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Vol. XXXVIII, i. Whole No. 149. 


1. ajuryamur for ajur(yam) yamur, and other haplologies. 

RV. 5. 6. 10 we have the notorious passage containing the 
complex of syllables, ajuryamur, which the Padakara fails to 
analyze, to wit : 

evan agnim ajuryamur girbhir yajnebhir anusak, 
dadhad asme suvtryam uta tyad acvacvyam. 

For previous discussions of ajuryamur by Ludwig, Pischel, 
Bartholomae, and Oldenberg, see the last-mentioned scholar's 
Rig- Veda Noten, First Part, p. 315 ff. My own way is indi- 
cated by the heading. 

If we regard ajuryamur as haplological contraction for 
ajur(yarh) yamur, the first distich is to be rendered: 'Thus 
they have gotten hold of imperishable Agni by means of songs 
and sacrifices, properly '. Agni, like other gods, is imperish- 
able, ajurya, RV. 1. 146. 4; 2. 8. 2; 10. 88. 13; ajara 1. 58. 4; 
127. 9 ; 6. 29, etc. For ' holding ', ' keeping hold ' of Agni see 
3. 27. 3, agne gakema te vayaih yamam devasya vajinah ; or 
2. 5. 1, gakema vajino yamam. 

Another case of haplology as between two individual words, 
namely tavasarh rabhasva for tavasarh(sam)rabhasva occurs 
in AV. 11. 1. 14: 

ema" agur yositah ?umbhamana ut tistha nari tavasam 

supatni patya prajaya prajavaty a tvagan yajfiah prati 

kumbharh grbhaya. 


A glance at the lists under root rabh in Grassmann's and 
Whitney's Indexes to RV. and AV. shows that the simple root 
without prepositional prefixes scarcely occurs in either text. 
Whitney, indeed, lists the simple root only in that very 
passage, AV. 1 1. i. 14. In a note on p. 614 of my translation 
of the hymn, SBE. xlii, I stated that Sayana reads in pada b, 
tava sariirabhasva, and the Paippalada, tavah samrabhasva. I 
remarked, furthermore, that the original reading may have 
been, tavasarh (sari:) rabhasva. Of this suggestion the Whit- 
ney-Lanman translation takes no note. Yet it furnishes the 
key to the passage: 'The maidens (the waters), ornamenting 
themselves, have come hither. Arise thou, woman, take hold 
of (sarh rabhasva) the strong one (tavasam, i. e., the pitcher, 
kumbham, masculine) ! ' 

Once more in a Vedic text, simple rabh, without preposition 
calls for correction. In MC. 3. 5. 13 we have the corrupt 
stanza, as edited by Knauer : 

agnir bhagah savitedarh jusantarii prajapatir varuno . . . 

ya . . . mahyam, 
yo no dvesti tanurh rabhasvanagaso yajamanasya viran. 

There are two parallels to this corrupt stanza. AV. 9. 5. 2 : 

indraya bhagarh pari tva nayamy asmin yajiie yaiamanaya 

ye no dvisanty anu tan rabhasvanagaso yajamanasya virah. 

And Ap£. 7. 17. 2 : 

indrasya bhagah suvite dadhatanemarii yajnarh yajamanarii 

ca surau, 
yo no dvesty anu tarii ravasvanagaso yajamanasya virah. 

Whitney, in his translation of AV., does not mention the par- 
allels ; Knauer, at MQ., is cognizant of AV. 9. 5. 2, but not of 
ApC. The intricacies of these correspondences need not con- 
cern us at present. I would remark, however, that Knauer's 
mss. read at the beginning agner bhagah, which corresponds 
to the parallels, and is probably to be retained in the text. 
The point that concerns us here is that the third pada of MQ. 
is to be read yo no dvesty tarn anu rabhasva. In ApQ. ravasva 
is secondary, tho perhaps intentional ; see the author, AJPh. 
XXVII. 413. 


I note in this connection some cases of haplology in chance 
compounds. In RV. I. 48. 2 the compound vicvasuvid, by the 
side of acvavant and gomant, rendered by ' knowing all well ', 
makes no sense in that connection (Usas). The word is 
vig(va)-vasuvid 'getting all goods'; see Usas's epithet abha- 
rad-vasu, ' bringing on goods ', 5. 79. 2 ; and cf . the word 
vasutvanam in the related stanza, 7. 81. 6, or the expression 
utoso vasva Igise in 4. 52. 3. In Uluka-Jataka (270) appa- 
tissavasa, 'living in anarchy', is for a-ppatissa(va)vasa; and 
in Dadhivahana-Jataka (186) mandukantaka, designation of 
a plant is probably for mandu(ka)-kantaka 'frog-thorn'. In 
Maharastri Prakrit, avaratta is for ava(ra)ratta = Skt. apa- 
raratra, ' second part of the night ' ; see Jacobi's Ausgewahlte 
Erzahlungen, p. 32, 1. 2>7- On the literature of haplology (or 
haplolaly) 1 , which has of recent years grown apace, see last 
Collitz, Das schwache Prateritum (Gottingen, 1912), p. 237 ff 
I would draw attention particularly to instances of the phe- 
nomenon as between two successive words : Bloomfield, 
American Journal of Philology, xvii. 418; Schwyzer, IF. xiv. 
24 ff ; xxviii. 300 ; and Wackernagel, KZ. xl. 546. 

2. chardis for chadis, a case of contamination or word blend. 

