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VIII.— DKAVIDIAN NEGATION.
In spoken English there is a word, commonly doubled to
express disapproval or negation, which we may transcribe a! or
a! (nasalized), writing / in accordance with Sweet's notation
to mark glottal stoppage. 1 Early Dravidian seems to have had
a similar negative. Kui uses it in ale (no), and as a suffix in
verbs. The order of the suffixes, with the negation standing
first, shows that the negative-stems are older than the tense-
stems. In the imperative the vowel of the negation is kept:
sidu (give), neg. slaltu. Otherwise in the present, where the
affirmative and the negative have different sets of endings, the
negation is reduced to the consonant / after a vowel, and may
be lost after a consonant: sine (gives), neg. slle; site (gave),
neg. smite;, side (is not), past sidalte. The first mention of
Kui / seems to occur in Friend-Pereira's Grammar (Calcutta,
1909) ; it is ignored in the account of Kui given by the Lin-
guistic Survey of India, vol. 4 (Calcutta, 1906).
In Malto the negative is formed with I: bande (draw), past
bandah, neg. past bandlah; mene (be), neg. present menolah
or menomalah. The future may have either the Z-suffix com-
bined with personal endings, or mala following the affirmative
forms. The word mala (not) is apparently derived from *al!a,
with m added from mene; the Z-suffix represents stressless
*al!a, a verb with the ancient negation, presumably connected
with Brahui a-, al-, ar- (be).
In Kurukh a few verbs take the negative-suffix I, but gener-
ally the negative is indicated by a word corresponding to Malto
mala : mal or mala, with an evidently older variant malla.
The consonant / has been lost elsewhere in Dravidian, and
the negative-suffix appears as a simple vowel, *al!a being repre-
sented by Brahui alia- (was not), Kanara alia, Tamil alia, and
G6ndi halle with analogic h. 2
Edwin H. Tuttle.
North Haven. Conn.
1 Sweet, Sounds of English, § 138 (Oxford, 1908).
2 American Journal of Philology, vol. 40, p. 82.