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REVIEWS. 185 

A careful examination of the names of the original plots and 
of the possessors of Trajan's day shows that the earlier owners 
in the mountains were largely Ligurians and Celts and that 
these were replaced to a considerable extent by Latin immigrants 
(Veleia was not a colony) and by freedmen bearing Greek and 
Oriental names. In fact some of the wealthiest landlords of 
Trajan's day prove to have been of this latter class. Persicus, 
for instance, had accumulated a plantation of what once made 
up twenty-five different plots. 

In chapter VII De Pachtehe proves that after 102 A. D. 
the emperor's commissioners allowed to owners 8.05% of the 
value of estates in rural credits. By establishing this fact he is 
able to make a dozen simple and convincing emendations of the 
numerals on the stone : e. g. in item IV he changes L to V ; in 
item V he writes L for I, etc. He then shows that the credits 
were assigned on the basis of the estimated values of the whole 
estate in each case, and that the separate values of parcels of 
estates, which often give a different sum-total, have nothing to 
do with the assignment of credits. Such values are merely 
records of the last previous selling-price and are retained on the 
document to serve as a basis for future estimates of liabilities 
to the state in case the parcels should again change hands. 

These are only a few of the many discoveries that De Pach- 
tere has made. The essay is one of the keenest studies that 
we have recently had in the domain of Eoman history and will 
probably be the final word on most of the questions raised by 
the Veleian inscriptions. The young author, who had he lived 
would undoubtedly have become a leader in historical research, 
fell at the head of his troops on the Salonica front in September, 
1916. 

Tennet Fbank. 

Johns Hopkins University. 



Un Correspondant de Ciceron: Ap. Claudius Pulcher. Par 
L. A. Constats. Paris : E. de Boccard, 1921. Pp. vi + 
138. 

Appius Claudius, the father-in-law of Brutus, was a very 
ordinary Eoman patrician who reached the consulship (54 
B.C.) and censorship solely by virtue of his ancestry. We 
should have little knowledge of him had he not crossed Cicero's 
path. As a brother of the infamous Clodius he had several 
opportunities to do Cicero harm, and as Cicero's predecessor in 
the governorship of Cilicia he caused mischief to the provincials 
that Cicero had to repair. It is probable that M. Constan3 



186 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHILOLOGY. 

chose this man as subject of a study not because of the signifi- 
cance of the man but because Cicero's speeches and correspond- 
ence contained a mass of material available for a study. His 
biography is indeed fair and judicious, but it adds nothing new 
to our knowledge of the period. Where a careful analysis of 
Cicero's letters might have offered some new results, as for 
instance in the treatment of the Salaminians by the agents of 
Brutus, Constans (p. 92) follows the unsatisfactory traditional 
accounts without question. 



Tenney Frank. 



Johns Hopkins University. 



A Lithuanian Etymological Index. Based upon Brugmann's 
Grundriss and the etymological dictionaries of TJhlenbeck 
(Sanskrit), Kluge (German), Feist (Gothic), Berneker 
(Slavic), Walde (Latin), and Boisacq (Greek). By Harold 
H. Bender, Ph. D. 

Anyone who, like the reviewer, occasionally offers a course in 
Lithuanian for students of comparative philology, knows what 
a handicap it is that there is no etymological dictionary of the 
language and how much time is consumed in hunting down the 
scattered etymological discussions which include Lithuanian 
words. While Professor Bender does not as yet give us the 
desired etymological dictionary of Lithuanian, the Etymological 
Index is a most welcome aid, with its systematic exploitation of 
Brugmann's Grundriss and selected etymological dictionaries of 
other Indo-European languages. For without doubt the great 
majority of Lithuanian etymologies that are obviously correct 
or reasonably probable are to be found in one or another of 
these works, and with the aid of the Index can be located at once. 

In the selection of etymological dictionaries to be cited only 
the choice for the Germanic group is at all doubtful. One 
might wish that in addition to Feist, and in place of Kluge, 
the fuller and more important Norwegian-Danish etymological 
dictionary of Falk and Torp, in the German edition of 1910, 
had been used. The fact that Berneker's Slavisches Etymolo- 
gisches Woerterbuch has not progressed beyond m is a mis- 
fortune which makes the Index unbalanced in the matter of 
the many words that have clear cognates only in Slavic. For 
Slavic loanwords, too, the references to Brueckner, Die slavischen 
Fremdwoerter im Litauischen, are apparently restricted to those 
words which find a place in the Index on account of their occur- 
rence in the main works cited. Thus migdala 'almond' is 
included because it is mentioned by Berneker under migdalu, 
while mislis 'thought,' mlslyju 'think,' which the beginner in