The two words in the caption are obviously related. The 
metre of the Veda points to chadis instead of chardis in all 
critical positions: RV. 1. 48. 15; 8. 9. 1 ; 18. 21 ; 27. 4; 67. 6; 
j 1. 14. Grassmann (as after him others) outlines the problem 
very neatly in his Lexicon, s. v. : ' chardis, wofur wahrschein- 
lich iiberall chadis zu lesen ist, da sammtliche metrisch ent- 
scheidenden Stellen die Kiirze der ersten Silbe fordern und 
keine deren Lange begiinstigt. Das r scheint in die spatere 
Redaction durch Missverstandniss hineingedrungen '. For 
other discussions see Oldenberg, ZDMG. lv. 312, and the lit- 
erature there cited. 

What now is the nature of this ' misunderstanding ', and is 
it really such ? Grassmann's statement is very well as soon 
as we substitute for misunderstanding the linguistic term 
' contamination ', or ' blend '. The poets of the RV. knew only 

1 In sense haplolaly is preferable to haplology, but the former word 
with its three l's ironically invites the very change which it aims to 
describe, as, indeed, also does haplology with its two lo's. 


the word chadis, ' cover '. Like other words of this semantic 
class the word meant both 'cover' (in the physical sense), and 
' protection ' ; cf ., e. g., varma, ' armor ', and, ' protection '. In 
the more concrete sense of ' cover ' chadis occurs in RV. 10. 85. 
10; AV. 3. 7. 3, and it endures down to Kathasaritsagara 2. 49. 
In the abstract sense of ' protection ' the word blended with, 
or was contaminated by, garma ' protection ', taking its r from 
that word. Again in that form the word endures clear 
thru to Maharastri Prakrit chaddt (Jacobi, Erzahlungen, p. 
76, 1. 32). The contamination obviously took place in the 
time that passed between RV. composition and RV. redaction. 
At the time of the redaction the word for ' protection ' had so 
definitely assumed the form chardis that the diaskeuasts of the 
RV. had to substitute it for the poets' chadis, metre contradi- 
cente. The old word chadis had completely sloughed that 

That all this is indeed so, is rendered probable by the inti- 
mate and persistent synonymy of garma and chardis. Thus 
the line RV. 7. 52. 2 b , garma tokSya tanayaya gopah, is echoed 
in the formula, chardis tokaya tanayaya yacha, TB. i. 1. 7. 1 ; 
ApQ. 5. 12. 1. In RV. 1. 114 5 d both words occur together, 
carma varma chardir asmabhyam yansat. Almost every quali- 
fying expression that is used with carma is also used with 
chardis. Thus trivarutha, ' offering threefold safety ', or varu- 
thya, ' offering safety ' ; or varutha by the side of each : 

garma no yahsan trivarutham, 10. 66. 5 
savita" garma yachatv asme trivarutham, 4. 53. 6 
sa nah garma trivarutham vi yansat, 8. 42. 3 
garmana nas trivaruthena pahi, 5. 4. 8 

trivarutham maruto yanta nag chardih, 8. 18. 21. 

Cf. also MS. 2. 8. 7*: m. 4; KS. 17. 6; TA. 2. 5. 2. 

garma . . . varuthyarh tad asmSsu vi yantana, 8. 47. 10 
bfhaspatih garma ... no yamad varuthyam, 5. 46. 5 

chardir yad varh varuthyam, 6. 67. 2 

bhava varutham . . . maghavadbhyah garma, 1. 58. 9 
garma no yantam amavad varutham, 4. 55. 4 
achidrarh garma yachata . . . varutham, 8. 27. o 

yad vah . . . varutham asti yac chardih, 8. 67. 9. 


Or, again, adjectives for 'broad' go with both nouns: uru, 
prthu, and especially saprathah : 

yacha nah garma saprathah, i. 22. 15 
saprathah garma yacha sahantya, 6. 16. 33 

chardir yacha vitahavyaya saprathah, 6. 15. 3 
saprathah chardir yantam adabhyam, 8. 5. 12 

urv asma aditih garma yansat, 4. 25. 5 

pra no yachatad avrkarh prthu chardih, 1. 48. 15 
prssmai yachatam avrkarh prthu chardih, 8. 9. 1. 

As regards other adjectives, or other related connections, 
the following pairs or groups speak for themselves : 

duradharsarh grnate garma yansat, 6. 49. 7 
adhrstarh chardir yad vam, 6. 67. 2 

bhava . . . maghavan maghavadbhyah garma, 1. 58. 9 
chardir yacha maghavadbhyag ca rhahyarh ca, 6. 46. 9 

(cf- 7-74-5; 8.5. 12) 
garma tokaya tanayaya gopah, 7. 52. 2 (cf. TB. 1. 1. 7. 1) 
adha sma yacha tanve tane ca chardih, 6. 42. 12. 

On the character and frequency of lexical contaminations 
see the author, Am. Journ. of Philol. xii. 1 ff . ; xvi. 1 ff. ; Indo- 
germanische Forschungen, iv. 66 ff. ; and most recently Giin- 
tert, Ueber Reimwortbildungen im Arischen und Altgriech- 
ischen (Heidelberg, 1914). 

3. Some ^xvi Juira - 

The two stanzas, RV. 1. 4 5, 6 read : 

uta bruvantu no nido nir anyatag cid arata, 
dadhana indra id duvah. 

uta nah subhagah arir voceyur dasma krstayah, 
sytmed indrasya garmani. 

