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Held back by the dam of the British censorship, it is only a 
few months since the German exchanges of the Journal began 
to trickle in. There are long arrears to make up, and as I 
survey the activity of German scholars during the last four 
years, I cannot suppress the thought that the future historian 
will find a certain illumination, if not edification, in watching 
the reflection of the great war in the stream of philological 
production. As for that matter, this Journal itself will bear 
witness to the progressive entanglement of American scholars 
in the remorseless machinery of the momentous conflict. A 
curious exemplification of the way in which professors entered 
what has been called the Professors' War is furnished by an 
article in the first number of Philologus (viz. N. F. XXVIII, 
Heft 3-/4., 1918) that came into my hands after the lines of 
communication were in a measure restored — an article, which 
beginning innocently enough with a discussion of the meaning 
of v6[ws in Pindar, winds up with an assault upon Woodrow 
Wilson. But before taking up Professor Otto Schroeder's 
paper on the notorious vd/*os 6 Travrtav /dWiAevs, I will allow 
myself to do what I have done on other occasions and set 
forth the views I have entertained for many years. Coinci- 
dences with Professor Schroeder will, I fear, be inevitable, 
but that is to be expected in the treatment of so familiar a 

Greek history divides itself into two periods, which may be 
designated as the Oiixis-iivOo'i period and the vdjtios-Adyos period. 
There is no vd/ios in Homer and Adyos is negligible, vo/ioi is 
an advance on the /Sao-iAeus stage. It involves vifieiv and 
viptaOai (A. J. P. XVIII 76). It denotes a manner of com- 
promise, a give-and-take business. It does not at first assume 
the spectral form, the form of Law by which vd/*os is familiarly 
translated, — Law ' whose seat is in the bosom of God and her 
voice the harmony of the world '. Law is organized will ; 
and vofioi, originally nothing but Use and Wont, in later days 
becomes a majestic entity which overshadows all others, ovk 
eyi> dAA' 6 vdfios became a formula. Lysias uses it (1.25); 
Aristophanes uses it (Eccl. 1055) ; it is found in Anaximenes 
36; and so on down to Shakespeare who employs it in 
Measure for Measure II, 2 : ' It is the law, not I condemn 
your brother '. But in Pindar's mouth it was only Use and 


Wont. Comp. Pindar, P. 2. 80; 10. 70. In the Index to my 
edition I have translated the word by the modern term 
' constitution ', and the word ' constitution ' is the outcome of 
Professor Schroeder's homily on the subject vo/*os is some- 
thing traditional, and the word vo/u'£eo reflects the easy way in 
which so-called thought is accepted. vo/u£<o is ' I take it ', as 
oto/xai is ' I ween ' and fiyov^ai ' I deem '- 1 But not to dwell on 
these beggarly elements of the schoolroom, I must break off 
and follow meekly in the tracks of Professor Schroeder's 

Professor Schroeder begins by protesting against the bad 
practice of quoting " winged words " apart from the context 
after the pattern set by Satan. This particular phrase, vojuos 
6 iravTav fiamXtvi, appears among the familiar quotations of 
sophists, rhetoricians, philosophers, and Fathers of the Church. 
Herodotos gave currency to it, and so did Plato, who puts it 
in the mouth of Kallikles in the Gorgias, where it appears as 
an assertion of what Schroeder calls ' the brutal right of the 
stronger ', as in the early fable of the Hawk and the Nightin- 
gale (Hesiod O. et D. 202), what we should call the good old 
rule, the < German > plan ' that they should take who have the 
power, and they should keep who can.' Let us go back, he 
says, to the fragment itself (169) in which the words occur 
and which presents us with a justification of the raid of 
Herakles on the kine of Geryones — not a justification, says 
Schroeder, of every deed of violence but of that special per- 
formance of Herakles. Unfortunately the passage is torn out 
of its setting and we must look first into the original meaning 
of the word, vo/uos is derived, as we have already seen, from 
vefMv, and means ' assignment '. It appears first with its 

'Those who are curious in the matter of Greek synonyms may be 
amused at the discrepancy of my view of vofil^a with that of Neil in his 
much lauded edition of the Equites: On 515: " vo/il^uv believing, of 
conscientious ground of action: as vo/mI^u $eovs, etc." On 714: " vofii^w, 
hold, believe, as ground for action ; answered by the strong word 
ewl( Editors quote Ter. Adelphi 898 plebem facio meant, Ovid 
ars am. ii 259 fac plebem, mihi crede, iuam." On 1338 : " vofit^u ffeop 
implies action taken in consequence of the belief, cf. on 515." But 
similar differences will be found in the treatment of j3oi5Xoji<xi and ctfeXw. 
In this case much will depend on the seriousness with which one takes 
his creed, which as I have set forth in my Creed of the Old South, is 
often nothing more than an unthought-out inheritance. 

