Early Journal Content on JSTOR, Free to Anyone in the World
This article is one of nearly 500,000 scholarly works digitized and made freely available to everyone in
the world by JSTOR.
Known as the Early Journal Content, this set of works include research articles, news, letters, and other
writings published in more than 200 of the oldest leading academic journals. The works date from the
mid-seventeenth to the early twentieth centuries.
We encourage people to read and share the Early Journal Content openly and to tell others that this
resource exists. People may post this content online or redistribute in any way for non-commercial
Read more about Early Journal Content at http://about.jstor.org/participate-jstor/individuals/early-
JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary source objects. JSTOR helps people
discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content through a powerful research and teaching
platform, and preserves this content for future generations. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit
organization that also includes Ithaka S+R and Portico. For more information about JSTOR, please
MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES.
occasional failures in the past, while Sudermann's
power is already well-nigh exhausted. Other
dramatists, such as the North Germans Halbe,
Hartleben, Hirschfeld, Wedekind, the Austrians
Bohr, Schnitzler, Brunner, Schonherr, are tersely
characterized in the eleventh lecture, which also
analyzes the milieu and subject matter of the
drama for the past decade or two. The chapter
closes with an explanation of " Heimatkunst " as
advocated by Bartels and Lienhard, and a brief sur-
vey of the more or less successful dialectic drama.
The twelfth lecture, finally, perhaps the most
stimulating and helpful of all, may bear the head-
ing "The New Komanticism." The lyrists,
Bierbaum, Dehmel, Stefan George, and the his-
toric drama, the themes of which are drawn under
the influence of Nietzsche, from the Orient, Hel-
las, the Kenaissance and Keformation, and the
French Revolution, are considered as well as the
Romantic Drama, introduced by Fulda's "Talis-
man" and ably represented by the productions of
Elsa Bernstein (pseud. Ernst Rosmer), Hofmanns-
thal and Vollmoeller. Whatever may be the
fate of the German drama in the twentieth cen-
tury, says Professor Arnold, this much we make
bold to assert : it is not facing another decline.
It must be freed, however, from the trammels of
pernicious newspaper criticism and from the
desire, on the part of the playwright, for gain
and popularity, before the great dramatist of the
age can arise. Such a one will take as the
measure of his efforts only the ideal hovering
before him and its immanent laws.
A word, in conclusion, regarding the thirty
pages of bibliography. Although the author did
not purpose compiling a complete list of reference
books, yet he included all important works, even
pamphlets and magazine articles, bearing on each
chapter, with occasional comments to indicate
their scope or value. Of especial interest is the
rather full bibliography of nearly all the leading
German theaters. This feature of the book will
be appreciated not only by the general student
but also the specialist.
Because Doss Moderne Drama is so well organ-
ized, it can be recommended without hesitation to
those who are drifting compassless on the sea of
the modern drama.
North Dakota Agricultural College.
The Four Daughters of Qod : A Study of the Ver-
sions of this Allegory with especial reference to
those in Latin, French, and English. A Dis-
sertation Presented to the Faculty of Bryn
Mawr College for the Degree of Doctor of
Philosophy by Hope Tbavee, 1907. Phila-
delphia : The John C. Winston Co., 1907. 165
pp. , with bibliography and chart exhibiting the
relationship of versions discust.
This dissertation has first of all the merit of
really entering new territory. The favorite plots
of medieval narrators have been studied with great
diligence by literary genealogists, with the curious
omission of one group, — the religious allegories.
The fables and the stories employed by Chaucer
and Marie de France have been exhaustively
inapt and charted ; but the great allegorical
forms of the age of allegory, except for a few im-
perfect and fragmentary comparative studies, have
hitherto been neglected. Yet these plots were at
least as popular with medieval narrators ; and
they are capable, too, of receiving definition quite
as precise and yielding genealogies quite as articu-
late. The allegory here selected is one of the
slightest, forming essentially but a single scene
with the content of a single verse of the psalter ;
and here if anywhere it might seem impossible to
determine anything like a system of relationships.