The renderings mark a to and fro from a correct under- 
standing : Bollensen, Orient und Occident, ii. 462 ; Ludwig, 
443 ; Grassmann, ii. 5 ; Pischel, ZDMG. xl. 125 ; Geldner, Ved. 
Stud. iii. 79 ; Oldenberg, Rig- Veda Noten i. 4. Geldner comes 
nearest to the correct sense ; I would translate : 

'Whether our enemies happen to say (about us) : "when 
ye pay respect to Indra alone (id), ye have shut yourself off 


from other (benefits)"; or, if both gentle and common folk 
should, O wise (God Indra), pronounce us lucky, (in either 
case) shall we under Indra's protection be.' 1 

uta-uta are clearly antithetic. The two stanzas seem to 
express an almost sectarian difference between Indra wor- 
shipers and people who despise Indra (anindra), but worship 
other gods. Intentionally I render arih . . . krstayah by ' both 
gentle and common folk ', i. e., ' rich and poor ', or ' patricians 
and plebeians '. Arih has been suspected (Bollensen suggests 
arih). But it is correct and idiomatic ; we may call it participa- 
tive singular. Johannes Schmidt, Die Pluralbildungen der 
Indo-germanischen Neutra, pp. 314 ff., following Roth's sugges- 
tion in Pet. Lex., s. v. rathatur, has shown that an inclusive plural 
noun with a plural verb is occasionally in Sanskrit and Greek 
accompanied by a singular noun which expresses part of the 
plural noun. 2 In our passage krstayah includes both plebs 
(vicve, ol noXXoi) and patricians (ari) ; hence the participative 
singular arih, by the side of and partly denning krstayah with 
the plural verb. Cf. for this idiom also Ernst Fraenkel, Indo- 
germanische Forschungen, xxviii. 245 ff. For krsti, ari, and 
viqva see Geldner, Ved. Stud. iii. JJ ff. 

I am conceiving the matters involved here rather more pre- 
cisely than does Geldner. krsti ( car sani), 'people' is the 
totality which includes ari and vicva, ' noble and common ', its two 
natural subdivisions ; see 7. 48. 3 ; 8. 1. 22 ; 51. 9 ; 65. 9 ; 10. 28. 1. 
In Geldner's rendering (p. 78) of vicvagvirto aristutah in 8. 1. 
22, 'der von alien Geriihmte, (sogar) von den Reichen Ge- 
priesene', the word 'sogar' is needless. The expression 
means, ' he who is praised by plebs and " swell " alike '. Behind 
these two words stands the comprehensive krstayah ' all folks '. 

Another idiom, familiar in the Indo-European languages, 
ensures a similar effect, namely to mark the contrast between 
ari and vicva: RV. 10. 28. 1, vicvo hy anyo arir ajagama 
mamed aha cvaguro na" jagama. Geldner, p. 78, translates, 
'Jeder andere, (sogar) der Reiche ist erschienen; nur mein 
Schwiegervater ist nicht erschienen'. This neither does jus- 

' The last pada is repeated secondarily in 8. 47. 5 C . 

* In Greek rhetoric this idiom is denned as axwa Ka *' 8X0* *ai /xcpos ; 
Kiihner, Grammatik der griechischen Sprache 3 , Satzlehre (Kiihner- 
Gerth) vol. i, p. 289. 


tice to the established contrast between viqva and ari, nor to 
the idiom involved in anya. Translate : ' The common folk 
and (the others, sc.) the nobles have come, etc' * This is the 
well-known anticipatory-appositional use of anya, common in 
Sanskrit, the exact replica of a familiar Greek idiom with 
aAAo-, e. g., Xen. Anab. i. 5. 5> °*> y<*p v v x°P T0S °"^ aAAo SivSpov. 
See Ktihner, Satzlehre 8 , vol. i, p. 275, note 1 ; the author, 
Amer. Journ. of Philology, vii. 101 ; Pet. Lex. vol. i, p. 262 b , 
where examples from Classical Sanskrit are cited abundantly 
but no Vedic cases. Another such case is contained in RV. 
1. 109. 6 where the word anya in vicva bhuvana . . . anya con^- 
trasts vicva bhuvana, ' all creatures ', with a list of things that 
are not creatures. I suspect that other cases may turn up in 
the Veda. 2 

This idiom is familiar in modern French, in connection with 
plural pronouns ; e. g., nous autres Francais ; nous autres 
femmes. It is also known in Spanish and other Romance 
tongues. Kiihner-Gerth, 1. c, also quotes the idiom, less 
familiarly, from Latin and Modern High German (Luther 
and Goethe) ; cf. also Kuhner, Ausftihrliche Grammatik der 
Lateinischen Sprache, ii, § 119, note 17. Altogether the idiom 
is found in Vedic and in Sanskrit ; in Greek ; in classical and 
in Late Latin ; in Spanish, Provencal, and French ; in Middle 
and Modern High German. See in general Bockh, Encyklo- 
padie und Methodologie der philologischen Wissenschaften 
(1877), p. 105; Meyer-Liibke, Grammaire des Langues Ro- 
maines, vol. ii, § 75 ; iii, § 209 ; Diez, iii, p. 84 ; Tobler, Ver- 
mischte Beitrage, iii 1 , p. 72 ; Hanssen, Spanische Grammatik 
§ 56. 2 ; Gessner, Zeitschrift fur Romanische Philologie, xix. 
155 ; Appel's Old-Provengal Chrestomathie, St. 16, vv. 29-32. 

1 More fully : ' Both plebs and patricians have come ; my father-in- 
law alone has not come.' 

2 The use of vigvah, singular, as a collective in the sense of 'plebs', 
approximates the word to the plural vigve, in the same sense. This 
perhaps accounts for the seemingly senseless substitution in TS. 
1. 2. 2. 1, of the plural vigve for the singular vigvah with a singular 
verb (as in the other versions) : vigve devasya netur marto vrnita sak- 
hyam, 'the plebs, the mortal shall choose the companionship of the 
god that leadeth'. See last Keith, Veda of the Black Yajus, HOS. 
vol. xviii, p. 21. 


