | Dio .... 
[omnibus] | honoribu[s f]unct(us) | in familia. Our P. Grattius 
Celer, like illegitimate sons generally, is assigned to the tribus 
Collina, the least honorable of the four city tribes. 

The most interesting feature of this inscription is the fact that 
it is made up almost entirely of the disiecta membra of poetry, 
stray snatches of verse, most of which are mere commonplaces of 
the epitaph, while others recall with more or less force passages 



l86 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHILOLOGY. 

from classical authors. Slight changes and occasional omissions 
would transform this chaos into hexameters which are at least as 
good as the average verses found in the Carmina Epigraphica : 

Hie ego nunc iaceo infelix sub tegmine terrae, 
Barba deposita, peragens vicensimum | annum, 
Indigne subiectus, acerbe morte nefanda 
Occisus, calce et manibus protrusus in -t — . 
Hoc opto moriare malis cruciatus et ipse 
Exemplis. 

Nee te nunc liceat quo me — -t \j videre. 
Et tu des poenas quas -t defensus inique. 
Vos nunc conso[lor]. 

To the popular mind even rhythmical phrases and unfinished or 
imperfect verses made their irresistible appeal and it is by no 
means unusual to find in the epitaphs the metrical form of a line 
as a whole utterly shattered by the introduction of a name or the 
change of a number. For example, VIII, 10828 has in iambic 
senarius quae dum per annos bis XVIII vita gerit, where decern 
was changed to XVIII to suit a new occasion. Similarly in a 
pentameter X, 5020 we read In sexto et decern ascendens deposui 
hanc animam, where et decern is superfluous. The strange state 
of mind indicated by these phenomena has its parallel in modern 
times also as the following clipping from the memorial column of 
a recent newspaper shows : 

God alone knows how we miss thee 
In our home, O daughter and sister dear, 
How for thee our hearts are yearning, 
How we long thy praise to hear. 

By her Mother and Sisters. 

To throw light on the method of such compositions a few com- 
ments and parallels are added. Their number could be greatly 
increased by a careful reading of Buecheler's Carmina Epi- 
graphica or even by a perusal of the pages of Lier and Tolman. 1 
Line 3. Hie ego nunc iaceo : B(uecheler) 373, 3, hie ego nunc 
iac(eo) ; ib. 389, 3, hie ego secure iaceo ; 399, Florus ego hie 
iaceo; ib. 496, hie iaceo infelix; cf. Ovid, Trist. iii, 1, 73, hie ego 
qui iaceo. 

'B. Lier, Topica carminum sepulcralium Latinorum, in Philologus, 1903, 
pp. 445 and 563 ; ib. 1904, p. 54. J. A. Tolman, A Study of the Sepulchral 
Inscriptions in Buecheler's Carmina Epigraphica Latina. Chicago, 1910. 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS. 187 

Line 4. sub tegmine terrae: Verg. Eel. i, 1, sub tegmine 
fagi; cf. B. 400, 6, at quamvis te terra tegat, and n. 48 above 
(at end). 

Line 5-6. Peragens . . . annum : B. 588, 3, ter senis misero et 
quattuor paene peractis annis. 

Line 7. Indigne: B. 1007, 2, indigne raptus; ib. 619, hostibus 
indigne saeva n[unc morte peremptus] dune cupit infelix flammas 
[inferre]. 

Line 9. Calce et manibus: Plaut. Poen. 819, incursat pugnis, 
calcibus ; Cic. Verr. iii, 56, cum pugnis et calcibus concisus esset. 

Line 10. Protrusus in has tenebras : Phaed. V, 7, 39, capite 
est protrusus foras ; Stat. Theb. ii, 25, has . . . tenebras (in the 
same sense). 

Line 11-12. Hoc opto: compare VI, 36467, opto ei, ut cum | 
dolore corporis | longo tempore vivat | et cum mortuus fue|rit 
inferi eum non | recipiant. The awlul nature of the curse reminds 
one of the defixiones. The same construction is seen in B. 
1 191, 9, optamus dulce quiesc[ant]. Parallels for the colloquial 
malts exemplis cruciatus abound in Plautus and elsewhere. 

Line 14. Privasti (Jumine): Macrob. Ill, 9, 10, lumine supero 
privetis; B. 445, 5, hanc annus x privavit munere lucis ; ib. 651, 
pribatus luci ; ib. 516, 7, luce privata; ib. 398, 2, caruit luce; 
ib. 514, 2, fraudatus luce. For other similar expressions, see 
Tolman, I. c, p. 41. With lumen videre compare B. 392, cernere 
lucem ; ib. 474, 8, luce(m) videre. 

Line 16. Defensus iniqae; Iuv. x, 85, male defensus. 

The rest of the sepulchral inscriptions will form the basis of 
the next paper. 

Harry Langford Wilson. 

Johns Hopkins University,