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But these matters are trifles, and are here presented merely to 
enable the user of the book to make his own corrections readily. 
No serious or semi-serious student of Latin or of Greek can 
afford not to avail himself of the interesting and helpful material 
here presented in readily digestible form. Much less should any 
teacher neglect it. 

Koland G. Kent. 

University of Pennsylvania. 

Virgilian Studies. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1920. The Growth 
of the Aeneid. By M. M. Crump. 124 pp. 6s. The 
Sixth Book of the Aeneid. By H. E. Butlee. 288 pp. 

These are the latest volumes to appear in Blackwell's series of 
'' Virgilian Studies " to which Warde Fowler contributed his 
three brilliant essays on the Aeneid. 

Miss Crump argues a thesis which has been argued before, 
though not so persuasively, and which probably can be neither 
proved nor disproved. As all students of Vergil know, the poet 
left his epic incomplete at his death. By an examination of the 
portions that are or appear to be unfinished, by studying the 
inconsistencies due to the lack of the final hand, and by using 
certain obscure statements of the Scholiasts, scholars like Con- 
rads, Sabbadini, Heinze and Gercke have attempted to ferret out 
the poet's method of work and the original order of the books 
of the Aeneid. In reading the ingenious and often extravagant 
combinations of Gercke, one often feels that one is being worried 
with an intricate but insoluble puzzle, which leads through much 
useless literary gossip to no results of aesthetic or historical 
value. Miss Crump's book does not give that impression, for while 
it adds little that is new to the argument, it is characterized 
by good sense, revealing keen and sound literary judgment which 
provides the reader with valuable points of interpretation. 

Miss Crump is chiefly concerned with developing a suggestion 
of Sabbadini that the present third book was originally written 
in the third person to stand at the opening of the epic. This 
was then followed by a second book which contained the games 
(now in the fifth book) played at Sicily immediately after An- 
chises' death, and a third book which described the arrival at 
Carthage. The argument, which is very enticing, cannot be 
reviewed here. Probably those who have recently read the sec- 
ond chapter of Heinze's " Epische Technik " will still feel that 


an even stronger case can be made for the present order of the 
books, and that a new discussion of the subject should have pro- 
vided a more adequate consideration of the arguments pro and 
con which other studies of the subject have offered. 

Professor Butler's " The Sixth Book of the Aeneid " should 
be in the hands of every American teacher of Vergil. It makes 
little pretence to originality ; indeed there is not much erudition 
pertaining to any apposite subject that has not found a place 
somewhere in Norden's ponderous commentary. In a judicious 
introduction Professor Butler discusses " The Sources of Ver- 
gil's Eschatology," questioning as not proven Norden's theories 
of Vergil's close dependence upon Posidonius and upon a sup- 
posed " Descent of Hercules." This is followed by an edition 
of the text of the Sixth Book. 

The commentary of two hundred pages gives not only a happy 
selection of essentials sifted out of many bulky editions, but every 
comment is evidently written with a conviction that is the 
product of a clear insight into Vergil's psychology, a sure sense 
of poetic values and a wise and penetrating scholarship. 

Beaders will of course miss notes of personal interest. The 
comment on the Sibyl's cave and Apollo's temple does not reveal 
first-hand knowledge of the picturesque place now being exca- 
vated. The manuscripts might have been reported more fully 
(cf. on line 495) without much loss of space— and "capitals" 
are usually not now called " uncials." Grossrau's view of line 
586 (Salmoneus' punishment is made appropriate to his crime) 
is adopted as against Cerda's, which Norden has supported with 
new parallels in his second edition (not accessible to Dr. But- 
ler). Varius' poem is not cited in any authority as " de morte 
Caesaris" (cf. on 621). At line 789 nothing is said of the 
widelv accepted view that Julius Caesar is here referred to. At 
line 841 a reference might have been made to Hirschfeld, Kleine 
Schriften. p. 398. The identity of Cossus was apparently a 
question that interested the court about 27 B. c. But one has 
to search Dr. Butler's volume for such minor inadequacies. The 
book is a most welcome addition to the many sympathetic studies 
of Vergil that the sound classical scholarship of England has 
been foremost in providing. 

Tenney Prank. 

Aeneas at the Site of Rome: Observations on the Eighth Book 
of the Aeneid. By W. Warde Fowler. Oxford: B. B 
Blackwell, 1917. Eeprint, May 1919, pp. viii, 1-130. 

No young man should attempt to interpret the Aeneid. The 
value of this little book lies in the author's long experience of