4. On the expression navyam sanyase. 

The expression navyam sanyase occurs, as far as I know, 
three times in the RV. 1 and once in the Mahanamni-verses of 
the SV. and Aitareya-aranyaka, which makes it easy to take 

The Pet. Lexs. and Grassmann in his Lexicon translate 
sanyas by ' old ', ' older ', without indicating in any way how 
the word is to be rendered in its connection. Geldner in his 
Glossary renders the entire expression navyam sanyase by 
'was dem altesten neu ist, d. h. etwas ganz neues, noch nie 
dagewesenes '. Keith, in his Translation of Aitareya-aranyaka, 
p. 263, suggests for navyam the meaning ' praiseworthy ' ( from 
root nu). As regards translations it will be well to review the 
proposals for each passage. RV. 3. 31. 19 reads: 

tam angirasvan namasa saparyan 
navyam krnomi sanyase purajarn. 

Grassmann, vol. i,p. 530: ' Mit Anbetung ihn nach Angiras- 
art verehrend, mach ich das alterzeugte [Lied] neu dem alten 
( sc. god Indra) '. Ludwig, 498 : ' wie Ahgiras mit Anbetung ihm 
dienend, mach ich ihn neu zum gewinnen, den ehvordem ent- 
standenen '. Ludwig does not comment upon his rendering : 
obviously he regards sanyase as an infinitive of root san 
' obtain '. Oldenberg, Nachrichten der koniglichen Gesell- 
schaft der Wissenschaften zu Gottingen, 1915, p. 381 : ' ich 
mache durch meine Anbetung den alten Gott neu (navyam) 
fur alte Tat (damit du diese auch jetzt wieder tun mogest)'. 
It is easy to show that Grassmann was pretty close to the truth, 
tho he did not quite get it, and lapsed, as we shall see, in 
the two other RV. passages : navyam krnomi sanyase pura- 
jarn contains, to my mind, a playful paradox : ' I make a new 
song (brahma) that is (in reality) primordial (purajarn) for 
the good old (sanyase) god'. 

The passages which show this to be true are of an almost 
mathematical insistence. RV. 1. 62. 13 : sanayate gotama indra 
navyam ataksad brahma hariyojanaya, 'Gotama has fashioned 
for thee, O Indra, the old god, a new song, in order that thou 
mayest hitch thy bay steeds '. This paraphrases sanyase by 

3. 31. 19 ; 8. 24. 26 ; 67. 18. 


sanayate, and fixes upon navyam the noun brahma, and from 
this, as will appear, there is not a hair's breadth of deviation. 
See next 10. 91. 13, imam pratn&ya sustutirh naviyasim voce- 
yam asma ucate, ' let me pronounce for the god of yore, that 
is willing, this quite new song'. Here pratnaya sustutirii 
naviyasim = navyam (brahma) sanyase. Next, 6. 62. 5, ta 
valgu dasra purucakatama pratna navyasa vacasa" vivase, ' these 
two lovely, most powerful Dasras (Acvins) of old I invite 
with a quite new song'. Here pratna" navyasa vacasa = 
navyath (brahma) sanyase. RV. 6. 22. 7: tam (sc. indrarh) 
vo dhiya navyasya Qavistham pratnam pratnavat paritarisaya- 
dhyai, 'deck out that mighty (Indra) of old with a new hymn 
as of old '. Here dhiya navyasya pratnam = navyam (brahma) 
sanyase. In 1. 61. 2 the antithesis between the 'new song' 
and the 'old god' is implied almost as clearly as tho it 
were directly expressed : asmai . . . indraya . . . pratnaya patye 
dhiyo marjayanta, 'let them polish up their songs for Indra 
the lord of old '. The word marjayanta ' polish up ' here well 
takes the place of ' new '. The word pratna is a favorite in 
such connection, as may be seen in such passages as 6. 39. 5 ; 
10. 4. I. 

In a slightly more remote way the antithesis between the ' new 
song ' and the ' old god ' is in the mind of the author of 
2. 17. 1 : tad asmai navyam angirasvad areata cusma yad asya 
pratnathodfrate, 'this new (brahma) sing ye for him (Indra) 
in the fashion of the Angiras in order that his fire shall be 
aroused as of old ' (note angirasvad, implying the past, as well 
as pratnatha). Here navyam (brahma) pratnatha afigirasvat 
= navyam (brahma) sanyase. Yet more round about, 8. 95. 5 : 
indra yas te naviyasirii girarh mandram ajijanat . . . dhiyarh 
pratnam. And 9. 9. 8 : mi navyase navlyase suktaya sadhaya 
pathah, pratnavad rocaya riicah. 

It is clear now that the expression navyaih (brahma) san- 
yase (devaya) is elliptic. The reason why we Westerners are 
slow to understand such an expression is, that the Vedic 
Hindus understood it too well. The underlying idea, as the 
passages just cited show, must have become immensely familiar, 
before they could express it by simply saying ' a new for an 
old'. The same almost kenning-like familiarity of the ex- 
pression guarantees beforehand that it could not have been 


used in any other sense than just that. With this reasoning the 
facts chime in perfectly. RV. 8. 67. 18 reads : 

tat su no navyam sanyasa aditya yan mumocati, 
bandhad baddham ivadite. 1 

Grassmann, who came nearest to understanding 3. 31. 19, 
lapses from grace utterly: 'Zum alten fiigt dies neue ihr, 
Aditya's, was, O Aditi, uns lost wie Sklaven von dem Strick '. 
Ludwig, 126: 'disz neue sei uns zum gewinne, was erloset, 
o Aditya, wie aus f esseln den gebundenen, o Aditi '. Bergaigne, 
iii. 161, omitting apparently sanyase: 'void notre nouvel 
(hymne) qui doit nous delivrer, 6 Adityas, comme un homme 
lie de son lieu, 6 Aditi '. Oldenberg, 1. c. : ' diese neue Tat 
(wird) uns (zuteil) zum Zweck des alten — d. h. damit die 
alte Tat fortwirke, sich erneuere.' Translate: 'This, pray, is 
our new (song) for a right old (god), which, O Adityas, shall 
free us as a captive from his chain, O Aditi '. 