There is more faith in honest doubt, 
Believe me, than in half the creeds. 

yo/il^a Oeois is a case of the Thirty-Nine Articles, and the occasional 
use of ro/ilfa in shows a certain light-hearted identification with the 
later construction of irKTreia. Cf. A. J. P. IX 101. 


original accent as vo/xos in the political geography of Egypt. 
vo/jlos was a pasture lot with its fixed metes and bounds 
<such as we find in the colonial records of our own country, 
such as we find in the quarter-section allotments of to-day >. 
Then we have the use of the word v6p.o% still in the sense of a 
fixed partition in music <and oddly enough the old English 
use of ' division ' furnishes an apt illustration. ' Music ' as I 
quoted from Offenbach long ago 'is all algebra '>. When we 
come to Herodotus — < Pindar and he were contemporaries 
for a considerable stretch of time> — v6p.o<s 6 -n-avToiy y3aoxA.ei5s 
had become a winged word, but it is to be noted that he had 
put vonos SecriroTt}*, VII 104, in the mouth of a Spartan — one 
who <like the English > believed in an dypa^oi v6p,o<s. It 
is Herodotos who first quotes the Pindaric sentence and 
Schroeder attaches much importance to the testimony of 
Herodotos because he considers Herodotos a naive soul and 
quite free from sophistic influence, one ' who was familiar 
with the lower and higher tones of the language.' Of course, 
those who agree with Boeckh that it is a great mistake to 
regard Herodotos as a naive soul, those who think that he 
shews abundant evidence of sophistic influence and that his 
attitude towards the movement of his times was that of an 
artistic opposition, so to speak, will accept Herr Schroeder's 
use of Herodotos with certain modifications, with not a little 
sprinkling of that Attic salt, with which the historian himself 
was imbued. 1 

The fragment is a strophe of a paean that deals, as we have 
seen, with the cattle raid of Geryon — an affair that had occu- 
pied Pindar elsewhere, fr. 81, and in that poem Pindar seems 
to have been somewhat shaky as to the justification of the part 
that the father of Herakles had played : to 8« /*»? At <j>l\Tipov 
o-iyoi/u irdfnrav, where the grammarian in grain pauses to 
remark on the -av of irdfiirav (A. J. P. XII 387). Fr. 169 runs : 

voixos b irdvTiov ftaatXtvs 

Svariov Tt koX 
dyti oiKaioiv to /3iaiOTaTOV 
mrepTaTa x £t P'- TtKfmipofiai 
ipyoimv "HpaxAtos ' iirtl 

Yapvova ftoas 
Ki>kA<i>7U<ov hrl Trpodvpiav 'EvpvcrOioi 
avaiTr/Tai Tt Kal airpidras ikaaiv. 

But according to Schroeder i>o/*os had already risen in the 
mind of Pindar to a great figure that controlled the actions 

*A. J. P. XVII 126; Johnson's Cycl. s. v. 


both of gods and men. The Use and Wont had passed over 
into the constitution of things. <Like Hooker's Law> its seat 
was in the bosom of Zeus <who is metamorphosed into the 
likeness of the good old German God>. We must remember, 
I may add, that according to the constitution of things we 
have the proverb ov&' 'HpaxA^s irpbs 8vo, and Geryon was in 
himself a triple entente, so that Herakles was not undertaking 
an enterprise unworthy of his chivalric nature. The conclu- 
sion of the whole matter then is that v6/ios is not law but con- 
stitution ; Use and Wont growing out of the life of a nation 
ever old and yet ever new; <or, as conservatives would say 
of our constitution, 'a constant interchange of growth and 
blight '>; none of your paper constitutions, but such a con- 
stitution as Burke describes in his protest against the French 
revolution — Burke with whom Woodrow Wilson was in full 
agreement ' until he became an enemy of Germany and the 
Truth' — <a strange pair of bed-fellows according to the 
deliverance of Maximilian Harden and the practice of 
Bismarck >. 

