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In the Latin adaptation of the Andria by Terence the recog- 
nition scene is undoubtedly a translation of the same scene in 
the original play of Menander. In Act V, iv, lines 904 ff. 
Crito, Chremes, Pamphilus and Simo appear on the stage. 
Crito saves the situation for the young lovers when he tells 
the story of Glycerium. She and her uncle, Phania, had been 
cast ashore at Andrus many years before, apparently the only 
survivors of the shipwreck. The uncle died shortly after- 
wards and Glycerium was taken by Chrysis and her father 
and cared for. On the death of the latter, Chrysis and Glyce- 
rium had journeyed to Athens about three years before the 
time of the action of the play. They hoped to make a living 
in the metropolis and to search for the relatives of Glycerium. 
The search was never prosecuted with any earnestness, either 
because of the carelessness or indifference of Chrysis, although 
they had sufficient evidence and information to find them. 
This may justly be regarded as a defect in the plot. The 
story of the two women during their life in Athens need not 
be recounted. On the arrival of Crito at Athens from An- 
drus Chremes hears for the first time of the fate of his brother 
and joyfully recognizes Glycerium as his daughter, who is 
then given in marriage to her lover Pamphilus. 

In the story of Glycerium, we have to do with an invented 
plot, but there are certain elements of probability which enter 
into the story and enable us to determine the date of the play. 
If we can determine the date of the shipwreck and the number 
of years which have elapsed between the shipwreck and the 
action of the play, we can determine easily the date of its 

Menander has brought the occasion of the shipwreck into 
relation with an event in Athenian history which will enable 
us to determine the approximate date of the disaster. In line 
935 of the Latin version of the play we read as follows : is 
(Phania) bellum hinc fugiens meque in Asiam persequens 
proficiscitur. Chremes is the speaker and is giving the motive 


for his brother's voyage. The line is clearly from the Greek 
original ; for the scene is laid in Attica and no Roman would 
think of fleeing from Rome to Asia to avoid any danger from 
internal or foreign foes at this time. Furthermore, the poet 
might have explained the voyage as one of trade or pleasure, 
and in bringing in a war as the motive, he must be using 
some historical event which would be readily recalled and un- 
derstood by the members of his audience. 

When was there a war during which a citizen of one of the 
country demes of Attica would suffer so severely from an 
invading army that he would be liable to seek safety in flight 
to a distant country? We must date the war within the life- 
time of the poet and not many years before the production of 
the play. We must suppose an invading army which is occupy- 
ing the country for an extended period with no immediate 
hope of relief. Apparently the sea is controlled by a fleet 
friendly to Athens ; otherwise flight would be virtually im- 
possible. Finally, the war must have been so severe that it 
would readily be recalled to mind after a lapse of ten or 
more years. 

There are two occasions during the lifetime of Menander 
when Rhamnus, the home of Phania was invaded. After the 
defeat of the Athenians off Amorgus in 322 b. c, Clitus 
landed troops at Rhamnus and proceeded to ravage the paralia 
sending Micion as leader of the band while he returned to the 
ships. The Athenians under Phocion met and defeated the 
invaders and slew Micion. Almost immediately afterwards 
Antipater advanced against Athens from Thessaly, but he 
was met at Thebes by Phocion and a truce was declared. Clitus 
and his fleet still controlled the sea (Plutarch, Phocion, 25 ff.). 
Menander can not be alluding to this piratical landing at 
Rhamnus or the threatened invasion of Antipater which could 
not be dignified by the name " war ". Moreover the enemy 
controlled the sea as well as Asia, so that Phania's flight at 
this time would be practically impossible. Certainly he could 
not flee to Asia. Nor was the descent on Rhamnus so re- 
markable that the Athenian audience would be likely to under- 
stand a passing allusion to it ten or more years later. 

From 322 to 307 b. c. the land of Attica was undisturbed 
by foreign invasion except for the unimportant advance of 


Polyperchon in 318 b. c. (Ferguson, Hellenistic Athens, p. 34). 
After Athens passed into the hands of Antigonus and Deme- 
trius in 307 b. c. the land of Attica was overrun by the invad- 
ing armies during the four succeeding years and the outlying 
districts must have been thoroughly plundered to supply the 
army of Cassander with food and supplies. Cassander did 
not have a fleet to blockade the harbors or control the ship- 
ping until 304 b. c, and the flight of Phania from Rhamnus 
would have been possible at any time between 306 and 304 b. c. 
Asia would have been the natural refuge for an Athenian 
because it was held by the friendly forces of Antigonus. The 
severity of this ' four years' war ' and the extremities to which 
Athens was brought before she was finally relieved by Deme- 
trius were so great that an allusion to it would be readily 
appreciated by any Athenian audience after many years. 
Since this is the only war of invasion except the invasion and 
capture of Athens in 295 b. c. which came in the last years of 
Menander's life, we can reasonably assume that Menander 
had in mind the TeTpacVr/s 7roA.e/*os (307-304 b. a), and that this 
was the 'bellum' which Phania was seeking to avoid. The 
date of the flight and the shipwreck, though in themselves 
fiction, may reasonably be brought into connection with his- 
tory, and that part of the story may be dated in the years 
307-4 b. c. 

How much time has elapsed between the shipwreck and the 
action of the plot ? Glycerium was cast ashore when she was 
a mere child. Apparently she was not old enough to know or 
remember the name of her father or mother, although she 
must have known the name of her uncle and his deme when 
she came to Athens to seek her relatives. Crito and many 
others on Andrus remembered Phania and could bear witness 
to his statement that he was a citizen of Rhamnus. Menander 
apparently represented her to the audience as a girl of not 
more than four or five years of age at the time of the ship- 
wreck. At the time of the action of the play, she was tall, 
beautiful, and so graceful that she attracted the attention of 
Simo at the funeral of Chrysis. Moreover she was old 
enough to bear a son to Pamphilus. Apparently the audience 
would assume her to be a girl of sixteen or seventeen at the 
least. It may be questioned whether the comic poet would 


have paid such attention to detail, but if we consider the 
quick-wittedness of the Athenian audience, we must assume 
that the action of the play is represented as the sequel of an 
event which happened twelve or more years before in connec- 
tion with a great war, the details of which were only too 
clearly impressed upon their memories. 

If we are correct in assuming that the war which Menander 
uses as the cause of the flight of Phania is a real event with 
real meaning to the minds of his audience, then we are justi- 
fied in putting the action of the Andria at least twelve years 
later. This play, therefore, was composed and presented 
somewhere between 295 and 293 b. c. While it is, perhaps, 
not advisable to insist on strict historical accuracy in estimat- 
ing the time between the war and the events of the play, I 
should prefer to choose the latest date possible and assume 
that the Andria, if not actually the last, was amongst the 
latest of Menander's plays. 

Allan Chester Johnson.