The third occurrence of this cliche is in RV. 8. 24. 26 : 

tarn u tva nunam Imahe navyam dansistha sanyase, 
sa tvarii no vicva abhimatih saksanih. 

Grassmann : ' Darum begehren wir von dir zum alten neues, 
herrlicher, sei du Vertilger aller Widersacher uns '. Ludwig, 
597, 'als solchen flehen wir dich jetzt an, den frischen, wun- 
dertatigster, zu gewinne, als solcher bist du es, der uns alle 
nachstellungen iiberwindet'. Oldenberg, 1. c. : f wir gehen 
dich den Neuen (d. h. erneut sich Betatigenden) an fur die 
alte Tat (damit du diese auch jetzt wieder tun mogest)'. In 
this stanza the construction of imahe with two accusatives, 
rather than with accusative and instrumental is unusual : ' We 
pray to thee now, O most wise (Indra), a new (song) for a 
right old god : thou art the conqueror of all that plot against 
us '. Cf. pratnabhir utibhis by the side of imahe in 8. 12. 24; 
or yajnesu purvyam by the side of Imahe in 8. 60. 2. Perhaps 
pada b is to be taken parenthetically : ' We implore thee now — 
a new song for a right old god ' — etc. There is, in any case, 
not the faintest reason for taking navyam sanyase in a different 

1 The stanza is paralleled interestingly in 8. 18. 12 : tat su nah garma 
yachatSditya yan mumocati, enasvantam cid enasah sudanavah. 


The formula crops out once more in a passage of the Ma- 
hanamni litany : 

nunarh tan navyath sanyase 
prabho janasya vrtrahan. 1 

Oldenberg, 1. c, '(ist) diese (Tat) nunmehr neu fiir die alte' 
(d. h. zum Zwecke der Erneuerung der alten). Or, '(rufen 
wir) diesen neuen jetzt (an) fiir die alte Tat' (d. h. damit er 
seine alte Tat wiederhole). Translate: '(We sing) now this 
new (song) in honor of the right old (god), O thou that art 
distinguished among the people, O slayer of Vrtra ' ! That the 
poets diligently describe Indra as ' the god of yore ' follows 
from the preceding passages, and can be easily corroborated 
by further evidence which is in everybody's hands. 

5. On stanza 6 in the hymn of Sarama and the Fanis, 
RV. 10. 108. 

Both the meaning of some of the words and a certain un- 
couth quality of the construction, which obviously states para- 
tactically what, to our feeling, should be stated hypotactically, 
have kept this stanza a crux interpretum. There is scarcely 
a Vedic scholar who has not in one way or another tried his 
hand at it. The following is an endeavor once more to clear 
its difficulties. The stanza reads : 

asenya vah panayo vacarisy anisavyas tanvah santu paplh, 
adhrsto va etava astu pantha bfhaspatir va ubhaya na mrlat. 

Ludwig (992): 'Nicht von waffenart (wenigstens) sind 
eure reden ; gesetzt es waren dem pfeil nicht ausgesetzt eure 
schlechten leiber, unbewaltigt der weg zu euch zu kommen, 
Brhaspati wird euch in keinem falle (ob es ist oder nicht ist) 
gnadig sein'. 2 

Grassmann : ' Nicht treffend sind, o Pani's eure Worte ; und 
waren schussfest eure bosen Leiber, und undurchdringlich 
auch der Weg zu euch hin, Brhaspati wird beides nicht 
verschonen '. 

Geldner und Kaegi, Siebenzig Lieder, p. 79 : ' Mit Worten, 
Pani, konnet ihr nicht fechten; und waren schussfest eure 

1 For the text see Oldenberg, 1. c, pp. 377, 381. 
2 Cf. his comment with other suggestions. 


schlechten Leiber, der Weg zu euch auch noch so schwer zu 
zwingen, das alles wird Brhaspati nicht kiimmern '. 

Von Schroeder, Mysterium und Mimus, p. 175 : ' Nicht 
Wunden schlagen, Panis, eure Worte ! Und waren schussfest 
eure schlechten Leiber, war auch der Weg zu euch schier un- 
bezwinglich, Brhaspati wird beides nicht verschonen'. 

Hertel, WZKM. xviii. 60 : ' Mit Worten, Pani, konnt ihr 
nicht versehren ; wenn schussfest eure siind'gen Leiber waren, 
und unzuganglich alle eure Pf ade : Brhaspati versagt euch 
seine Gnade '. 

Hillebrandt, Lieder des Rig- Veda, p. 147: 'Wehrlos sind 
eure Worte, Panis. Eure Leiber, die hasslichen, mogen un- 
durchdringlich f iir die Pf eile, der Weg zu euch mag unnahbar 
sein : Brhaspati wird euch in keinem Falle gnadig sein '. 

