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Vol. XL, 3. Whole No. 159. 


In Plautus and Terence there are many passages which deal 
with literary or quasi-Hterary matters. For the most part such 
references are Greek in origin and character, though we shall 
find, especially in Plautus, a surprising amount of material 
bearing on Latin literature rather than on Greek.^ 

The references fall into two main classes. Of these one 
deals primarily with the stories * that form so large a part of 
Greek literature, especially of Greek dramatic literature.* The 
other consists of allusions to literary works or literary passages, 
which are, in general, not named. 

' I use this term in a very wide sense, to cover some things that might 
well fall also under such captions as folklore, mythology, and religion. 
By the time of Menander, Philemon, and Diphilus, and even more by 
that of Plautus and Terence, such matters had become, in part at least, 
bookish. Certainly, from the point of view indicated in footnote 3, 
below, the inclusion here of such matters is warranted. 

' This remark applies more fully to matters to be discussed in a later 
paper, as a continuation of the present discussion. See note 4. 

' Long after the present paper had been begun I found that Professor 
F. F. Abbott, in his Society and Politics in Ancient Rome (1909), 
178-179, had sought to infer the intellectual interests and capacities of 
Plautus's audiences by noting what Greek myths appear in his plays. 
So Professor J. S. Reid, in his edition of the Academica (1885), page 20, 
uses the allusions to philosophy and the philosophical reflections in the 
fragments of the Roman drama, tragic and comic, as a means of deter- 
mining the measure of Roman acquaintance with philosophic matters. 
He appends three references to Terence, but none to Plautus, a much 
more important source of information in this connection. See page 248, 
note 2. 

* This class only will be considered in this paper. 


In both classes the allusion is frequently, perhaps more com- 
monly, employed for purposes of parody. Further, the effec- 
tiveness of the parody is increased by the fact that it is 
frequently put into the mouth of a slave ^ ; in the disparity 
between the sentiments uttered and the status of the speaker 
lies much of the fun. 

Sometimes we need to bring the two classes of allusions into 
closest relation to each other. Thus, we have numerous allu- 
sions in Plautus to the story of the Trojan War and the various 
matters contained in the Iliad, the Odyssey, and the Cyclic 
Poems: see e. g. Ba. 925-978 (cf. below, pp. 258-260). Here 
Latin and Greek works both were in Plautus's mind ; the Latin 
works rather than the Greek were likely to be in the minds of 
the spectators. In several passages Plautus had specific parts 
of the Odyssey, at least, in mind. The references to matters 
involving the Iliad, the Odyssey, and the Cyclic Poems (see 
pp. 254-260) are especially interesting in view of the belief, 
first securely estabhshed in Plautus's time,^ in the Trojan 
origin of the Romans and in view of the predominance of the 
Trojan War among the themes of Roman tragedy.^ 

' In his paper, The Ancient Editions of Plautus, 48, note e, Professor 
Lindsay wrote thus : " How far Plautus suits his language, his metre, 
and perhaps his prosody to his characters is a subject that would reward 
investigation". The present paper shows that there is another ques- 
tion : How far does Plautus, to gain comic effect, fail, on the surface, 
to adapt the language to his characters, in that he makes them speak 
of things of which, one would say, they would not naturally speak? 
Though, we may be sure, some slaves exceeded their masters in culture, 
slaves must often have been iUiterate (witness the freedmen in the 
Cena Trimalchionis, though Professor C. W. Mendell, in a paper 
entitled Petronius and the Greek Romance, in Classical Philology, XII, 
158-172, denies the realistic character of Petronius's .work. For its 
realistic character see e. g. the two discussions by Professor F. F. 
Abbott, in The Common People of Ancient Rome, 1 17-144, and in 
Society and Politics in Ancient Rome, 1 15-130). In a note on Aris- 
tophanes, Ranae 554, Professor Tucker declares that the Greek comic 
writers do not make vulgar people speak vulgar Attic. 

In view of what is written above, I have thought it well to indicate in 
this paper the roles played by the speakers of the various passages cited. 

''See especially Nettleship, The Story of Aeneas's Wanderings, in 
Conington's Vergil *, 2. 1-lii. 

^Livius Andronicus wrote an Achilles, an Aiax Mastigophorus, an 
Aegisthus, and an Equos Troianus. See Ribbeck, Romische Dichtung \ 



A study of the words graphicus, poema, and poeta^ is not 
without value for our purposes. Once grapkicus gives us real 
help, St. 570.^ In 505 fif. Antipho senex has been seeking an 
invitation to dinner from his sons-in-law; driven to despera- 
tion by his failure he has tried the effect of an elaborate 
apologus (' allegory ', ' parable ': cf. Gellius 2. 29. i) in 538 ff. 
At 570 Pamphilippus cries : Graphicum mortalem Antiphonem ! 
Ut apologum fecit quam fabre ! ' 


Several references to historical personages may be included 
here, because their ultimate source is, to some extent at least, 

Agathocles. — In Men. 369 ff. Menaechmus II Syracusanus 
has denied knowledge of Erotium meretrix; the latter, as- 
tounded and hurt by what she tries to regard as a joke,* cries 
(407 ff.): 

Non ego te novi Menaechum, Moscho prognatum patre, 
qui Syracusis perhibere natus esse in Sicilia, 
ubi rex Agathocles regnator fuit et iterum Pintia, 
tertium Liparo, qui in morte regnutn Hieroni tradidit, 
nunc Hiero est? 

I. 17. For Naevius's use of the Trojan War story see Ribbeck again, 
I. 20, for Ennius's, i. 29. Naevius wrote an Equos Troianus and a 
Hector Proficiscens. Half of Ennius's plays dealt with the Trojan 
cycle. See further e. g. Teuffel, 102 ; Ribbeck, Romische Tragodie, 684 ; 
Sellar, Roman Poets of the Republic'', 85; Duff, A Literary History of 
Rome, 125, 128, 142. 

^The use of poema and poeta in Plautus I have discussed fully in 
Classical Philology, XH, 149, and footnote. The suggestion in the foot- 
note, that Plautus at times deliberately used poeta in parody of Naevius's 
proud application of that term to himself, has direct bearing on our 
present inquiry. In this connection, we may well recall Plautus's refer- 
ence, in Mi. 208-212, to Naevius's imprisonment. So, too, the discus- 
sion in Classical Philology, XII, 156-157, of describo, pingo, depingo, 
pictor and pictura in Plautus is in point now. 

' I use Lindsay's text. The punctuation, capitalization, and at times 
the spelling are mine. 

^The other examples of graphicus (Ep. 410; Ps. 519, 700; Tr. 936, 
1024) and of graphice (Pe. 306, 464, 843 ; Tr. 767) do not directly help us. 

' For Menaechmus I Epidamniensis as a practical joker and the bearing 
of that circumstance on this scene and others in the play, see A. J. P. 
XXXV 27, n. I. 


This is a most amusing jumble of fact and fancy : see Brix- 
Niemeyer ' (1912) and Fowler ad Ipc. Mr. P. Thoresby Jones, 
in his edition (1918), is too serious by far when he writes, 
" Plautus (or his Greek original) is true to life in representing 
a woman of Erotium's class as guilty of such blunders. An 
Aspasia was rare." In Ps. 524-530 Pseudolus servos, speak- 
ing in burlesque tone, promises a pugnam claram et commem- 
orabilem (525). At 531-532 Simo senex exclaims, si quidem 
istaec opera, ut praedicas, perfeceris, virtute regi Agathocli 
antecesseris. In Mo. 775 ff. Tranio servos counts himself as 
great as Alexander Magnus and Agathocles. 

Alexander. — See above, under Agathocles. The foundation 
of Alexandria by Alexander the Great is perhaps referred to 
by Gripus servos (piscator) as he builds castles in Spain, Ru. 
933a-935a. See below, under Stratonicus. 

Antiochus. — In Poe. 693-694 Collybiscus vilicus, masquerad- 
ing as a miles, says : 

Ego id quaero hospitium ubi ego curer mollius 
quam regi Antiocho ocuH curari solent ". 

Attains. — In Pe. 339 Saturio parasitus mentions rex Philippus 
and Attalus. In Poe. 644 ff . the Advocati are telling Lycus leno 
about the miles, who had that day arrived in Calydon, and 
wishes potare, amare (655-661). Compare now 662-666: 

ADV. At enim hie clam, furtim esse volt, ne quis sciat 
neve arbiter sit, nam hie latro in Sparta fuit, 
ut quidem ipse nobis dixit, apud regem Attalum ; 
inde nune aufugit, quoniam capitur oppidum. 

CO. Nimis lepide de latrone, de Sparta optume. 

Here Plautus takes the pains to tell us (666) that he has been 

' The point of these verses is lost to us. Salmasius guessed that the 
original of the Poenulus was written in the lifetime of Antioehus, and 
that the latter had had trouble with his eyes. Rost, Opuseula Plautina 

1. 19, suggested that Antioehus, " mollitiei omni deditus" (so Vissering, 
Quaestiones Plautinae 32), had, for reasons now unknown, given special 
care to his eyes. Naudet mentions the view of some that favorites of 
Antiochus were known as his ' eyes ' and ' ears ' ; he refers to Pollux 

2. 7. In his App. Crit. Leo writes simply : " nihil mollius quam oculos 
curamus, ut nihil magis quam oculos amamus". The Romans often 
talked of loving something magis oculis or of something as carius 


Dareus. — See below, under Philippus. 