But the little scene proves, on the contrary,
capable of remarkable expansion and modification
— not only making itself at home in diverse lit-
erary forms, both of prose and poetry, but also
variously modifying its very spirit. Now it
appears as a peg on which to hang endless wire-
drawn theological argument, now as a feudal ro-
mance, now as an elaborate medieval trial, now as
a long allegorical epic, at one time a completed
drama in itself, at another a framework supplying
introduction, links, and conclusion for a dramatic
cycle. Relationships are found to be comparatively
easy to fix ; and only occasionally, when the version
is exceedingly abbreviated or especially original,
is Miss Traver compelled to confess inability to
find at least an approximate source.
In all over fifty different versions are compared,
chiefly, as the title indicates, in Latin, French,
and English, with a few closely involved versions
MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES.
[Vol. xxiv, No. 3.
in Dutch. They are found distributed over six
centuries of extraordinary popularity, from the
origin of the allegory in the Jewish Midrash, not
later than the tenth century, down to its latest
literary use by Giles Fletcher in the seventeenth.
Landmarks in this history are found in the ver-
sions of Hugo of St. Victor and Bernard of Clair-
vaux in the twelfth century, Robert Grosseteste
and Jacob van Maerlant in the thirteenth, and
Cardinal Bonaventura of Padua and Guillaume
de Deguilleville in the fourteenth. Taken by Hugo
from its Jewish source and removed in setting
from the heavenly council preceding the creation
to the council preceding the redemption, the alle-
gory was recast and more completely Christian,
ized by Bernard. Grosseteste, in the Ghasteau
d' Amour removed it from the heavenly to an
earthly court and transformed it into a feudal
romance. Bonaventura, in the influential Medi-
tationes Vitae Christi, went back to Bernard, but
supplied a new introduction and fresh arguments.
The Dutch versions, beginning with Maerlant' s
Merlijn, fused with the allegory of the four graces
the equally ancient allegory of a struggle between
good and evil powers for man's soul. This con-
flict between good and evil was further expanded
by Deguilleville, after the manner of the Roman
de la Rose, in his three-fold romance of the soul's
history, in which he twice inserted the allegory of
the graces, once with an important modification.
Almost all the other versions are found to be
groupt around these six. The earliest in English,
the Vices and Virtues (dated about 1200), is per-
haps dependent on Bernard, as is certainly Lyd-
gate's Life of Our Lady in the fifteenth century.
From the Ghasteau d' Amour are traceable of
course its English translation the Cursor Mundi,
several versions in French romances of the thir-
teenth century, the Gesta Romanorum, and indi-
rectly thru the Gesta the French moralities.
From the Meditationes of Bonaventura come its
English translation by Nicholas Love in the
Speculum Vitae Christi in 1410, the version in
the contemporary Vita Christi of Ludolphus,
which appears in paraphrase in the fifteenth cen-
tury Passioun of Christ of Walter Kennedy, and
indirectly the English moralities. The Devil
motive, first appearing in the thirteenth century
Merlijn (tho Miss Traver gives reasons to believe
that Maerlant was following an older source now
lost) appears again during the next hundred years
in Italian, French, and Dutch poems, and receives
its most popular form in the Processus Belial of
Jacopo da Theramo in 1381. Upon Theramo
depends the treatment as found in a Provencal
mystery cycle. The novel form given the alle-
gory by Deguilleville serves as model for the
French Passion Play of Mercade' in the early
fifteenth century, and fifty years later for that of
Greban. From Greban's Mystbre de la Passion,
with in some cases "contaminating" influence
from Bonaventura, come the versions of the other
French mysteries. Lastly, we consider certain
versions handled with much originality and for
that reason difficult or impossible to assign to any
definite source : such are those found in Piers
Ploivman, in the Court of Sapience, which Miss
Traver pronounces one of the most charming ver-
sions of the allegory, in the Marian morality
Respublica, and in Giles Fletcher's Christ's
It is interesting to find the allegory connected
also with the names of Shakspere and Milton.