The most critical word in the stanza is ubhaya. Those 
translators who take the word in the sense of ' beides ' are 
obviously in error; the accent shows that it is adverbial 
(ubhaya from stem ubhaya) meaning 'in either case', 
' whether so or so '. Thus Ludwig in his translation ; Bar- 
tholomae, IF. v. 227, note 3; Oldenberg, RV. Noten to the 
passage. 1 The stanza thus contains an alternative between 
two suppositions ; the question is where to place the hinge or 
seam between the alternatives. In this we must be guided by 
santu and astu which harbor the idea ' whether it be so or so '. 
Now it is clear that santu controls padas ab ; astu pada c ; the 
conclusion comes in pada d. We may expect something 
favorable and something unfavorable to the Panis : ' in either 
case Brhaspati shall not spare you' (pada d). 

The entire first couplet contains the something unfavorable 
to the Panis. Here, namely in the word anisavyas, may be 
found the solution of the difficulties of the stanza. The stem 
anisavya is rendered in the translations above by ' impervious 
to arrows'. So also, unanimously as far as I know, the 
lexicons ( Pet. Lexs. ; Grassmann ; Monier Williams ; Ber- 
gaigne, Etudes sur le Lexique du Rig- Veda; Hillebrandt, 
Vedachrestomathie, etc.). 2 The word means nearly the very 
opposite of that, for it contains isavya with the negative 

1 On the grammatical aspect of ubhaya" see last Wackernagel, Altin- 
dische Grammatik, ii. 1, p. 21. 
'Myself in the same error, ZDMG. xlviii. 549, note 3. 


prefix. Now isavya means ' war-like ' literally, conversant 
with "arrows': a rastre rajanyah cura isavyo (VS. CB. add 
'tivyadhi) jayatam VS. 22. 22; MS. 3. 12. 6: 162. 7; CB. 13. 
1. 9. 2; asmin rastre rajanya isavyah euro maharatho jayatam 
TS. 7. 5. 18. 1 ; KSA. 5. 14; TB. 3. 8. 13. 1 (cf. QQ. 8. 18. 1 ; 
JUB. 1. 4. 2). The passages speak for themselves: isavya is 
the same as isu-bala (by the side of citra-sena; cf. asenya in 
our stanza 1 ), RV. 6. 75. 9 ; or the isuman viro asta, RV. 2. 42. 
2. 2 . Therefore anisavya means, ' unwarlike ', lit., ' not inured 
to arrows '. And by the same terms asenya means ' not in- 
ured to missiles ', i. e., again, synonymically, ' unwarlike '. The 
conception indrah senyah, 1. 81. 2 ; 7. 30. 2, hovers before the 
mind of the writer as the opposite of asenya. 

It can be seen now what the stanza means: 'Whether (on 
the one hand), O Panis, your words be feeble, your vile bodies 
cowardly; or whether (on the other hand) the road to you be 
hard to dare, in either case Brhaspati (Indra's Purohita) will 
show you no mercy '. 

While on the theme of 10. 108, I would remark that stanzas 
9 and 10 have always seemed to me post f estum and anti- 
climax. These two stanzas fit better after stanza 2, where 
they would in no sense disturb the sequel of the hymn. Or, 
they may be imagined as standing in the same position in the 
place of 3 and 4, of which they would be a not bad alternate ver- 
sion. Cf . 3 cd , mitram ena dadhamatha gavarii gopatir no bha- 
vati, with 9 cd , svasaram tva krnavai ma" ptinar ga apa te gavarh 
subhage bhajama; and again cf. 4 a , naharh tarn veda dabhyarh 
dabhat sa, with io a , naharh veda bhratrtvam no svasrtvam. I 
have a sort of Valakhilya feeling as regards the two pairs. If 
this be so I need scarcely point out that stanza 11, in close 
catenation with 10, was composed after 9 and 10 got their 
place where they now stand in the hymn. 

6. On the meaning of ukhachid. 

Windisch, Festgruss an Otto von Bohtlingk, p. 115, has 
made it clear that this compound means ' lame ', being a peri- 
phrasis — we might say a sort of kenning — of grona. The 

1 For sena in the sense of ' missile ' see last Bloomfield, ZDMG. 
xlviii. 549, note 1. 

' Cf. also, more remotely the type of passage such as 3. 4. 9 = 7. 2. 9. 
where sudaksa seems to occupy the place of isavya or isuman. 


word is air. Xty. in RV. 4. 19. 9, nir bhud ukhachit sam aranta 
parva, 'the lame man was off; his joints fitted together'. Cf. 
the convincing parallel in 8. 79. 2, nih Qrono bhut, ' the lame 
man was off '. Now he finds the word ukha in certain gram- 
matical word-lists (ganas) among words for parts of the body, 
and one commentator explains it by sphik, 'hip'. There is 
nothing to prevent ukha from having that meaning in a figur- 
ative way, though it is, as far as I know, not quotable in that 
sense in Hindu literature. Windisch next assumes that ukha- 
chid means 'one who has broken his hip' ('der einen hiiften- 
bruch erlitten hat'), therefore, 'lame'. 