Hiero. — See above, under Agathocles. 

lason. — In Ps. 173 ff. Ballio leno bids his meretrices bring 
him profit. One is to bring him stores of grain (188 fif.), ut 
civitas nomen mihi commutet meque ut praedicet lenone ex 
BaUione regem lasonem (192-193). On this Cahdorus 
adulescens remarks, to Pseudolus servos (193-194), Audin? 
furcifer satin magnuficus tibi videtur? See Professor E. P. 
Morris, on 193. H. W. Auden, in his annotated edition (1896), 
reads lasionem, thinking of a Cretan, son of Zeus and Electra, 
and father, by Ceres, of Plutus. See the article lasion in 
Pauly-Wissowa, 8. 751-758. Leo, in his text-edition, read 
lasonem, interpreting of the personage whom Auden calls 

Liparo. — See above, under Agathocles. 

Lycurgus. — In Ba. in Lydus paedagogus refers to Lycurgus, 
the law-giver. 

Philippus. — See above, under Attalus. In Au. 85-88 Euclio 
senex says to Staphyla anus : Mirum quin tua me caussa f aciat 
luppiter Philippum regem aut Dareum, trivenefica. In Au. 
701 fF., Lyconidis servos, exulting because he has the miser's 
aula, says, ego sum ille rex Philippus. O lepidum diem ! The 
frequent references to the coin called Philippus or Philippeus 
are more or less in point. J. Egli, Die Hyperbel in den Ko- 
modien des Plautus und in Ciceros Briefen an Atticus, 3. 18, 
and Vissering, Quaestiones Plautinae 31, hold that the name 
Philippus, like Croesus, was proverbial for great wealth. 

Pintia. — See above, under Agathocles. 

Pyrrhus. — In Eun. 781-783 we have a very amusing refer- 
ence, in a burlesque passage (see from 771), by Thraso miles to 
Pyrrhus's skill as a strategist. 

Seleucus. — In Mi. 75-77 the soldier declares that he has 
been requested by rex Seleucus to enroll mercenaries for him. 
In 948-950 he states that he had sent his parasite to take the 
latrones to the king. Seleucia is mentioned several times in the 
Trinummus (112, 771, 845). 

Stratonicus. — In Ru. 932 Gripus servos (a piscator), build- 
ing castles in Spain on the strength of the vidulus he had fished 


up from the sea, says, Post animi caussa mihi navem faciam 
atque imitabor Stratonicum, oppida circumvectabor.^ 

III. Accheron; Orcus.^ 

Accheron. — In Poe. 71 the prologist declares that the father 
who had lost Agorastocles, the stolen boy, ipse obit ad 
Accheruntem sine viatico. Naudet interprets sine viatico of 
the lack of the precious things commonly set on the funeral 
pyre or in or on the tomb, especially of the lack of money 
needed to pay Charon ; for that money compare e. g. such well- 
known passages as Aristophanes, Ranae 141, Juv. 3. 265-267, 
Swift, The Battle of the Books, last paragraph. 

In Poe. 344 Adelphasium puella promises <cum Agorastocle 
palpare et lalare> quo die Orcus Accherunte mortuos 
amiserit. This verse has a proverbial ring (reminding one of 
references to the Greek Kalends) and so has definite connec- 
tion, perhaps, with literature. Closely akin are the words of 
Astaphium ancilla in Tru. 747-750. 

Ca. 999-1000 contains an interesting and important reference 
to paintings of Acheron. See my paper. References to Paint- 
ing in Plautus and Terence, Classical Philology, XII, 150. 

In Tr. 525 Stasimus servos, seeking to deter Philto senex 
from accepting the ager as a dowry for Lesbonicus's sister, if 
she marries his son, says : Accheruntis ostium in nostrost agro. 
With this compare Ba. 368, cited below, under Orcus.' 

* Professor Sonnenschein, following Ussing, holds that the reference 
is to a celebrated musician, contemporary of Diphilus, who travelled 
about in Greece to exhibit his skill. " Diphilus ", he adds, " appears 
... in the original of this play to have indulged in a little light banter 
of the successful performer Stratonicus ". Dousa, however, in the 
Naudet (Lemaire) edition, thinks that Stratonicus was a "quaestor 
regis Philippi, et deinde Alexandri Magni ", whose wealth passed into a 
proverb. In any case to Plautus's audience the reference was bookish. 

' See notes i and 3. Matters of religion, too, were by the time of the 
New Attic Comedy and the days of Plautus and Terence more or less 
bookish. The stories figured too in painting : see the discussion, referred 
to in the text, of Ca. 999-1000, and, perhaps, of the Alcmena story 
(below, pages 239-242). 

'Less significant are certain other passages. In Gas. 159 ff. Cleustrata 
matrona calls her husband Accheruntis pabulum. Accherunticus, used 


Orcus.— For Orcus see first Poe. 344, cited above, page 236. 
In Ba. 368, Lydus paedagogus calls the house of the Bacchides 
ianuam Orci. Compare Tr. 525, cited in the preceding para- 
graph. See further As. 606-607 (adulescens) : 

ARG. Vale. PH. Quo properas ? ARG. Bene vale : apud Orcum te 
nam equidem me iam quantum potest a vita abiudicabo. 

The addition of an explanatory line, wholly Latin, is here 
natural enough. 

In Ca. 282-284 Hegio is questioning Philocrates, whom he 
takes to be the slave Tyndarus, thus : 

HE. Quid pater? vivitne? PH. Vivom, quom inde abimus, liquimus : 

nunc vivatne necne, id Orcum scire oportet scilicet. 
TY. Salva res est: philosophatur quoque iam, non mendax modo est. 

The last verse (on it see further below, page 261, note i) is 
justification enough for including in this paper references to 
Acheron and Orcus. 

In Hec. 852-853 Pamphilus adulescens says to Parmeno his 
slave, who had brought him good news, 

Egon' qui ab Oreo mortuom me reducem in lucem feceris 
sinam sine munere a me abire? 

There may be a reference here to the Orpheus-Eurydice 
story. In 874-875 Parmeno, tantalized because no one will 
explain to him the happenings of the play, cries, evidently with 
the foregoing passage in mind : Tamen suspicor : ego hunc 
ab Oreo mortuom quo pacto . . . ! 

Other passages, which there is not space here to quote, are 
Ep. 173-177 (senex), 362-363 (adulescens), Ps. 795-^797 

twice derisively by a senex of an old man (Mer. 290-291, Mi. 627-630), 
has a proverbial ring. In Poe. 428-431, 827-833 gentleman and slave, 
the latter with special detail, dwell on the number and the varied classes 
of the dead in Acheron. Kindred to these passages is the reference in 
Tr. 493-494 by a senex to the fact that Acheron is no respecter of per- 
sons ; there, at least, the rich and the poor are on a par. See, finally, 
Ba. 199 (adulescens), Ca. 689 (senex), Cas. 448 (servos), Am. 1029 
(Amphitruo dux). Am. 1078 (Amphitruo), Mo. 499 (Tranio servos 
professes to quote the ghost of a gentleman). Note that the words in 
parenthesis here and elsewhere in like cases give the role played by the 
speaker. See above, page 232, note i, end. 
' Sc. te as the subject of abire, and as antecedent of qui. 



A. Stories Apart from Those Relating to the Trojan 


Let us consider now the stories to which allusion more or 
less definite is made. Quite often the allusion is made by an 
actor as he enters, particularly if he is to occupy the stage for 
a time solus} For convenience of reference the passages are 
arranged in an alphabetical sequence of story-titles and theme- 

Aeacides. — In the Asinaria Libanus servos calls attention to 
the (supposed) Saurea, who is entering at 403 quassanti capite, 
adding (404) : quisque obviam huic occesserit irato vapulabit. 
The Mercator rejoins (405-406) : 

Siquidem hercle Aeacidinis minis animisque expletus cedit, 
si med iratus tetigerit, iratus vapulabit. 

Aiax, Alcumeus. — See below, pp. 238-239. In Ca. 561-563 
there is reference (by Tyndarus servos) to three famous mad- 
men of Greek story, Lycurgus, Orestes, and Alcumeus 
( Alcmaeon) . In Ca. 613 fiF. there is a very interesting reference 
to mad Aiax.^ See also below, page 241, note i. 

In Cis. 639-644 there is a delicious parody of a suicide scene, 
which may well have reminded the audience of plays both 
Greek and Latin, e. g. the Aiax of Sophocles, and the Aiax 
Mastigophorus of Livius Andronicus.' 

In Men. 828-875 is the famous scene in which Menaechmus 
II Syracusanus, by pretending to be mad, drives off the matrona 
and her father. The scene is too long to reproduce here. This 
passage and Ca. 547-616 are to be compared each with the 
other, in detail, as giving some hints of the diagnosis and 
pathology of insanity among the Romans. Compare especially 
Ca. 557 Viden tu hunc quam inimico voltu intuitur? concedi 
optumumst, Hegio : fit quod tibi ego dixi — gliscit rabies — cave 

'The best example is Ba. 925 fF., the passage so excellent in many 
ways (see below, pp. 258-260). Others are Ru. 83 ff., Pe. iff., 251 ff., 
Mer. 469, Ru. 593 ff. 

^With this passage compare (with Lindsay's note in his annotated 
edition, on 562) Anacr. 31 : SeXoi, ei\w ixavrivai • 'E/iaher' 'A\Kfialwi> re 
X(i XewKOTrous 'Opearrjs, to$ uriripas Krapovrcs. 

