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VII.— A MISUNDERSTOOD SYRIAN PLACE-NAME- 
DANA AND TYANA. 

In the Anabasis, Book I, ii, 18 f . Xenophon describes the 
march of Cyrus the Younger from Iconium, the last city of 
Phrygia (Lycaonia) to Dana (Aava) 7roAtv oIkov[iJvt]v iieydX.r)v Kal 
evSalpova. After leaving Tyana he entered Cilicia; from Tarsus 
he advanced to the Cilician Gates. Thence five parasangs 
brought him to Myriandrus, a maritime town near Iskanderun, 
twenty more to the river Chalus, modern Quweiq, and forty-five 
parasangs farther to Thapsacus, below Meskeneh on the Eu- 
phrates. The consensus of opinion among scholars justly iden- 
tifies Dana with Tyana, since Tyana is the only important city 
on Cyrus's line of march whose location corresponds to the indi- 
cations of Xenophon. Yet the spelling presents a vexatious 
problem. Elsewhere in Hellenic sources we have only Tyana 
(Tvava) and Thoana (®6ava), which presuppose unmistakably 
a native Tuwana, with which the Assyrian Tun or Tuna agrees 
tolerably, and the Hittite Tuwanuwa 1 perfectly, if we disregard 
the suffix wa. However, since none of these orthographies ac- 
cord with the form given by Xenophon, there has evidently been 
a mistake somewhere. 

Now in northern Syria, seven or eight hours W. N. W. of 
Aleppo, on the road to Iskanderun, there is situated the town 
of Dana. The name is much older than the time of Xenophon, 
and can be traced back to the cuneiform Dana, which appears 
as the name of a town in the same district as the modern one, 
in an Assyrian letter of the seventh century b. c. 2 Since Dana 

*Hrozn# has been misled by the variant Dana (Boghazkoi-Studien, 
5 Heft, p. 40, n. 1 ) to assume an original Tuana, a form which cannot 
be reconciled with the Assyrian writing. 

2 Cf. Sayce, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1921, p. 54. Sayce's 
statements regarding Kusa are entirely erroneous. The gentilic Kusa'a 
does not belong to a previously unknown geographical name, identical 
with Biblical KHS, but is simply a Syrian orthography (the Hittites 
did not clearly distinguish between mediae and tenues) of Gtis&'a, the 
regular gentilic of Bit GHisi, name of the land of Arame and Matilu, 
which attained its greatest power in the ninth and eighth centuries, 
and is lost to history after the seventh. In accordance with Assyrian 
and Aramaean usage its ruler is called mdr Ousi, " son of G6§," who 
74 



A MISUNDERSTOOD SYRIAN PLACE-NAME. 75 

is on the most direct road from the Cilician Gates to Meskeneh 
and Thapsacus, Cyrus and his army must have passed very near 
it, if not actually through the town. It is therefore impossible 
to escape the conviction that Xenophon confused the two similar 
names in his memory, and wrote the name of the Syrian Dana in 
place of the Cappadocian Tyana. 

W. F. Albright. 

.American School of Oriental Research, 
Jerusalem, Palestine. 



appears in the Zakir Stele as Brgs; as is well-known the Assyrians 
pronounced the S as s and conversely, following an old north-Mesopo- 
tamian dialectic peculiarity which is also characteristic of the Hittite 
orthography. Of the towns mentioned in the letter as belonging to the 
land of the Kusa'a, Arpad was the capital of Bit Gusi, and Kullania 
and Dana were towns in the neighborhood.