We should expect ukhachinna rather than ukhachid, ' hip- 
breaker', which would seem to state something habitual, 
whereas the lame man would break his hip only a single time. 
The analogy is with compounds like grivachinna ' one whose 
neck is cut ', Suparnakh. 25. 6 ; grivabhagna, with the same 
meaning, Vetalap. 17. 6; grivabaddha, 'bound by the neck' 
TS. 3. 3. 8. 3, janvakna (comm. sambhugnajanu), 'with bent 
knee ', Ap(J. 10. 9. 2. Moreover there is that in the literature 
which leads me to suspect that ukha in ukhachid * has its primary 
meaning of ' pot ' or ' pan '. Thus QB. 6. 6. 4. 8 : yady esokha 
bhidyeta, ' now if this pot breaks ' ; TS. 5. 1. 9. 2 : sa (sc. ukha) 
yad bhidyetartim archad yajamano hanyetasya yajiiah, ' if this 
(pot) be broken, the sacrificer gets into trouble, his sacrifice 
is destroyed ' ; ApQ. 10, 5, 3 : mitraitarh ta ukham paridadamy 
abhittya esa ma bhedi, ' O Mitra, I make over to thee this pot 
unto unbreakableness ; it shall not be broken '. Breaking of 
the pot (ukhabhedanam) is provided for ritualistically in KC. 
16. 7. 8. The ukha was fragile, being made of clay (mrnmayl) 
which was baked (grapaya), VS. 11. 59, et al. The ukha leaks 
easily : ma susroh ' do not leak ', AV. 12. 3. 12 ; ukharii sravan- 
tlm ' the leaking pot ', KQ. 25. 9. 14 ; MQ. 3. 5. 14. It has to 
be placed firmly on the altar to keep it secure : ukha kumbhi 
vedyarh ma vyathisthah, ' do not, pot or kettle, wobble on the 
altar ', AV. 12. 3. 23 (cf . MS. 4. 1. 3 : 4. 9 ; TB. 3. 2. 3. 1 ) . In 
case it broke a new one had to be made, Vait. 28. 12. 

It would seem then that the fragile ukha was found to be 
less secure in the hands of a lame man, who might thus be 
nick-named ' pot-breaker '. It is not necessary to inquire how 

1 The short a is rhythmical ; see Leumann, Gurupujakaumudi, p. 13. 


much fancy and how much fact there was at the bottom of 
the notion. Persons with bodily defects are apt to be nick- 
named all over the world ; another Skt. designation of a lame 
man, ekapad, ' One-leg ', shows the same spirit. 

7. Irregular Belative Clause Constructions. 

The poet Agastya, in RV. i. 176, seems to me to have diffi- 
culty in handling a relative with its antecedent pronoun, stem 
ta-, or, perhaps some metrical consideration led him to un- 
usual passes in this same matter. Stanza 5 reads : 

a~vo yasya dvibarhaso 'rkesu sanusag asat, 
ajav indrasyendo pravo vajesu vajinam. 

Previous treatments are listed by Oldenberg, Rig- Veda Noten, 
i. 176. It seems to me well, in the first place, to comment 
upon Geldner's ingenious translation, Ved. Stud. ii. 129 : ' Wen 
du, O Soma, bei einem Wettkampfe zu Ehren des doppel- 
starken Indra schiitztest, der wird in den Liedern ordentlich 
sein ; du beschiitztest den im Kampf e siegreichen '. The for- 
mal difficulty in this rendering is the accent of asat, which 
disqualifies it from service in the principal clause of the sen- 
tence, but points to the subordinate clause. 

As regards the sense, I do not believe that there is any 
indication of a race ('wettkampf ') in honor of Indra (if so, 
where?). When a Vedic text says ajav indrasya, it can, in my 
opinion, have in mind but one thing, namely, ' in the contest 
for Indra ', that is to say, in the attempt to secure the pres- 
ence of the 'much-called' god (puruhuta, and the like) ; see, 
e. g., 6. 19. 3 d , asman indrabhy a" vavrtsvajau. Moreover, 
Geldner's translation, as a whole, carries with it an obvious 
hysteron proteron which is suspiciously parallel to the wrong 
accent of asat. We should expect the poet to say that Soma 
inspires him that composes skilful poems to secure Indra's 
presence, rather than that he whom Indra protects is skilful in 
poetry. The latter might be an idea applicable later to the 
court of a Bhoja Raja; it is not a Vedic idea. 

Oldenberg's suggestions are advanced hesitatingly, espe- 
cially as regards sanusak which, he thinks, may be a com- 
pound = sa-anusak, or = sanu-sak. Tho the Padapatha 
does not analyze sanusak, and tho it has but one accent, I 
believe with others, that we must read sanusak = sa + anusak. 


The passage seems to state : ' Thou didst aid him who is clever 
(anusak) in songs in honor of twice-strong (Indra) ; didst, 
O Indu (Soma), aid him in the contest for Indra (the much- 
called). Thou didst aid in obtaining substance him that hath 
substance '. For arkesu anusak cf ., e. g., 5. 8. 10, girbhir 
yajfiebhir anusak. In the first distich of our stanza the 
logical antecedent tam, ' him ', seems to be incorporated in the 
relative clause as sa in sanusak. This accounts for the obscur- 
ation of *sanusak, and the consequent loss of one of its 
accents. Moreover yasya seems to be for yo asya, or for single 
yo attracted to the case of dvibarhasah. 1 Here is what the 
passage seems to say in good Vedic: avo tarn yo (oryo asya) 
dvibarhaso ' rkesv anusag asat (thus the accent of asat is 
justified); ava ajav indrasyendo ; pravo vajesu vajinam. The 
fourth pada, repeated in 1. 4. 8, looks a little like an appendage, 
and may have been borrowed from that stanza. 

The same Agastya in the same hymn, 1. 176. 2, seems once 
more to have assimilated a relative pronoun (attraction) to 
another word in the same relative clause : 

tasminn a vegaya giro ya ekag carsaninam, 

anu svadha yam upyate yavarh na carkrsad vfsa. 