'See Suetonius, Aug. 85, for Augustus's parodic description of the 
fate of his tragedy, Ajax. 


tibi, with Men. 828 Viden tu illic oculos virere ? Compare also 
Ca. 595-596 Viden tu illi maculari corpus totum maculis 
luridis? Atra bilis agitat hominem, with Men. 829-830 ut 
viridis exoritur colos ex temporibus atque fronte! ut ocuU 
scintillant vide ! 

I cannot help connecting these passages with certain charac- 
teristics of Ennius's tragic style. Duff, A Literary History of 
Rome, 142, writing of Ennius, well says : 

In tragedy the preference of the age was for Greek themes with 
moving situations, such as the revenge of Medea, the guilt of the house 
of Atreus, the sacrifice of Iphigenia, and other portions of the Trojan 
Cycle, comprising in conflict, danger, and bloodshed the requisite ap- 
peals to pity and fear. 

See Mommsen, History of Rome, English Translation, 
2. 252 ; Dimsdale, A History of Latin Literature, 22. Scenes of 
suicide, surely, would be in keeping with such preference. 
Ennius's fondness for scenes in which some one goes mad is 
marked ; he displays in general a love of the fantastic — for the 
prophetic frenzy of a Cassandra or the madness of an Alcumeo 
(this motive had already appeared in both Livius and Naevius). 
His Ajax, Eumenides, and Athamas all have to do with some 
form of mental derangement. 

If my point here is well taken, it is one of great importance. 
Vahlen, in discussing the relations between Ennius and Plautus, 
felt obliged to content himself with a reference to the prologue 
of the Poenulus and to a few passages of Plautus, which, he 
thinks, show imitation of Ennius. I have not been able, my- 
self, however, to see such imitation in these passages. See my 
remarks in American Journal of Philology, XXXH 16. But if 
I am right above, we have in the Plautine passages there dis- 
cussed valuable contemporary evidence on two points: 
(a) Plautus's relation to Ennius, (b) the general question of 
Ennius's fame in his own time, a fame and reputation based 
on work antecedent to the composition, or at least to the publi- 
cation, of the Annales. See further my remarks in Classical 
Philology, XIV, 49-51, with notes, and below, page 258. 

Akmaeon. — See above, under Aiax, page 238. 

Alcumena. — The Alcumena ('AXk/iVij) - Amphitruo-Iupiter- 
luno-Hercules story is, of course, omnipresent in the Amphi- 
truo. The Alcumena story appears again in Mer. 690. In 


Met. 667 ff. Dorippa, wife of Lysimachus senex, and Syra 
anus, her attendant, come from the country to town. Syra 
enters the house and finds there the ancilla that belongs to their 
neighbor Demipho, the amorous senex. Of course she mis- 
understands the situation. She hurries out again, and at 689- 
690 cries to her mistress : I hac mecum, ut videas simul tuam 
Alcumenam paelicem, luno mea. 

Verses 83-88 of the Rudens, spoken by Sceparnio servos as 
he enters, to begin the play proper, are full of difficulty : 

Pro di immortales, tempestatem quoiusmodi 
Neptunus nobis nocte hac misit proxuma ! 
Detexit ventus villam — quid verbis opust? 
Non ventus fuit, verum Alcumena Euripidi: 
ita omnis de tecto deturbavit tegulas ; 
inlustriores fecit fenestrasque indidit. 

Professor Sonnenschein, the latest editor of the Rudens, in 
neither version of his edition (the maior in 1891, the minor in 
1901), offers a solution. All he was able to say was this: 
" The precise point of comparison between the wind and the 
lost play of Euripides, or the chief character in it, is obscure : 
the ' tertium quid ' may be either violence in general or the 
unroofing of a building in particular ". Nor does the further 
remark (in the editio maior) that " Hermann suggests that in 
the original of Diphilus the passage may have run : n' 8' ow/tos ; 
'AXx/i^vr; itkv ^v EipwriSou ", explain the point of Alcumena Euri- 
pidi. Professor Sonnenschein is but reflecting the helplessness 
of the earlier editors of Plautus ; one after the other they re- 
peat, in terms or in substance, Lambinu^'s suggestion that there 
was a tragedy of Euripides in which " quum Alcumena parie- 
bat, Jupiter faciebat spurcam tempestatem oriri ". Thornton 
(Translation 2. 272-273) accepts this view, and even goes so 
far as to conjecture that the Euripidean play in question sup- 
plied material for the Amphitruo, especially for the more 
serious parts of the Plautine play. C. S. Harrington, in an 
edition of the Captivi, Trinummus and Rudens, with very brief 
notes (1870), took the same view. 

Now, if there was a play of Euripides with such a theme, we 
should at once think in connection with it of Plautus Amphi- 
truo 1059 ff., especially 1062 ff., 1094 ff.^ But for the existence 

^ Nothing is said in this play of ventus! 


of such a play neither Lambinus nor anyone else has produced 
any evidence whatever. What has happened is this, I take it : 
in trying to find some explanation of Sceparnio's words 
Lambinus thought of the Amphitruo, and from that argued 
for the theme of the Euripidean play Sceparnio had in mind. 
A good example of petitio principii, surely. 

In editing Euripides for the Teubner text series Nauck gath- 
ered into Volume 3 (1892) the fragments of Euripides. On 
pages 20-23 he gives 17 citations, aggregating 28 verses, from 
an 'AX.Kixrivr]. Prefixed to this collection is the following note 
by Nauck: " Omittit banc fabulam marmor Albanum (C. I. 
6047), argumentum ignoramus. Plautus Rudent. i. i. 4: 
proh di . . . Euripidi ". Clearly Nauck did not question the 
reading in Plautus. But in the 28 verses of the 'AAk/i^vt; I fail 
to find anything that in the remotest degree resembles the situ- 
ation in the Rudens or that in the Amphitruo. 

Our investigation, evidently, has not carried us very far. If 
we keep the reading Alcumena (and there is no variation in the 
MSS), we are not in position to improve upon Lambinus's 
view, utterly unsupported though that view is.^ 

* Nauck, 1. c. 14-20, gives 23 fragments of two plays, by Euripides, 
called 'WkiUwv or ' AXK/xaluiv. Tlie fragments aggregate 47 verses, whole 
or partial. It is clear enough from Nauck, 15, that in both plays the 
madness of Alcmaeon was in evidence. It would be possible to read 
in Ru. 86, in place of Alcum^ena, Plautus's form of ' AXK/iaiav, Alcumeus, 
seen in Ca. 562. For a scribe who had some knowledge of Plautus the 
thought of the Amphitruo might easily have led to the alteration, of 
Alcumeus to Alcumena. An allusion to the madness of Alcmaeon 
(Alcumeus) seems more natural and more intelligible by itself in the 
mouth of one seeking to describe a wild tempest than would be a refer- 
ence to Alcumena, who, in Plautus's Amphitruo at least, is the very 
embodiment of the stately calmness one associates with the Roman 
matrona at her best. As seen above, page 238, the madness of Alcmaeon 
was proverbial (see under Aiax). Palaeographically, the substitution of 
Alcumena for Alcumeus is not inconceivable. 

The suggestion made in the foregoing paragraph does far less vio- 
lence to the MS evidence than is done by the emendation proposed, in 
The Classical Review 27. 159, by Mr. D. A. Slater : " In view of pas- 
sages like the Bacchae, 576-^9 and H. F. 874 sqq., it may be felt that 
some generalization would be more natural in this context, to suggest 
' a storm such as blows in the pages of Euripides ', rather than the name 


When I wrote the above, I overlooked Professor Son- 
nenschein's discussion in The Classical Review 28 (1914), 
40-41. He accepts a view, suggested first, apparently, by 
Engelmann, in 1882, that certain vases, two in number, show 
scenes or a scene which " must have formed part of the story 
of the lost play <the Alkmene> of Euripides." These vases 
display a storm of rain. On the basis of these vases, as inter- 
preted by Engelmann, K. Wernicke, in Pauly-Wissowa i. 1573 
(1894), held that in the Alkmene of Euripides Amphitruo 
planned to burn Alcmene to death, but that the pyre was ex- 
tinguished by a storm of rain sent by Zeus. Admitting, for 
the sake of argument, that Engelmann and others rightly in- 
terpret the vases (Nauck, TGF.^, p. 386, refers to Engel- 
mann's paper, and seems to favor his theory), we still need light 
on the contrast between ventus and Alcumena Euripidi. When 
Professor Sonnenschein says, " The story has disappeared 
from literature; but it has left a trace behind in the allusion 
which Plautus makes to it in Rud. 86," he is writing with less 
than his usual exactness : what does he mean by " the story " ? 
Again, he stresses the fact that " the particular storm <of the 
Rudens>wa5 <the Italics are his> accompanied by rain; 
see 1. 576 f. . . ." But, in order to get the other member 
of Plautus's comparison, we need to know what it was that, 
in some play, Euripides mentioned in connection with the 
Alcmena story that would outdo a ventus. This we do not yet 
know, pace Professor Sonnenschein and the array of scholars 
he cited in his note. 

of a single character (however demented) from a play that had per- 
ished ". Hence he would read 

non ventus fuit verum ruina Euripidi, 

taking ruina in the sense of ' cataclysm '. He supposes that by haplog- 
raphy the rum of verum was lost before ruina, so that the line became 
we may assume that the allusion was explained by a reference in the 
margin to the ' Alcumenae filius ', it would not be unreasonable to sup- 
pose that the editor or corrector reduced the line to metre by interpret- 
ing the forlorn A in the text to mean ' Alcumena ' ". This does violence 
at once to palaeography and to Plautus's manner, which, surely, is to 
use names rather than such vague generalities as ruina (for proof see 
the present paper, passim). Further, Mr. Slater's suggestions postulate 
a truly remarkable editor or corrector. 


