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In spoken English there is a word, commonly doubled to 
express disapproval or negation, which we may transcribe a! or 
a! (nasalized), writing / in accordance with Sweet's notation 
to mark glottal stoppage. 1 Early Dravidian seems to have had 
a similar negative. Kui uses it in ale (no), and as a suffix in 
verbs. The order of the suffixes, with the negation standing 
first, shows that the negative-stems are older than the tense- 
stems. In the imperative the vowel of the negation is kept: 
sidu (give), neg. slaltu. Otherwise in the present, where the 
affirmative and the negative have different sets of endings, the 
negation is reduced to the consonant / after a vowel, and may 
be lost after a consonant: sine (gives), neg. slle; site (gave), 
neg. smite;, side (is not), past sidalte. The first mention of 
Kui / seems to occur in Friend-Pereira's Grammar (Calcutta, 
1909) ; it is ignored in the account of Kui given by the Lin- 
guistic Survey of India, vol. 4 (Calcutta, 1906). 

In Malto the negative is formed with I: bande (draw), past 
bandah, neg. past bandlah; mene (be), neg. present menolah 
or menomalah. The future may have either the Z-suffix com- 
bined with personal endings, or mala following the affirmative 
forms. The word mala (not) is apparently derived from *al!a, 
with m added from mene; the Z-suffix represents stressless 
*al!a, a verb with the ancient negation, presumably connected 
with Brahui a-, al-, ar- (be). 

In Kurukh a few verbs take the negative-suffix I, but gener- 
ally the negative is indicated by a word corresponding to Malto 
mala : mal or mala, with an evidently older variant malla. 

The consonant / has been lost elsewhere in Dravidian, and 
the negative-suffix appears as a simple vowel, *al!a being repre- 
sented by Brahui alia- (was not), Kanara alia, Tamil alia, and 
G6ndi halle with analogic h. 2 

Edwin H. Tuttle. 

North Haven. Conn. 

1 Sweet, Sounds of English, § 138 (Oxford, 1908). 

2 American Journal of Philology, vol. 40, p. 82.