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V.— THE OEIGIN OF THE NAME CILICIA.
The first certain appearance of the name Cilicia is in the
cuneiform inscriptions of Tiglathpileser III (not IV), where
Hilakku refers to the mountainous district later occupied by the
Isaurians x and the southwestern corner of Cappadocia, a conno-
tation which the word still possessed in classical times, though
the modern definition was already coming into use. In the Hit-
tite texts of the second millennium, southeastern Cilicia is called
Arzawa, Babylonian Ursu, a name which survived in classical
Rhosus (not Arsus 2 ) and modern Arsus. Some centuries later,
we find that this district is called in the Assyrian and Aramean
inscriptions, as well as in the Old Testament by the name QuweK
On Persian coins of Cilicia we find usually the form -£>n,
corresponding to the Assyrian, but on coins of the satrap Phar-
nabazus the orthography "j^o occurs instead. The latter spelling
cannot be explained by the Greek KiAuaa, but both evidently have
a common source, older than the dissimilated form Hlk, though
both forms may have existed side by side for many centuries.
There is, therefore, no phonetic objection to the identification of
the Kl(r)M, who appear among the Anatolian peoples who
*The antiquity of the name Isaurian is confirmed by the recent
discovery in the Boghaz-keui collections of the classical Garsaura,
northwest of Tyana, as Kursaura, in a text purporting to describe
events of the thirtieth century B.C. The element saw thus belongs
to the primitive Cappadocian language, probably the prefixing Eteo-
Hittite (a better term than Proto-Hittite) language described by
•This "classical" form has been invented by Professor Sayce; see
Jour. Eg. Arch., VI, 296. The relation between the various writings
Ursu, Ur&u, and Arzawa has been pointed out by the writer in Jour.
Eg. Arch., VII, 80 f., unfortunately without noting Sayce's blunder.
Another, much more portentous mistake of the same kind (loo. cit.)
is Sayce's statement that Yarmuti is " classical " Armuthia. The
source of this is Tompkins, Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., IX, 242, ad 218 (of
the Tuthmosis list) : " Mauti. Perhaps the Yari-nvuta of the Tel el-
Amjarna tablets, now (I think) Armuthia, south of Killis." This is
the modern village of Armudja, a hamlet some three miles south of
Killis, not on the coast at all, but in the heart of Syria, and with no
known classical background.
TEE ORIGIN OF TEE NAME CILICIA. 167
threatened Egypt in the thirteenth century, with the Cilicians ;
the ending s is, as is well-known, a gentilic ending (ef. Jour.
Pal. Orient. Soc. I, 57, n. 2). On the other hand, we must now
distinguish between the IH&s-Cilicians and the Teucrian Ger-
githes, who appear on the Egean coast of Asia Minor and in
Cyprus, though the latter may well be identical with the Gir-
gashites of Canaan.
Attention may be called, in this connection, to the name Hali-
kalbat, the archaic designation of the district later known as
Melid, Greek Melitene, which extended, like Katmuh or Eutmuh
(Commagene) on both sides of the Euphrates. The name is
written Hanigalbat (formerly read Hanirabbat) , Haligalbat[u]
(Scheil, Delegation en Perse, II, 95 f.) and Hanakalbat. The
native form, in the text of the Mitannian Agabtaha, was Hali-
g (k) albatj Hanigalbat and Hanakalbat are the Babylonian forms,
which unquestionably originated in the dissimilation of the
first I. Schroeder's artificial suggestion, Orient. Lit., 1918, 175,
that LI had a " Hanigalbatean " reading ana is impossible, as
well as wholly gratuitous. It is barely possible that the correct
form, Halikalbat, should be analyzed as Halik-albat, and com-
bined with Kilik-Hilak, Cilicia. However, one must not forget
the fate of an older hypothesis of this type, combining Hanigal-
bat, read Hanirabbat, with Hana = * Anah, as " Great Hana."
W. P. Albright.
American School of Oriental Research,