Alcumeus (Alcmaeon). — See above, under Aiax, page 238. 

Argus (lo). — Au. 551-559 is a most interesting passage. 
Megadorus senex has sent cooks, etc., into the house of Euclio, 
his prospective father-in-law (280-360). The latter, desperate 
with fear for his pot of gold, drove them out with a club 
(406 ff.). Later he meets Megadorus, and the following 
dialogue ensues (550-559) : 

EVC. Pol ego te ut accusem merito meditabar. ME. Quid est? 
EVC. Quid sit me rogitas ? qui mihi omnis angulos 

furum implevisti in aedibus misero mihi, 

qui mi intro misti in aedis quingentos coquos 

cum senis manibus, genere Geryonaceo; 

quos si Argus servet, qui oculeus totus fuit, 

quern quondam loni luno custodem addidit, 

is numquam servet, praeterea tibicinam, 

quae mi interbibere sola, si vino scatat, 

Corinthiensem fontem Pirenam potest. 

A bookish passage, surely. 

Bacchae. — In several places reference is made to the Bacchae 
and their orgies. In part these references reflect common 
modes of speech (are proverbial), in part they seem to be re- 
flections of contemporary Roman life ^ (in the early part of the 
second century B. C. the Bacchanalian orgies were giving trou- 
ble to the government at Rome : recall the Senatus Consultum 
De Bacchanalibus, and note especially Cas. 980, cited below), 
in part they seem to me bookish.^ I have therefore included 
them all here. 

In Am. 703-705 Sosia servos, rebuked by his master Amphi- 
truo for agreeing with Alcumena, cries : 

Non tu scis? Bacchae bacchanti si velis advorsarier, 
ex insana insaniorem facies, feriet saepius ; 
si opsequare, una resolvas plaga. 

In Au. 408 Congrio cocus, who has been driven violently forth 
by Euclio senex, cries, neque ego umquam nisi hodie ad Bacchas 

' If this suggestion is correct, we have evidence of Plautus's interest 
in contemporary life, another case in which he reflects that life. Every 
proof that Plautus was interested in contemporary Roman life, social, 
religious, and political, and would and could refer to it, increases the 
possibility that he referred to contemporary writers and contemporary 

' In another paper I shall seek to show that Plautus knew the Bacchae 
of Euripides. 


veni in bacchanal coquinatum, ita me miserum et meos 
discipulos fustibus male contuderunt. Cf. also 411 a. Cas. 
978 if. is even more interesting (the speakers are a senex and 
two matronae — Lysidamus, Cleustrata and Myrrhina) : 

CL. Quin responde, tuo quid factum est pallio? 
LY. Bacchae hercle, uxor — CL. Bacchae .'' LY. Bacchae hercle, 
uxor — MY. Nugatur sciens, 
natti ecastor nunc Bacchae nuUae ludunt'. LY. Oblitus fui, 
sed tamen Bacchae — CL. Quid Bacchae? 

After this point the play is badly mutilated for some verses. 

At Mi. 818 Lurcio puer enters, in answer to Palaestrio's 
call for Sceledrus, to say that the latter sorbet dormiens, 
tetigit calk em clancidum (823). He describes in comic vein 
the drinking of Sceledrus, thus (855 if.) : 

opera maxuma, 
ubi bacchabatur aula, cassabant cadi. 
PA. Abi, abi intro iam. Vos in cella vinaria 
bacchanal facitis. 

Interesting too is Mi. 1015-1016. In 1013 Palaestrio servos 
describes himself to Milphidippa ancilla as socium tuortcm con- 
ciliorum et participem consiliorum. In 1016 she says : Cedo 
signum, si harunc Baccharum es; one is strongly tempted to 
render by ' Give the password '. Palaestrio does in fact give 
the password when he replies at once, Amat mulier quaedam 

References in the Bacchides to the Bacchae were of 
course inevitable. In 53 Pistoclerus adulescens, resisting 
Bacchis's invitation to enter her house, says, Bacchis, Bacchas 
metuo et bacchanal tuom. In 368 Lydus paedagogus calls the 
house of the Bacchides ianuant hanc Orel; in 371 he cries, 
Bacchides non Bacchides, sed Bacchae sunt acerrumae. Cf. 
372 ff. Finally, in Men. 835 ff., Menaechmus II Syracusanus, 
pretending to be mad, cries wildly : 

Euhoe atque euhoe ^, Bromie, quo me in silvara venatum vocas ? 
Audio, sed non abire possum ab his regionibus : 
ita ilia me ab laeva rabiosa femina adservat canes. 

' It is hard not to see here an allusion to efforts by the government to 
repress the Bacchanalian orgies : see above, page 243. 

'That such a passage may rest on books (be parodic), as well as on 
actual life, can be seen from e. g. Horace, Carm. 2. 19, 3. 25. 


The matrona is here thought of as one of the Bacchae. Here, 
surely, there is travesty of some tragic original : on this whole 
scene see pp. 238 f. For a reference to the Bacchae which is 
beyond question bookish, see below, under Pentheus, page 252. 

Bellerophon. — In the Bacchides Chrysalus servos carries a 
letter from Mnesilochus to his father Nicobulus, in which the 
son had asked his father to keep Chrysalus bound at home 
(735-747). Nicobulus, having read the letter (790-793), bids 
Chrysalus wait a moment (794), and goes within his house, to 
return at 799 with slaves who are to bind Chrysalus. At 809 
he explains by showing the letter to Chrysalus ^ and saying, 
Em hae te vinciri iubent. At 810-81 1 the latter rejoins, with 
great pretended bitterness : Aha, Bellerophantam tuos me fecit 
filius : egomet tabellas tetuli ut vincirer. 

Circe. — In Epid. 604 Periphanes senex calls the girl whom he 
had mistakenly supposed to be his daughter hanc . . . Circam 
Solis filiam. 

Danaides. — In Ps. 101-102 Pseudolus servos says to his 
master Cahdorus: 

quod tu istis lacrumis te probare postulas, 

non pluris refert quam si imbrim in cribrum geras. 

See Lorenz and Morris ad loc. In 369 Pseudolus says In pertus- 
sum ingerimus dicta dolium: operam ludimus. See Morris 
here. If the reference in these passages really is to the story 
of the Danaides, the omission of the name is significant. 

Dirce. — In Ps. 196 ff. Ballio leno, threatening Aeschrodora 
meretrix unless she brings him much profit, says ( 198-201 ) : 
eras te quasi Dircam olim ut memorant duo gnati lovis 
devinxere ad taurum, item ego te distringam ad carnarium : 
id tibi profecto taurus fiet. 

Eurydice-Orphens. — See Hec. 852-853, discussed above, 
page 237, under Orcus. 

Ganymedes. — In Men. no Menaechmus I Epidamniensis 
comes out of his house, intending to carry to Erotium meretrix 
a palla which he has stolen from his wife. As he commends 
himself on his shrewdness in overreaching his wife, Peniculus 

' Chrysalus servos can read : cf. 1023. 


parasitus overhears him and appHes for a share of the plunder 
(135). At 141 ff. this dialogue ensues: 

MEN. Vin tu f acinus luculentum inspicere ? PE. Quis id coxit coquos ? 

lam sciam, si quid titubatumst, ubi reliquias videro. 
MEN. Die mi, enumquam tu vidisti tabulam pictam ' in pariete 

ubi aquila Catameitum raperet aut ubi Venus Adoneum ? ' 
PE. Saepe. Sed quid istae picturae ad me attinent? 

Menaechmus's allusion is, to be sure, rather far-fetched ; he 
thinks of himself as the eagle or as Venus, of the cloak as 
Ganymede or as Adonis. But precisely in this, as in the (delib- 
erate) perversion of the name Ganymedes, lies part of the fun 
of this grandiloquent utterance (see also note 2, below). 

There may be another reference to the story of Ganymede, 
in a corrupt passage, Tr. 946-947. The sycophanta, in a de- 
scription of his imaginary journeyings, had declared in 940 ff. 
that he had reached heaven itself. Charmides senex then says : 
pudicum neminem ... f re oportet, qui aps terra ad caelum 

Geryones. — See above, under Argus, page 243. 

Haley ones. — Compare Cas. Prol. 24-26 (a non-Plautine pro- 
logue, in part) , in an address to the spectators : 

Ne quis formidet flagitatorem suom ; 
ludi sunt, ludus datus est argentariis ; 
tranquillum est, Alcedonia sunt circum forum. 

In Poe. 355-356 Agorastocles adulescens says to his slave 
Milphio : 

' On the reference here to painting see my paper, References to Paint- 
ing in Plautus and Terence, Classical Philology, XII, 152-153. 

' For Venus's love of Adonis see Diimmler, in Pauly-Wissowa i. 391- 
392. Compare especially these words : " Dass das Verhaltnis notwendig 
als brautliches, keusches aufgefasst worden sei . . . ist nicht als 
wesentlich fiir den Kult zuzugeben; die Vorstellung wurde erst durch 
die hellenistische Kunst begiinstigt, die A., ihn mit Eros vermischend, 
in geradezu unreifem Alter darstellt. Aus einem solchen Bilde macht 
Plautus Men. I. 2. 34 einen Raub des A. durch Aphrodite. EHe alexan- 
drinische Feier <for which see Diimmler 386; cf. Theocr. is> ver- 
bietet, das Verhaltnis als platonisch aufzufassen, ganz abgesehen von 
dem Schmutz der Komodie, welcher keinen echt sagenhaften Hinter- 
grund hat ". 

