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As to what will probably be for most workers the most 
valuable part of the work, the bibliography, utter completeness 
is probably unattainable and is certainly needless. A some- 
what careful examination of crucial parts shows that Dr. 
Wells' aim at substantial completeness was in general success- 
ful. For Chaucer he means to supplement, not to supersede. 
Miss Hammond's Bibliographical Manual, to which he sends 
the reader for each item. Miss Hammond's note on the Frank- 
lin's Tale in Modern Language Notes, XXVH. 91-2, should 
have been mentioned, since it is later than her Manual ; Gum- 
mere on Chaucer's medieval and modern sides, in the Modern 
Language Publications, XVI. xxxvii-xl., should have been 
mentioned, as being of general interest and as ignored by Miss 
Hammond. For Layamon (so-called; if Dame Siri3, p. 178, 
Ernlese, p. 191, why not La3amon?) there might be mentioned 
an account and specimen of the Caligula MS in the New 
Paleographical Society, Ser. i, vol. 2 (London, 1903-12), 
plate 86; a review of Hoffmann's dissertation by Jordan in 
Engl. Stud. XLH. 262-4 ; an article on Anglo-Norman words 
in La3amon by Payne in Notes and Queries (1869), Ser. 4, 
vol. 4, pp. 26-7. On Godric and his lyrics reference might 
have been made to Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora (Rolls 
Ser.), n. 264-274, 352, and to Giraldus Cambrensis (ib.), IL 
214-6. On Gower's Mirour (not Miroir) de I'Omme reference 
might have been made (as to the date) to G. L. Kittredge, Date 
of Chaucer's Troilus (Chaucer Soc. 1909), 80-2, and to the 
present reviewer's Development and Chronology of Chaucer's 
Works (ib. 1907), pp. 220-225; also to Mod. Lang. Notes, 
XXI. 239-240. A recording in print of Professor Wells' 
minor slips would serve no good purpose. 

A reviewer's difficulty is often that the enumeration of minor 
matters which he would have liked to see otherwise fills more 
space and sometimes makes more impression than his words of 
warm appreciation. The present reviewer will round out by 
repeating his first sentence. This is an admirable piece of work. 

John S. P. Tatlock. 

Stanford University. 

Les Anciens Peuples de I'Europe. Georges Dottin. Pp. XIV 
-I- 302. (Vol. I of Collection pour I'etude des antiquites 
nationales.) C. Klincksieck, Paris, 1916. 

M. Camille Jullian announces that he and M. Dottin, in 
beginning the publication of a series of works upon the antiqui- 
ties of France, have wished to inaugurate the collection by 


dedicating the first volume to the most ancient peoples of all 
Europe. A number of other volumes are already under way, 
and the names of Cagnat, Toutain, Besnier — to mention only 
a few — are indicative of the character of the work which will 
appear in this new series. 

M. JuUian writes the introduction to this first volume. He 
says that he considers the purpose of the book is to show how 
necessary it is for the historian to make himself acquainted 
with the literature, the archaeology, the political economy, the 
anthropology, the geology, and so on, of a country. He calls 
Fustel de Coulanges to witness that history is the most difficult 
of all sciences. But he also seems to recognize in his phrase — 
even if it is said in another connection — " il n'est pas bon, en 
matiere d'histoire, d'avoir trop d'esprit ", that many of M. Dot- 
tin's pages are rather heavily loaded with narrative that is not 
entirely unlike a cross between a Catalogue of the Ships and a 
first chapter of St. Matthew. 

After the first chapter, which is entitled Les Sources, but 
which might as well have been called Caveat Lector, one comes 
to forty pages on Les Civilisations which give a clear and read- 
able account of the various cultural strata of the European 
peoples. The author has handled his sources with acumen and 
diligence, and one is fain to believe that he has not used some 
of the latest books because he felt some hesitancy as to the final 
acceptance of many of the results set forth in them. Les 
Peuples is the title of the third chapter, which fills pages 66- 
224. Here the author takes up all the European peoples one 
after another and follows their movements as mentioned in the 
ancient writers, with an occasional reference to archaeological 
and anthropological material. He recognizes as precarious the 
results gained from ancient sources as to the life of peoples, 
but thinks it interesting and perhaps useful to make a grouping 
of customs. Thus he finds (page 73) that women worked in the 
fields among certain peoples, that a community of land is found 
among others, that cannibalism is mentioned among still others, 
that here there is polygamy and there community of women, 
that matriarchy, tattooing, hospitality, human sacrifice, and so 
on, are otherwhere. It would have been more interesting if the 
idea could have been developed so that something would seem 
to have been proved. M. Dottin seems to entertain a genial 
openmindedness as to the Amazons, and for him the Pelasgi 
are a mighty people. Whether he has not allowed himself to be 
contaminated with the prevalent view of late years about the 
Pelasgi, or is taking up cudgels to restore to a place in the sun 
a people which has been a bit over-relegated into oblivion, I 
cannot quite determine. M. Dottin also deals at length with the 
Ligures, and makes them out a great people who inhabited much 
of Italy and who spread their power up the Rhone, and perhaps 


as far as Spain. But what if the Ligures had been an Alpine 
people who could not live on the coast or in the low river valleys, 
or what if they and the Veneti had earlier been one Po valley 
people and had been split apart by invaders from the north and 
forced back, the one into the high mountains above Genoa, and 
the other into the marsh lands at the mouth of the Po ? It would 
have been well to note the discussion of the Ligures in Ridge- 
way's chapter in A Companion to Latin Studies, and in Peet's 
The Stone and Bronze Ages in Italy. The work of Pinza seems 
not to be known at all to M. Dottin. 

The last chapter (IV) is a short one on the local and general 
history of Europe. It is like the third chapter in being a mass 
of proper names. They are necessary, no doubt, and M. Dottin 
must be congratulated on having brought such a mass of ma- 
terial into so small a compass. And yet one cannot help but 
feel that overmuch weight is given to the ancient sources — 
they make up about nine-tenths of the citations — for they are 
generally considered pretty unreliable in their statements about 
the comings and goings of ancient peoples. None the less, the 
book is a valuable manual and will be warmly welcomed. 

R. V. D. Magoffin. 

Johns Hopkins University. 

The Arden Shakespeare: General Editor, C. H. Herford, 
Litt. D. The Merchant of Venice, edited by H. L. 
Withers, B. A., the American edition revised by Morris 
W. Croll, Ph. D. A Midsummer Night's Dream, edited 
by E. K. Chambers, B. A., the American edition revised 
by Edith Rickert, Ph. D. As You Like It, edited by J. C. 
Smith, M. A., the American edition revised by Ernest 
Hunter Wright, Ph. D. 

A certain well-known college professor used to begin his 
lectures on Shakespeare with the frank statement that the 
object of his course was to find out what the language of 
Shakespeare means. The result was an absorption in questions 
of grammar and philology and an unfortunate neglect of the 
plays as poetry. The editors of the Arden Shakespeare, seek- 
ing to maintain a more appropriate relation between literary 
appreciation and linguistics, have chosen to emphasize the 
literary aspect of the plays. The revised American edition 
preserves the general character previously given to the series. 
The text is preceded in each volume by a literary history of the