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never so numerous as the undoubted eminence of the author 
would appear to demand. 

The fact is, however, that Ovid's commanding position in 
the literature of the world is largely due to at least two 
aspects of his genius the influence of which is not revealed by 
such indicia. One of these is his command of metrical tech- 
nique, the other, his ability to tell a story. The former is his 
greatest gift to Antiquity, the latter is the basis of his supreme 
importance in the aesthetic evolution of the Modern World. 
But in both cases what he really did passed into the communal 
fund of acquired ability, and the author of it became, as it 
were, ' depersonalized '. Hence the ancients forgot their debt 
to Ovid, just as we for the most part have finally forgotten 
ours. As a metrical artist, however, Ovid takes his place 
among the great poets of the world. In this respect he did 
for Roman poetry what Cicero had already done for Roman 
prose; he found it more or less local, and left it capable of 
universal use for an indefinite period. And when at the 
Renaissance we moderns at last outgrew the Chanson de 
Gestes, which babbled on like a brook through an entire pedi- 
gree, and the Roman d'Aventures, the incidents of which could 
be predicted in advance, and the Fabliau which, to say the 
least, was nothing new, we turned, with rare discrimination, to 
the greatest story-teller of the Roman world, we sat at the 
feet of the man who, as Mackail well says, ' fixed a certain 
ideal of civilized manners for the Latin Empire and for 
Modern Europe', and learned from him as best we could 
what it is that makes a story immortal and always young. 

Kirby Flower Smith. 

The Guipuscoan Verb of the Year 1713, found in the Cate- 
chism of J. Ochoa de Arin; An Analytical and Quota- 
tional Index made by E. S. Dodgson, M. A. An Offprint 
of 83 Pages from Numbers 36, 37, 38 and 39 of Herma- 
thena. At the University Press, Trinity College, Dublin, 
November 19, 1913. 

Well known is the exceptional interest which belongs to 
Bascological investigation. The Baskish tung, isolated in 
classification, is the last specimen of the languages spoken in 
Europe before the Aryan invasion ; and is by general consent 
set down as one of the most difficult languages in the world, 
if not the most difficult. And, whilst the theory of the 


Baskish noun is mainly the same as that of another linguistic 
family represented in Europe, I mean the Ural-Altaic (i. e. 
Hungarian, Finnish, Esthonian, Lapp, and Turkish), the theory 
of its verb is peculiar to itself, and is not to be found, we 
believe, in any other known language. Indeed, the Baskish 
verb is a monument of so complicated a structure that one has 
some difficulty at first in forming any idea of it. Yet in the 
long run, when we have sounded its mysteries, its vigorous 
architecture cannot fail to make its charms felt by us, no less 
for its mathematical regularity than by its philological pro- 
fundity. But the difficulty abides, and to meet and overcome 
this difficulty is the task to which Mr. Dodgson, the only 
Bascologue of the Anglo-Saxon race now living, has conse- 
crated himself. 

His great work, The Analysis of the Baskish Verb, as it 
occurs in the New Testament of Leicarraga (printed at La 
Rochelle, in 1571, by order of Jeanne d'Albret, Queen of 
Navarre, and mother of Henri IV) has appeared in numerous 
instalments, and is already nearly completed. The author 
possesses the last volume in manuscript, and would already 
have published it, if the want of material resources had not 
hindered him. May we be permitted to express publicly the 
hope which he records among the final notes contained in the 
work which we are considering : " that it may win the favour 
of any wealthy patron of Linguistic Research, of any 
Academy, Society, or University, having at heart the Ad- 
vancement of Learning and Science, and lead them to provide 
the cost of finishing his work, as a reward for the great 
sacrifice of time which it has asked from him ". 

But besides this opus mains, Mr. Dodgson has busied him- 
self with other philological works, such as reimpressions of 
old texts, and the like; forty-two separate works already 
standing to his credit on the catalog. That which concerns 
us now is a Synopsis of the Verb, conceived on the same 
plan as that devoted to Leicarraga. It is indeed a small 
Guipuscoan — English word-book, dealing with the Catechism 
of Don Jose Ochoa de Arin, printed at San Sebastian, in 
1713. This catechism is the oldest existing work printed in 
the Baskish dialect of Guipuscoa, one of the two literary 
dialects of the Spanish Basks, the other being the Biscayan. 
It will be seen at once how interesting this work must be, 
through its venerable antiquity; and how important the study 
of it made by Mr. Dodgson must be for the purpose of com- 
paring Guipuscoan with the other dialects. For it is a point to 
be noted that the Baskish language is not unitarian, but sub- 
divided into a certain number of dialects, with forms varying 
in their turn according to the time. In order to find ones 
way through this labyrinth, it is indispensable to lay hold of 


an Ariadne clew, and one cannot conceive of a better one than 
the publications of our author. 

Let us hope that the works of Mr. Dodgson will contribute 
to popularise a study no less interesting than unjustly neg- 
lected, and that he will find in the sympathy of the learned 
world a compensation for the pecuniary and moral sacrifice 
which he has felt obliged to make to his Bascological Ideal. 

H. Bourgeois. 

Brussels, Belgium, December 1, 11513.