Plautus seems, then, to have blundered, whether by accident or by 
design. A deliberate perversion or confusion would be sufficiently 


lam hercle tu periisti, nisi illam mihi tam tranquillam facis 
quam mare olimst quom ibi alcedo pullos educit suos. 

Hercules. — The Amphitruo is concerned throughout, of 
course, with Hercules. For his birth and his feat in strangling 
the snakes (so well represented e. g. by the well-known fresco 
in the House of the Vettii at Pompeii) see 1107-1116, a narra- 
tive by Bromia ancilla. 

In Pe. 1-5 Toxilus servos says to Sagaristio servos : 

Qui amans egens ingressus est princeps in Amoris vias 
superavit aerumnis is suis aerumnas Herculi, 
nam cum leone, cum excetra, cum cervo, cum apro Aetolico, 
cum avibus Stymphalicis, cum Antaeo deluctari mavelim 
quam cum Amore : ita fio miser quaerendo argento mutuo . . . 

In Epid. 177-178 Periphanes senex, reminded of his dead 
wife, says : 

Hercules ego fui, dum ilia mecum fuit, 

neque sexta aerumna acerbior Herculi quam ilia mihi obiectast. 

In Men. 199 ff. Menaechmus I Epidamniensis, speaking of his 
theft of a palla from his wife, proudly says : 

Nimio ego banc periculo 
surrupui hodie: meo quidem animo ab Hippolyta subcingulum baud 
Hercules aeque magno umquam apstulit periculo. 

In Ba. 109 if. Lydus paedagogus seeks to keep his younger 
master Pistoclerus out of the clutches of the Bacchides. At 
147 Pistoclerus says : Omitte, Lyde, ac cave malo. Lydus, cut 
to the quick, cries (151 fif.) : 

LY. Vixisse nimio satiust iam quam vivere. 

Magistron quemquam discipulum minitarier! 

Nil moror discipulos mi esse iam plenos sanguinis : 

valens adflictat me vacivom virium. 
PI. Fiam, ut ego opinor, Hercules, tu autem Linus. 
LY. Pol metuo magis ne Phoenix tuis factis fuam 

teque ad patrem esse mortuom renuntiem. 
PL Satis historiarumst '. 

Lydus keeps the Linus story in mind; in 440-441, contrasting 
contemporary education with that of the good old days, he 
says : at nunc prius quam septuennis est, si attingas eum manu, 
extemplo puer paedagogo tabula dirrumpit caput. 

'A very significant word here: compare Men. 247-248 and see my 
remarks in Qassical Philology, II, 295, n. 1. 


In Eun. 1026 ff. Thraso miles refers to the Hercules-Omphale 
story : 

GN. Quid coeptas, Thraso? 
TH. Egone? ut Thaidi me dedam et faciam quod iubeat. GN. Quid est? 
qui minus ' quam Hercules servivit Omphalae ? GN. Exemplum 

Utinam tibi conmitigari videam sandalio caput. 

The words of the senex in Men. 795-797, as he chides his 
daughter, are perhaps in point: servirin tibi postulas vires? 
dare una opera pensum postules, inter ancillas sedere iubeas, 
lanam carere. 

For the Hercules- Phoenix story see Ba. 151 ff. cited above, 
page 247. 

In Cas. 396 S. we have this dialogue between two slaves : 

CH. Deos quaeso — ut tua sors ex sitella ecfugerit. 
OL. Ain tu? quia tute es fugitivos, omnis te imitari cupis? 
utinam tua quidem < tibi > sic, uti Herculeis praedicant 
quondam prognatis, in sortiendo sors deliquerit. 
CH. Tu ut liquescas ipse, actutum virgis calefactabere. 

See Naudet's edition here, and Pausanias 4. 3. 3-5, 4. 5. i, with 
the notes in the Hitzig-Bliimner edition.^ 

Obscure is Ru. 485-490. There Labrax leno, fresh from 
shipwreck, exclaims : 

t qui homo sese miserum et mendicum volet,t 
Neptune credat sese atque aetatem suani, 
nam si quis cum eo quid rei commiscuit, 
ad hoc exemplum amittit ornatum domum. 
Edepol, Libertas, lepida es, quae numquam pedem 
voluisti in navem cum Hercule una imponere. 

The commentators have been bafHed here. Sonnenschein, in 
both editions (1891, 1901), merely wrote, " An allusion to some 

' Sc. Thaidi me dedam. 

^This is an extremely interesting passage. One would hardly expect 
an average audience, Roman or modern, to be familiar with the story 
of the trickery of Cresphontes and Temenus. This may be true, as has 
been argued, of others of the allusions cited in this paper. Indeed, it has 
been maintained " that the very strangeness of many things in the 
comoedia palliata added to the interest of the plays ; the existence of the 
togata side by side with the palliata lends considerable support to this 
view " (so Professor A. L. Wheeler, in a review of Leffingwell, Social 
and Private Life at Rome in the Time of Plautus and Terence, which 
is to appear in The Classical Weekly, XHI). 


lost myth about Herakles. Lucian (De mercede conductis, 23) 
says that Libertas never enters the house of a rich man ". The 
reference to Lucian had been made by Gruter, and, after 
Gruter, by Leo, in his text-edition (1896). Ussing saw, some- 
how, a reference to the Hercules-Omphale story (for the ap- 
pearance of that story in Plautus see above, page 248). Pro- 
fessor A. F. West, in A. J. P. XV 356, interpreted Hercules 
here and in Mo. 984, <Tranio> vel Herculi f conterere quaes- 
tum potest f , as a name for a very rich man. This interpreta- 
tion he connects with the statement of Sonnenschein, quoted 
above, about Lucian De Mercede Conductis 23. There is, of 
course, no difficulty in thus interpreting Hercules — in the right 
context: see e. g. Horace, Serm. 2. 6. 10-14, ^n<i the editors 
there. Assuming, then, for the moment that Professor West's 
view of our passage is correct, compare Au. 226-235, said by 
Euclio senex, pauper, to Megadorus senex, vir ditissimus, his 
prospective son-in-law : 

Venit hoc mihi, Megadore, in mentetn, ted esse horainem divitem, 

factiosum, me item esse hominem pauperum pauperrumum; 

nunc si filiam locassim meam tibi, in mentem venit 

te bovem esse et me esse asellum : ubi tecum coniunctus siem, 

ubi onus nequeam ferre pariter, iaceam ego asinus in luto, 

tu me bos magis hau respicias gnatus quasi numquam siem. 

Et te utar iniquiore et meu' me ordo inrideat, 

neutrubi habeam stabile stabulum, si quid divorti fuat: 

asini me mordicibus scindant, boves incursent cornibus. 

Hoc magnum est periculum, ab asinis ad boves transcendere. 

But, if this is the thought of Ru. 485-490, Lucian De Mercede 
Conductis, 23, is not in point, for nothing is said there to the 
effect that " Libertas never enters the house of a rich man ". 
There to the man who plans to work for pay these words are 
spoken : koI vploTov yt iiiiwijao /jLrjKiTi iXevOepov to an' cKeivov firjSe 
tinraTpiSijv ceaDTOi' otccrffai ' iravra yap TavTa, to yeVos, rrjv iXevOt.- 
ptav, Tous TTpoyovovi i^to tov oSov KaraKeiij/wv 1<t6i, iirciSav iirl ToiavTriv 
aaVTOv Xarpeiav aTre/t^roA^cras eicrijs • ov yap iOeXrjcrci croi 17 'EAev- 
Bipia ^vv€UTt\6fXV i<f>' ouTws ayevvij Trpdy/jLara Kal Tanuva elaioVTi. 
AovAos ovv, ei Kai Traw d\6i<7T) rm ovofiaTi, Kal ov\ evos, aAAa iroAAwv 
SoiiAos dvayxaiios tcrj; KaX drjTcvcreK kiitoi vev€VKa)i la)6€V els lairipav, 
" auKikiif iwl fucr6<o " . . . . Plainly, Lucian's words throw light 
on our passage only by showing that Libertas was particular 
about the company she kept. 


Manifestly, no convincing guess concerning the meaning of 
our passage has yet been made. If another may be added, I 
would suggest as a sufficient thought here, whether it was that 
of Diphilus and Plautus or not, the idea that Libertas was 
loath to set foot on shipboard or anywhere else with one so 
overmastering as Hercules had shown himself to be. 

In Ru. 798 S. Daemones senex sends Turbalio servos to 
bring from the house two stout clavae. When Turbalio comes 
back with the clubs, Daemones says (804) Ehem, optume edepol 
eccum clavator advenit; at 807-808 he bids Turbalio and 
Sparax, each with a club, to stand on either side of Labrax 
leno, to keep him from molesting the girls and from going 
away. Finally, when we remember that the scene is laid 
before a fanum Veneris, we shall understand Labrax's words 
at 821 S.: Heu hercle ne istic fana mutantur cito: iam hoc 
Herculi fit Veneris fanum quod fuit: ita duo destituit signa 
hie cum clavis senex. 