The good ship Hellas to which I committed my slender 
fortunes sixty-odd years ago has been in many a gale since 
then, but I have a stout heart and a constitution immune to 
seasickness, so that, whether Pindar's -rap ttoU (N. 6. 57) refers 
to the sheet of the sail (A. J. P. XXXIX 105) or to the tiller 
of the vessel, I still sit undismayed among the passengers on 
the after-deck, unlike Rabelais' Greek scholar, Panurge. 
'Panurge', we are told, 'ayant du contenu en son estomach 
bien repeu les poissons scatophages, restoit acropy sus le tillac 
tout afflige, tout meshaigne, et a demy mort' (4, 18). 
'Rudely blowed', sang Henry Kirke White, 'the wind that 
tossed my foundering bark ' — and I borrow the weak preterite 
of 'blow' from that famous hymn, and bid the enemies of 
Greek ' be blowed '. ' Blown ' would not answer any more 
than «s for «s in h K.6paK.a<s. As a grammarian I am strongly 
tempted at this point to introduce an excursus on the aesthetic 
value of perverted preterites, such as 'dove' for 'dived' — 
said 'dove' being used regularly in the records of feats of 
aviation without any thought of the literary justification 
provided by Longfellow's 'dove the beaver'. Such perver- 
sions are a ready and fertile source of merriment in all lan- 
guages and ought to be considered in textual criticism. 

But I forbear and go back to my starting-point, the perilous 
condition of the good ship Hellas. Some years ago when the 
great Ki>/Jepvi?T7?s was Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, and the vessel 


was labouring in the trough of the sea, I was horrified to 
learn that he proposed to lighten the ship by jettisoning the 
Greek accents. ' Good Heavens ', I said. The next step, as I 
learned from St. Paul's account, would be to cast out the 
tackling of the ship, to wit, accidence and syntax. But the 
proposal to get rid of the accents was nothing new. In the 
eighteenth century there was a decided rebellion against 
the retention of a notation that meant nothing to many Greek 
scholars. Lessing made no use of Greek accents and the tra- 
dition was kept up at least as late as 1841, the date of my 
Cotta edition of Lessing. When I undertook to edit Justin 
Martyr, the only copy of that worthy in the library of the 
University of Virginia was a Wtirzburg edition innocent of 
accents. George Long, a name never to be mentioned without 
respect, the first professor of Ancient Languages in that great 
school, was a sworn foe of the Greek accents, and in a letter 
to his friend Tutwiler argued strenuously against the use of 
them. And George Long's lead was followed by his successor 
in the University of Virginia, Dr. Gessner Harrison, so that 
when I succeeded Dr. Harrison in the chair of Greek, I made 
myself very unpopular by insisting on the study. Practical 
observance of the rules of Greek accentuation is still a 
stumbling-block in England, and the accuracy of English clas- 
sical texts is due in large measure to the slaves of the press. 
Grote's works are disfigured by false accents. Liddell and 
Scott's standard lexicon is by no means free from slips. 
That canis grammaticus Rutherford, ignored the rule for the 
accentuation of the perfect infinitive active (A. J P. Ill 228), 
and only a few years ago, in an eloquent plea for the study of 
Greek, an eminent historian, in quoting one of Sappho's 
'jewels five words long', managed, he or his printer, to get in 
five mistakes — accentual and other. Well, if accents are to be 
abandoned, I should like to make a plea for the so-called 
Lachmann Greeks. iM 


IBi and \aj3i, by the way, together with ehri, ik6i, and evpi, are 
among the most striking proofs of the original pitch accent, 
a proof corroborated by every English-speaking mother when 
she calls to her dissyllabic children : Tommy, Johnny, Susan, 
Mary. Cf. A. J. P. XXXIV 114. 