See Oldenberg, Rig- Veda Noten, and the literature there 
cited ; and cf. Colinet, Sur le sens du mot svadha, p. 14. Two 
points seem to me to control the explanation of this curious 
passage. First, the words anu svadha belong together = anu 
svadha"h 2 ; this eliminates the need of combining anu and vap, 
a combination otherwise unknown in the RV. This on the 
evidence of 9. 103. 5; 10. yj. 5 (anu svadhah) ; 1. 33. 11 ; 88. 
6 ; 3. 51. 11 ; 4 33. 6 ; 52. 6 ; 7. 56. 13 ; 8. 88. 5 (anu svadham) ; 
and anusvadham, frequent adverb. All mean, ' according to 
habit or custom '. Should this be so, then, secondly, yam in 
pada c cannot be construed, unless we regard it as attracted 

1 Cf. Neisser, ZDMG. lxi. 138, and Oldenberg's note, Rig- Veda Noten, 
i, to 4. 21. 1 for similar phenomena regarding the relative. Cf. also the 
same author. Rig- Veda Noten, ii, p. 379b (Relativsatz frei ange- 

2 Thus, previously, Bergaigne, iii. 9, note. The Padapatha, of course, 
in not explaining svadha~ as svadhf h, must have interpreted the word 
as nominative, subject of upyate with anu. AH attempts to interpret 
on this basis strike me as forced and unbelievable. 


from the nominative (yas) to the accusative yavam in its own 
relative clause. 

Under this construction, the stanza, addressed to Soma 
would run as follows: 'Make enter into him (sc. Indra), who 
is sole (ruler) of the peoples, our songs, as a bull ploughs 
(i. e. makes enter) grain (into the field), grain which is sown 
according to (established) custom!' That is to say, omitting 
the attributive pada b, 1 the stanza is equivalent to the follow- 
ing : tasminn a vegaya giro yavarh na carkrsad vfsa, anu svadhS 
ya (sc. yavah) upyate. The sense then were clear : the poet 
asks Soma to enter Indra (i. 176. 1 ; 9. 2. 1), and, as he 
enters, to carry with him the poet's songs, in order to ensure 
Indra's gratitude to the poet. He must do this as regularly 
or steadily as the plough-steer, according to established 
custom, ploughs grain into the soil. That the expression, 
yavarh na carkrsad vrsa, does not require any further descrip- 
tion, such as is contained in the fictitious anu upyate, ' pour- 
ing the grain in after the plough has ploughed ', may be 
gathered from the repetition of the idea in 1. 23. 15, gobhir 
yavarh na carkrsat. 

In our interpretation of 1. 176. 2 C much weight is given to 
the habitual adverbial expressions in which various forms of 
svadha are governed by anu. I should be loath to see this 
argument exercise undue influence. In one RV. passage, 
5. 34, 1, juxtaposition of anu and svadha" is entirely fortuitous : 
anu does not govern svadha, but belongs to iyate : 

ajataqatrum ajara svarvaty anu svadhtmita dasmam iyate, 
sunotana pacata brahmavahase purustuta"ya pratararh da- 

Roth in Pet. Lex. s. v. 1. svadha 3) was under the influence 
of those adverbial expressions when he suggested the reading 
anu svadhiim amita in this stanza, but svadha (nominative) is 
here personified : ' Svadha unaging, full of light, unmeasured 
follows the wise god (Indra) whose enemy is yet to be born ' ; 
see in AV. 2. 29. 7, the urja svadha" ajara, created by Indra ; 
and the svadha ajara of the Fathers in 12. 2. 32. 

1 Repeated in much better connection in 1. 7. 9. In our stanza the 
pada is a dislocated fragment. 


Once more, AV. 6. 53. i c , arm occurs before svadha under 
rather trying circumstances : anu svadha" cikitarh somo agnih. 
Whitney in his Translation observes that the compound verb 
anu + ci does not occur elsewhere in the language but renders, 
' let the svadha favor [me ; let] Soma, Agni '. Ludwig, Dei- 
Rig- Veda, vol. iii, p. 506 translates, ' durch die Svadha denke 
daran Soma, Agni '. He seems to make anu govern svadha as 
a homophonous instrumental. I have thought of correcting 
to anu svadharii (or svadhah), and thus escaping the dubious 
combination anu + ci ; cf . AV. 6. 96. 3, somas tani svadhaya 
nah punatu ; AV. 18. 3. 8, sarh somena madasva sarh svadhabhih. 
But why should the text of 6. 53. 1 have slipped from the line 
of least resistance (anu svadham, or anu svadhah) into anu 
svadha ? 

An incorporated relative conversely attracts secondarily its 
subject in the clause which contains the attraction. RV. 
10. 17. 9: 

sarasvatlrh yam pitaro havante daksina yajiiam abhinak- 

sahasrargham ilo atra bhagarh rayas posarh yajamanesu 


Here sarasvatim is attracted from the vocative or nominative 
to the accusative yam : the attraction is quite as illogical as 
that of yasya for yah in 1. 176. 5, or yam for yah in 1. 176. 2. 
Similarly in 1. 183. 1, tarn yufijatharh manaso yo javiyan 
trivandhuro vrsana yas tricakrah, ' Yoke, O ye two bulls, that 
car which is swifter than the mind, has three pole-boards, 1 and 
three wheels '. Here trivandhuro . . . yas tricakrah ( for tri- 
vandhuram, etc.) is attracted to the articular relative phrase 
manaso yo javiyan (formula in i. 117. 2; 118. 1; 10. 112. 2). 

Maurice Bloomfield. 

'For the meaning of vandhura see my forthcoming work, Rig-Veda 
Repetitions, HOS., vol. xx, p. 236. The work comprises volumes xx 
and xxiv of Harvard Oriental Series.