I group here minor references to Hercules. — In Cu. 358 
Curculio parasitus says: talos arripio, invoco almam meam 
nutricem Herculem, iacto basilicum. Between Hercules, of the 
large appetite, and a parasite sympathy was sure to exist. See 
Naudet's note. — In St. 218 ff. Gelasimus parasitus is auctioning 
his property, his logi ridiculi. In 221 ff. he cries, Age, licemini. 
Qui cena poscit? ecqui poscit prandio? (Hercules te amabit) — 
prandio, cena tibi. Ehem, adnuistin ? But the text here is un- 
certain : see Lindsay. The passage closes with 232-233 : Haec 
veniisse iam opus est quantum potest, uti decumam partem 
Herculi polluceam. See Naudet's note. For tithes to Hercules 
see also Ba. 663-666 (servos). Mo. 984 (? servos), and, best 
of all, Tru. 559-565 (servos). — In Ru. 1225, Daemones senex, 
having been worsted by Trachalio servos in their duel of licet' s, 
exclaims, Hercules istum inf elicet cum sua licentia. 

Hippolyta. — See above, page 247, under Hercules. 

Hyacinthus. — In Ba. 109 fif. Lydus paedagogus seeks to deter 
Pistoclerus adulescens from entering Bacchis's house. Finally, 
in 137 if., we have this dialogue : 

PI. Tace atque sequere, Lyde, me. LY. lUuc sis vide! 
non paedagogum iam me, sed Lydum vocat. 


PI. Non par videtur neque sit consentaneum, 
quom t haec intus t sit et cum arnica accubet, 
quomque osculetur et convivae alii accubent, 
praesentibus illis paedagogus ut siet. 

Havet, according to Lindsay, suggested, in verse 140, cum toib 
intus sit et cum cum arnica accubet. Lindsay himself thinks 
that quom Hyacinthus intus sit may be right, but he does not 
indicate wherein a reference to Hyacinthus would be appropri- 
ate here. He was doubtless thinking of the erotic version of 
the Hyacinthus story. 

Icarus. — In Mer. 486-489 Naudet saw a reference to the 
story of Icarus : 

EU. Visne earn ad portum — CH. Qui potius quam voles? EU. atque 

mulierem pretio? CH. Qui potius quam auro expendas? EU. Unde 

CH. Acchillem orabo aurum mihi det Hector qui expensus fuit. 
EU. Sanun es ? 

Charinus is throughout sarcastic. The ultimate sense of the 
passage is as follows: ' Do you want me to go (walk) to the 

harbor ?' 'No, fly.' — 'and get the woman by paying 

for her ? ' ' Why, of course, buy her '. ' Where's the money to 
come from ? ' ' Oh, I'll ask Achilles to give me the money he 
got as ransom for Hector '. Charinus's two answers mean in 
the last analysis : ' of course you've got to walk, you can't fly ', 
and ' pay for her, in gold, of course '. The allusion to the 
Achilles story increases somewhat the possibility that Naudet 
is right in seeing a reference to the Icarus story : the allusions 
that concern us come catervatim, so to say; see e. g. above, 
page 243, under Argus, the passages referred to page 238, note 
I, and below, pages 258-260, under Ulixes. 

Linus. — See above, under Hercules, page 247. 

Lycurgus (insanus). — See above, under Aiax, page 238. 

Medea, Pelias. — In Ps. 790-865 Ballio leno is abusing a 
cocus whom he has hired a foro. The latter, unruffled, bids 
Ballio stop worrying, adding (868 ff.) sorbitione faciam ego 
hodie te mea item ut Medea Peliam concoxit senem, quem 
medicamento et suis venenis dicitur fecisse rusus ex sene 
adulescentulum : item ego te faciam. See the editors ad loc, 
especially Morris. 


Minerva. — In Hau. 1035-1037, in a dialogue between Clitipho 
adulescens and Chremes, his father, there is an interesting use 
of the story of Minerva's birth : 

CL. Non sunt haec parentis dicta. CH. Non, si ex capite sis meo 
natus, item ut aiunt Minervam esse ex love, ea causa magis 
patiar, Clitipho, flagitiis tuis me infaraem fieri. 

Mulciber. — See below, under Achilles, page 255. 

Nerio. — In Tru. 515 Stratophanes miles, entering, addresses 
Phronesium meretrix thus : Mars peregre adveniens salutat 
Nerienem uxorem suam. See Gellius 13. 21, especially 11 ff. 

Oedipus. — In Andr. 194 Davus servos, pretending not to 
understand the hint his master is trying to give him, says Davus 
sum, non Oedipus. In Poe. 443-444 Milphio says of his mas- 
ter's wild utterances, isti quidem hercle orationi Oedipo opust 
coniectore, qui Sphingi interpres fuit. 

Omphale. — See Eun. 1026 ff ., Men. 795 ff., cited above, under 
Hercules, page 248. 

Ops. — In Mi. 1082 the miles says : postriduo natus sum ego, 
mulier, quam luppiter ex Ope natust. Compare Cis. 512 ff., 
where Alcesimarchus adulescens says, with interruptions by 
Melaenis lena : 

itaque me luno regina et lovis supremi filia, 
itaque me Saturnus eiius patruos — ME. Ecastor pater. 
AL. itaque me Ops opulenta, illius avia — ME. Immo mater quidem. 

The Miles passage helps us to see that eiius and illius refer to 
Jupiter. In Pe. 251 ff. Sagaristio servos, entering, appeals to 
lovi opulento, incluto, Ope gnato, etc. Brix, on Mi. 1. c, refers 
to Livy 39. 22. 4, and the editors there. See also Preller- 
Jordan, Romische Mythologie ', 2. 20 ff. 

Orestes. — See above, page 238. 

Orpheus-Eurydice. — See above, under Orcus, page 237. 

Pentheus. — In Mer. 469 Charinus adulescens, entering, says : 
Pentheum diripuisse aiiunt Bacchas: nugas maxumas fuisse 
credo, praeut quo pacto ego divorsus distrahor. Cf . also a frag- 
ment, incomplete, of the Vidularia : Eiusdem Bacchae f ecerunt 
nostram navem Pentheum. 

Phaon. — In Mi. 1246-1247 Palaestrio servos says to the 
miles : nulli mortali scio optigisse hoc nisi duobus, tibi et Phaoni 
Lesbio, tarn mulier se ut amaret. 

Philomela, Progne. — In Ru. 593 ff. Daemones senex, enter- 
ing, soliloquizes concerning a dream of the past night (596- 


597). A simia had been trying to reach a nidus hirundininus, 
but in vain; finally it had sought to borrow a ladder from 
Daemones (598-602). Compare now 603 ff. : ego ad hoc 
exemplum simiae respondeo . . . natas ex Philomela ac 
Progne esse hirundines : ago cum ilia ne quid noceat meis popu- 
laribus.* See also, below, on this page, under Tereus. 

Phoenix. — See above, under Hercules, page 247. 

Phrixus. — In Ba. 239-243 Chrysalus servos refers in a very 
interesting way to the story of the aries Phrixi {extexam ego 
ilium pulchre iam, si di volunt, in 239 paves the way very 
naturally for 241-242). 

Porthaon. — In Men. 745 Menaechmus II Syracusanus, ad- 
dressing the matrona, says : Ego te simitu novi cum Porthaone. 
Cf . his words to her at 748 : Novi cum Calcha simul. 

Rhadamanthus. — In Tr. 928 the sycophanta, master supreme 
of tall talk, when asked to give Charmides's whereabouts, says : 
Pol ilium reliqui ad Rhadamantem in Cercopio. See Brix and 
Fairclough ad loc. 

Sibulla. — In Ps. 25-26 Pseudolus servos says of the letter 
written by the meretrix to Calidorus adulescens: has quidem 
pol credo nisi Sibulla legerit, interpretari alium potesse 

Sisyphus. — In Eun. 1084- 1085 Gnatho parasitus has the 
Sisyphus story in mind: Unum etiam hoc vos oro, ut me in 
vostrum gregem recipiatis: satis diu hoc iam saxum vorso. 
The saxum is the miles. See Donatus and Fabia ad loc. 

Sphinx. — See above, under Oedipus, page 252. 

Tereus. — See under Philomela, Progne, pages 252 f. In 
Ru. 508-509 Charmides senex, the voluptuous Sicilian friend 
of Labrax leno, says to Labrax: Scelestiorem cenam cenavi 
tuam quam quae Thyestae quondam aut posita est Tereo. 

Thyestes. — See above, under Tereus. 

Titanes. — In Pe. 26 Toxilus servos asks: Quid ego faciam? 
disne advorser? quasi Titani cum is belligerem quibus sat esse 
non queam ? ^ 

' Compare the appeal of Epops in Aristophanes, Aves 366-368 to the 
birds to spare Peisthetaerus and Euelpides, rijs e^^j yvratKis ivre ^vyfevii 
Acai <l>v\iTa. 

' In Men. 853 f. Menaechmus II Syracusanus, pretending to be mad, 
says, Hau male illanc amovi : < amoveo > nunc hunc inpurissumum, 


Volcanus. — In Ru. 761 Labrax leno, after Daemones has 
forbidden him to touch the maidens, says : Volcanum adducam, 
is Venerist advorsarius. For the story he has in mind compare 
e. g. Odyssey 8. 270-365. See Naudet's note. See also above, 
under Mulciber, page 252. 

Miscellaneous Matters. — In Pe. 549 ff. Sagaristio servos is 
talking to the virgo whom he is bringing in as a supposed 
prisoner of war ; he asks her opinion of Athens and receives a 
clever answer (549-550). In 553-554 we have this further 
dialogue: SAG. Ut munitum muro tibi visum oppidumst? 
VI. Si incolae bene sunt morati, id pulchre moenitum arbitror, 
etc. There may be a reference to Sparta and its human walls. 
In Tr. 547-552 there is an elaborate reference to the Fortuna- 
torum Insulae. In As. 34, in the words of Libanus servos, 
apud fustitudinas, ferricrepinas insulas, I see a parodic refer- 
ence again to these Islands. 