' Parmenio the Macedonian ', says Dr. Mackail, ' is the author 
of sixteen epigrams in the Anthology, very various in subject 
and for the most part undistinguished '. One of the sixteen, 
however, has found favour with those who have made selec- 
tions from the Anthology, so that we may call him, after the 


analogy of Single Speed Hamilton Single Epigram Parmenio. 
Though the theme is well worn, the epigram has recently 
gained a fresh admirer in Mrs. Humphry Ward who quotes 
a translation of it in her recent novel ' Elizabeth's Campaign '. 
The real hero is an English squire, at once a dogged pacifist 
and a wonderful Greek scholar, though the specimens pre- 
sented to us are closely akin to some of Mrs. Ward's classi- 
cisms in another novel of hers which is supposed to be redo- 
lent of Oxford erudition, and in which the Ambrosian Library 
is said to have its local habitation in Venice. But there is no 
use in pointing out the perils that environ the amateur who 
meddles with Greek life and literature, and not the amateur 
only, for even the professionals themselves shall scarcely be 
saved, and the registry of pedantic blunders is cheap fun. 
Besides I am in trouble myself because I shall need the 
charity of the chance readers of Brief Mention as I attempt 
again to illustrate the analogies and the differences of the 
antique epigram and the modern sonnet (A, J. P. XXXIII 
111) — a liberty which evoked a mild remonstrance from the 
late sympathetic editor of the Independent. 

Top yaiTjs ical ttovtov d/j.ei<p0(iaaiai Ke\cv6ois 1 

vavTTjf ijireipov. negoiropov ireXdyovs, 
'Ep rpiaaais dopdrcav cKarovrd<nv Zereyev aprjs 

ZirdpTys ' alaxvveaQ' ovpea Kal ireXdyrj. — A. P. IX 304. 

A king there was, a king of kings was he, 
And all the world stood hush'd whene'er he spoke. 
'Twas he that bade his minions lay his yoke 
Upon the coursers of fair Helle's sea. 

Old Athos would not yield to his decree, 

And check' d his brass-bound men and hearts of oak; 

But Xerxes order'd, and his servants broke 

The rocky barrier and the way was free. 

Exultant then Ahasuerus cried, 

'Was ever might, was ever skill like mine? 

Poseidon, speak ! Speak, Mountain Artemis '. — 

Mount Athos blush'd, flush'd crimson Helle's tide. — 
'Will Hellas dare outstay these powers divine?' 
And Sparta at Plataea answered this. 

In my Brief Mention of Wilamowitz's Aischylos (A. J. P. 
XXXVI 358-364) I passed over his note on Ag. 584. Like 

14 The dative or ablative thus used absolutely', says Burges in the 
Bohn Anthology, 'is rather a Latin than a Greek form of syntax which 
would require the genitive '. Parmenio seems to be within his Greek 
rights. The dative is instrumental and the predicative participle is 
fully justified (A. J. P. XIX 463; XX 352). 


many of the obiter dicta of that eminent Hellenist, it incited 
me to reflexions and to investigations that required more 
space than could well be afforded by the narrow compass of 
this department of the Journal, which foreign critics refuse, 
and perhaps justly refuse, to take seriously. Since that date 
(1915), I have been obliged to renounce the kind of syntac- 
tical exploration to which so much of my life has been 
devoted, and I must content myself with a few remarks, 
which may prompt others to work along abandoned lines. In 
the ordinary texts, one reads (1. c.) del yap fjPq toU yipoww ei> 
imOelv. For rjfia. Wilamowitz reads with Margoliouth fjfJij and 
adds the note, Tantum in praesentis infinitivo did poterat to ei 
fiav6dvuv del 17/8011, which is equivalent to saying that the aor. 
inf. as the subject of a general sentence is ungrammatical. 
If emendation were needed the desiderated present could 
easily be restored by writing tvpadelv — a compound readily 
justified by Aischylos's other formations. tv/xaOelv would 
match evfia^s as a>6ap<jdv matches evdapar/'s and tvrvxdv matches 
evrvxr)?. But this obiter dictum involves a much larger quest, 
viz., the relation of the abstract noun to the substantive infini- 
tive — a matter on which I have touched here and there but 
have never been able to exhaust. The abstract noun often 
assumes an aoristic form as in the case of ir<£0os pA6oi. The 
-o-is formation is decidedly aoristic and yet it is used in 
sentences of general import, but while irpdypa is a distinct 
perfect, it would be hard to differentiate it from irpd^ every- 
where, and «?£« is as durative as o-xe<ra is ingressive. True, 
the substantive infinitive affords the great advantage of a 
distinct kind of time and fiavOdvav may be differentiated from 
paOtiv still there is no reason why the aor. inf. may not, as it 
were, renounce its birthright and be used generically just as 
the aor. ind. is used generically. To pursue this subject 
through the whole range of the language lies beyond my 
resources, but I have been able to run two or three trial 
trenches, which shew that the research would be as well worth 
while as most studies in statistical syntax.