B. Stories Relating to the Trojan War (Involving 
Homer and the Cyclic Poets) } 

Attention was called, p. 232, n. 3, to the role played by 
the story of Troy in early Roman tragedy. Comedy, too, was 
interested in this theme. At any rate, we find in Plautus 
(though not in Terence) references repeatedly to well-known 
details of the story still to be seen in the Iliad and the Odyssey, 
but which, in the days when the so-called Cyclic Poems were 
yet extant, was far more fully rounded out for both Greeks and 
Romans than it can be for us. 

Achilles. — In Tru. 730-731 Astaphium ancilla says to 
Diniarchus adulescens : Stultus es qui facta infecta facere verbis 
postules. Theti' quoque etiam lamentando pausam fecit filio. 

barbatum, tremulum Titanum qui cluet Cycno patre. So Lindsay, and 
Brix-Niemeyer ", with the MSS, rightly. Most editors read Tithonum 
for Titanum. But they are obliged to admit that nowhere else is 
Tithonus son of Cycnus. This consideration would, of course, be 
without weight if the MSS gave Tithonum; in this very play, 141-143, 
as shown above, page 246, note 2, we have a story without parallel in 
extant classical literature. 

'To get the properly cumulative effect, it has seemed best to group 
under this one caption all the pertinent material. 


Epid. 29-38 is a very interesting passage. Two slaves are 
talking, Thesprio, slave of Stratippocles, who has just come 
back from Thebes from some campaign, and Epidicus : 

EP. Ubi arma sunt Stratippocli ? 
TH. Pol ilia ad hostis transf ugerunt. EP. Armane ? TH. Atque 

quidem cito. 

EP. Serione dici' tu ? 

TH. Serio, inquam : hostes habent. 
EP. Edepol facinus inprobum. TH. At iam ante alii fecerunt idem'. 
Erit illi ilia res honori. EP. Qui ? TH. Quia ante aliis fuit '. 
Mulciber, credo, arma fecit quae habuit Stratippocles : 
travolaverunt ad hostis*. EP. Tum ille prognatus Theti 
sine perdat : alia adportabunt ei Neri filiae. 

Id modo videndum est, ut materies suppetat scutariis, 

si in singulis stipendiis is ad hostis exuvias dabit '. 

In Mi. 59 ff. Artotrogus parasitus tells how the day before 
some women had questioned him concerning the miles. 
Cf . 61 ff. : 

AR. Rogitabant: "Hicine Achilles est?", inquit mihi. 
" Immo eius f rater " ", inquam, " est ". Ibi illarum altera 
" Ergo mecastor pulcher est " inquit mihi, 
" et liberalis. Vide caesaries quam decet ". 

Cf. also 68. In Mi. 1054a, 1055 Milphidippa ancilla calls the 
soldier Mi Achilles . . . urbicape, occisor regum. In Mi. 

" Leo and Lindsay rightly keep the MS order of the verses. 

'Gray ad loc. holds that "this probably alludes to some well-known 
persons who had undeservedly received promotion. They are the 
ptfaawides of Aristophanes, Nub. 353, Pax 1186". Scaliger and Naudet 
had held this view long before: see the note in the Lemaire edition. 
Certainly the passage sounds definite enough ; it would at any rate be 
far more effective if aimed at contemporary events. In that case, see 
above, page 243, note i, page 244, note i. 

It strikes me, however, that we may have here after all rather a 
parody of passages like those in Archilochus, Alcaeus, and Anacreon to 
which Horace's famous phrase, relicta non bene parmula, C. 2. 7. 10, 
goes back. See Smith's note there. 

* The sense is ' No human workman made those arms : they had 
wings'. There is here, of course, a irapa itpoaSoKlav joke; Vulcan made 
arms for Achilles (and for Aeneas) for fighting, not for Aighting, if 
the lusus verborum may be allowed. 

* For the language cf. Juvenal 3. 310-311. 

° Wild burlesque, of course ; Achilles had no brother. In the Iliad 
Achilles is long-haired, and (aveds. See Seymour, Life in the Homeric 
Age, 175-177. 


1284 ff. Pleusicles adulescens, entering in the disguise of a 
nauclerus, moralizes on the strange conduct to which love has 
driven men, himself included. At 1289, he begins his enumera- 
tion of these things with the words Mitto iam ut occidi Achilles 
civis passus est. See Mer. 486 ff., discussed above, under 
Icarus, page 251. 

Alexander (Paris). — In Mi. 777-778 Palaestrio servos says 
of the miles, Isque Alexandri praestare praedicat formam 
suam. See also below, pages 259-260, the analysis of the con- 
tents of Ba. 925 ff. 

Autolycus. — In Ba. 275 Nicobulus senex refers to Autolycus, 
grandfather of Ulysses, f uracitate celeberrimus, thus : Deceptus 
sum : Autolyco hospiti aurum credidi. 

Calchas. — In Men. 748-749 the dialogue between the matrona 
and Menaechmus II Syracusanus runs thus (she refers to her 
father) : 

MA. Novistin tu ilium ? MEN. Novi cum Calcha simul : 
eodem die ilium vidi quo te ante hunc diem. 

Cf. his words at 745, Ego te simitu novi cum Porthaone. In 
Mer. 945, after Charinus, crazed by love, had told Eutychus 
that he had traveled in search of his lost love to Chalcis and 
there had got information concerning her from a hospes 
Zacyntko (940-944), the latter exclaims, Calchas iste quidem 

Hecuba. — Hecuba's story, in one detail at least, was in Plau- 
tus's mind in several passages. Witness the interesting dialogue 
in Men. 713-718 between the matrona and Menaechmus II 
Syracusanus, in which Menaechmus refers to the story of 
Hecuba's transformation into a dog ( for which cf . e. g. Eurip- 
ides, Hecuba 1265). Cf. 936. Possibly, too, Plautus had this 
story in mind in Cas. 317-320 (dialogue between Lysidamus 
senex and Olumpio servos) : 

LY. Quid istuc est? quicum litigas, Olumpio? 
OL. Cum eadem qua tu semper. LY. Cum uxori mea? 
OL. Quam tu mihi uxorem ? quasi venator tu quidem es, 
dies atque noctes cum cane aetatem exigis. 

Yet cane in 320 may be merely a common term of opprobrium 
and 319-320 may remind us rather of Horace C. i. i. 25-28. 


For another reference to Hecuba see below, pages 259-260, in 
the discussion of Ba. 925 if. 

Hector. — In Cas. 991 ff., when Olumpio vilicus turns on his 
master, Lysidamus senex, this dialogue ensues : 

LY. Non taces ? OL. Non hercle vero taceo. Nam tu maxumo 
me opsecravisti opere Casinam ut poscerem uxorem mihi 
tui amoris caussa. LY. Ego istuc feci ? OL. Immo Hector Ilius — 

LY. te quidem oppresset '. 

The Teubner text had printed Immo Hector Ilius te quidem 
oppressit, and had distributed the dialogue differently; the 
sentence Immo . . . oppressit was allotted to Cleustrata 
matrona. Lindsay refers to Palmer, Hermathena 12. 83. 
Lindsay's text and distribution of parts are excellent. 
Olumpio starts to say, sarcastically, ' No, I didn't do it, Trojan 
Hector <did it> '. The sarcasm is of a piece with that seen 
e. g. in Men. 748-749 MA. Novistin tu ilium? MEN. Novi 
cum Calcha simul : eodem die ilium vidi quo te ante hunc diem. 
See also Men. 745 Ego te simitu novi cum Porthaone. For an- 
other reference to Hector see above, under Icarus, page 251. 

Iphigenia. — In Epid. 488-490 there is probably a reference, 
in the dialogue between the miles and the senex, to the Iphi- 
genia story : 

ML Em istic homo te articulatim concidit, senex, 

tuo' servos. PE. Quid ' concidit ' ? ML Sic suspiciost, 
nam pro fidicina haec cerva supposita est tibi. 

See Gray ad loc. 

Nestor. — In Men. 934 ff. the Medicus and the senex talk 
thus about Menaechmus II Syracusanus: 

MED. Nunc homo insanire occeptat: de illis verbis cave tibi. 
SE. Immo Nestor nunc quidem est de verbis, praeut dudum fuit. 

Penelope. — In St. 1-9 there is a most elaborate reference 
to Penelope's sorrow because of the long absence of Ulysses 
(the speaker, Panegyris, has heard nothing of her husband 
in more than two years : see 29-36) : Credo ego miseram fuisse 
Penelopam, soror, suo ex animo, quae tam diu vidua viro suo 
caruit, nam nos eius animum de nostris factis noscimus, quarum 
viri hinc apsunt, quorumque nos negotiis apsentum, ita ut 
aequom est, sollicitae noctes et dies, soror, sumus semper. 

' This sort of interruption is frequent in the Casina. 


Talthybius. — In St. 274 flf. Pinacium, rather tipsy * (270 ff.), 
is bringing good news to his mistress. In 305 ff. he cries, 
contundam facta Talthubi contemnamque omnis nuntios 
simulque ad cursuram meditabor me ad ludos Olumpios. 

mixes. — In plays in which the chief role is borne by the 
tricky slave we should naturally expect references to Ulixes.^ 

In Ba. 21-23, among the fragments of this play, we have a 
reference to the sorrows of Ulixes, particularly to the sorrows 
caused by his wanderings (the words are spoken, apparently, by 
one of the Bacchides) : 

Ulixem audivi fuisse aerumnosissumum 

qui annos viginti errans a patria afuit; 

verum hie adulescens multo Ulixem anteit < fide > 

qui ilico errat intra muros civicos'. 

In Ba. 925-978 there is a long parody, in general of many 
Greek and Latin plays portraying the fall of Troy and its con- 
sequences, in particular, I suspect, of Ennius; the parody is 
uttered by Chrysalus servos. In this Ulixes has a place more 
than once. Compare 940 ff. : Ego sum Ulixes, quoius consilio 
haec gerunt ; 946 miles Menelaust, ego Agamemno, idem Ulixes 
Lartius ; 949 ff. nam illi ( = adv., ' there,' i. e. at Troy) itidem 
Ulixem audivi, ut ego sum, fuisse et audacem et malum: dolis 
ego deprensus sum, ille mendicans paene inventus interit, dum 
ibi exquirit fata Iliorum ; adsimiliter mi hodie optigit ; vinctus 
sum, sed dolis me exemi : item se ille servavit dolis ; 962 ff. 
ibi vix me exsolvi : atque id periclum adsimilo, Ulixem ut 
praedicant cognitum ab Helena esse proditum Hecubae; sed, 
ut olim ille se blanditiis exemit et persuasit se ut amitteret, item 
ego dolis me illo extuli e periclo et decepi senem. Cf. p. 239. 

' See the discussion of this passage in my paper, References to Paint- 
ing in Plautus and Terence, Classical Philology, XII, 151-152. 

'On this conception of Ulixes as a feature of Greek tragedy see 
Conington, Vergil,* 2. xxxvi. Such a conception, of course, suited the 
Romans as descendants of the Trojans : see Conington, ibid, xxiv-xxvii. 

'The passage is cited by Charisius, to illustrate ilico (the word seems 
to mean ' forthwith ', i. e. even before he leaves his patria). Me in 23 
is due to Leo ; Lindsay reads it, but doubtfully. I have not been able to 
see how the word can be fitted into the context. What we need is a 
dissyllabic word meaning ' wandering ' or ' trouble '. Professor Paul 
Nixon, in his text and translation (1916), omits Me: evidently to him 
too it was meaningless. For the passage as a whole compare St. 1-9, 
quoted above, under Penelope, page 257. 


In Ps. 1063-1064 Simo senex, entering, says : Visso quid 
rerum meus Ulixes egerit, iamne habeat signum ex arce 
Ballionia. Pseudolus, of course, is here Ulixes, and the signum 
(the Palladium) is the girl owned by Ballio. Again, in 1243- 
1244, Simo says of Pseudolus : Nimis illic mortalis doctus, nimis 
vorsutus, nimis malus ; superavit dolum Troianum atque Ulixem 

In Men. 899 ff. Menaechmus I Epidamniensis, for whom 
things have turned out badly, entering, says: Edepol ne hie 
dies pervorsus atque advorsus mi optigit : quae me clam ratus 
sum facere, omnia ea fecit palam parasitus qui me complevit 
flagiti et formidinis, meus Ulixes, suo qui regi tantum concivit 

I group here several very general references. In Mi. 1025 
Milphidippa ancilla calls the soldier Ilium, thus : quo pacto hoc 
Ilium appelli velis, id fero ad te consilium. So in the fine 
parody in Ba. 925 ff . the senex of the play is referred to as 
Ilium (945, 948, 972), and as Priamus (978). In Mi. 740 ff. 
Pleusicles adulescens, praising Periplecomenus senex for his 
hospitality, declares that usually when a guest is three days 
together at one's house east odiorum Ilias (743). In Tru. 
482 ff. Stratophanes miles, entering, declares that he will not, as 
many others have done, recount his battles: scio ego multos 
memoravisse milites mendacium: et Homeronida et postilla 
mille memorari potest, qui et convicti et condemnati falsis de 
pugnis sient (see also the following lines).' 

Finally, as the climax of this paper, I take up again a passage 
to which I have already often referred, Ba. 925-978, the best 
of all parodies in Plautus, spoken by Chrysalus servos. It is im- 
possible to do this passage justice. Lack of space forbids the 

" I think at once of Livius Andronicus's line : Virum mihi, Camena, 
insece vorsutum. On this verse see my remarks in A. J. P., XXXV 
17-19; XXXIX 109. 

' Brix-Niemeyer " think here of Ulixes's " iible Dienste bei Iphi- 
geniens Opferung (Eurip. Iph. Aul. 524. 1361), wodurch die Verfeindung 
zwischen Agamemnon und seiner Gattin entstand ". 

'I am reminded here of the Greek debate on the question, Is the 
absolute truth to be demanded of the poet? See W. R. Hardie, Lectures 
on Qassical Subjects, 267-268, 283. Plautus's words are interesting, too, 
when put beside what is said — e. g. by Cicero and Gellius — of the liber- 
ties accorded to rhetoricians : compare Gellius, N. A. i. 6. 4-5. 


quotation of the whole (it is reinforced by later allusions in the 
play: see 979 flf.) ; to discuss in detail every point raised by it 
would be at once too lengthy and needless. Some indication of 
the richness of this passage for our purposes may, however, 
be afforded even by a bare catalogue of the names which appear 
within it: Achilles, 938; Agamemnon, 946; Alexander 
(= Paris), 947; Atridae, 925; Epius, 937; Hecuba, 963; 
Helena, 948, 963; IHum, 945, 948, 951, 956, 972 (987); 
Menelaus, 946; the Palladium, 954, 958; Pergamum, 926, 933 
(1053. 1054); Priamus, 926, 933, 973, 976, 978; Sinon, 
relictus . . . in busto Achilli, 937; Sinon's fire-signal, 939; 
Troia, 933 (1053, 1058) ; Troilus, 954, 960; Ulixes, 940, 949- 
952, 962-965 ; the 1000 ships, 928; the wooden horse, 936, 941 ; 
the tria fata of Troy, 953 ff., 959 (987) ; the breaking through 
of the portae Phrygiae limen superum, 955 (987). 

V. References to Philosophers. 

Socrates, Solon, Thales. — In Ps. 464-465 Simo senex, speak- 
ing to Callipho senex, says of Pseudolus servos : Conficiet iam 
te hie verbis ut tu censeas non Pseudolum, sed Socratem tecum 
loqui. See Morris ad loc. The tone here is not so plainly 
sarcastic as is that of the references to Thales (see below). 
In As. 598-600 Libanus servos says sarcastically of his younger 
master Argyrippus : Audin hunc opera ut largus est nocturna ? 
nunc enim esse negotiosum interdius videlicet Solonem, leges 
ut conscribat quibus se populus teneat. Witness the following 
dialogue, from Ba. 120-124, between Pistoclerus adulescens 
and Lydus paedagogus : 

LY. An deus est uUus Suavisaviatio ? 

PL. An non putasti esse umquam? O Lyde, es barbarus': 

quern ego sapere nimio censui plus quam Thalem, 

is stultior es barbaro poticio ... 

In Cap. 274-276 Tyndarus servos, commenting on the inter- 
view between Hegio and Philocrates, exclaims: Eugepae! 
Thalem talento non emam Milesium, nam ad sapientiam huiius 
<hominis> nimius nugator fuit. In Ru. 1003 two slaves, 
Trachalio, and Gripus, talk thus : TR. Stultus es. GR. Salve, 

' For the lusus verborum here cf. Cu. 150. 


Thales. In 986 Gripus had already derisively addressed 
Trachalio with the word Philosophe} 

Charles Knapp. 

Columbia University. 

' For a similar reference to Thales in Greek comedy see e. g. Aristoph- 
anes, Aves 1009 irdpunos 60X^5 (said of Meton). See the editors 
there, especially Van Leeuwen. The tone in all the references in 
Plautus to Socrates, Solon, and Thales, it will be noted, is sarcastic 
We may compare other passages in which there is allusion to philosophy, 
though no philosopher is named. In Cap. 284 Tyndarus, overhearing 
Philocrates's remark about Orcus (see above, page 237), says: Salva res 
est: philosophatur quoque iam, non mendax modo est. To Tyndarus, 
philosophia was the quintessence of lying. Cf. also Mer. 147-148 
(Acanthio servos): Nescio ego istaec: philosophari ('refine', 'split 
hairs') numquam didici neque scio; Ps. 687 (Pseudolus servos, who 
had been philosophizing since 675) Sed iam satis est philosophatum : 
nimi' diu et longum loquor; Ps. 974 (Pseudolus, commenting on his 
master's remark, in foro vix decumus quisque est qui ipsus sese noverit) 
Salvos sum, iam philosophatur. 

It would be easy, especially in view of passages in Cicero's works 
(e. g. De Fin. I. i) which show Roman opposition to philosophy, and in 
view of the still more significant fact that Cicero repeatedly makes 
elaborate apologies for devoting himself to philosophy (see Reid, 
Academica, 23, note), to suppose that in the passages cited in this note 
Plautus was reflecting Roman rather than Grecian views of philosophy. 
But let us recall how in Anabasis 2. i. 13, in answer to Theopompus's 
labored effort to show why the Greeks should not surrender their arms 
to the King, Phalinus iyiXaae koJ elirex, 'AXXa ^t\oa64i<f ixiy toiKas, H yta- 
vloKC, KOi \4yeis ovk dx^P""''^' f"''' M^'toi aviriTos Siv, el oiei Tijy iiierepav 
ApeTrjp repiyevi<r0ai &r rrjs /3a<TiX^ws Svyiiiews.