Johnson reports two plans left by Milton for a
"Tragedy or Mystery" on this theme, one of
which suggests the original Midrash form, the
other the traditional form. The connection with
Shakspere is more doubtful. It consists in cer-
tain similarities between the trial scene in the
Merchant of Venice and the ' ' Proces ' ' in Gre-
ban' s mystery. In both there is the same prob-
lem at bottom — how to reconcile the claims of
justice and mercy — and there are some striking
special parallels in the development of the two
scenes. Miss Traver concludes that, altho it is
impossible in the present state of our knowledge
of the sources of the Merchant of Venice to explain
these similarities with the fifteenth century mys-
tery, they are too striking to be disniist as mere
Perhaps the most valuable discoveries of the
study are in connection with the English morali-
ties. The two versions found in the Salutation
and Conception play of the so-called Coventry
cycle and in the Castle of Perseverance, tho inde-
pendent of each other, are shown to offer special
resemblances in structure, and often in phrasing,
to a version in the fourteenth century prose treat-
MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES.
ise, The Charter of the Abbey of the Holy Ghost,
ascribed to Richard Eolle of Hampole. As Miss
Traver makes clear, however, it is improbable
that either morality version is derived directly
from the Charter, but likely instead that all three
follow independently a lost common original dif-
fering but slightly from the Meditationes of Bona-
ventura. This lost original may have been dra-
matic, perhaps a French mystery.
This comparatively scanty showing made by
the allegory in the English drama might have
been bettered by one addition if we had the
missing second part of the Pride of Life. So Miss
Traver conjectures from the prolog, in opposition
to Brandl, who suggests instead that the allegory
there used was the Debate between Soul and Body. 1
The wording is obscure, but a comparison with the
corresponding part of the Castle of Perseverance
prolog, 2 where the episode of the four graces is
similarly advertised as the intervention of "our
loflylady," supports Miss Traver' s view. If it
were originally used in the Pride of Life, the alle-
gory would seem to have been similar in type to
that of the Dutch poems or of Deguilleville. In
connection with Deguilleville, another of the Eng-
lish moralities might have been cited for a prob-
able reminiscence, altho it does not contain the
allegory itself. Deguilleville' s introduction of the
character of Sapience to take the role of Christ as
arbitrator between the four daughters is called by
Miss Traver his most important modification ;
and the same identification runs thruout the
morality Wisdom Who Is Christ. In the Castle
of Perseverance, on the other hand, the influence
from Deguilleville which she promises (in a note
on page 94) to discuss in a later chapter, but
which she has apparently overlookt, is not obvious.
It is perhaps ungracious to criticise the study
on the score of its omissions, since the author
expressly disclaims completeness, even in the re-
stricted field of Latin, French, and English. Still
it is regrettable to find no word of two dramatic
versions which are remarkable alike for their
early use of the allegory and for their very early
adaptation of the dramatic form to an allegorical
1 A. Brandl, Quellen des weMichm Dramas in England,
Quellen und Forschungen, lxxx, p. xviii.
8 Compare the Pride of Life, 11. 97-112, with the Castle
of Perseverance, 11. 118-130.
theme — the two twelfth century Anglo-French
moralities by Guillaume Herman and (possibly)
Stephen Langton. Both are described by Ward
and by Chambers. 8 They would seem antecedent
to any of the versions cited except the two earliest,
those of Hugo and Bernard ; and they precede
by considerably over a century the Maestricht
Plays, which Miss Traver cites (page 78) as the
earliest appearance of the allegory in the drama.
Their appearance is indeed probably to be re-
garded as sporadic, and they could hardly have
been influential ; but they certainly deserve at-
tention. Another omission occurs in the treat-
ment of the Gesta Romanorum. The allegory as
it appears in the Latin version of the Gesta is
summarized and its departures from its ancestor,
the Chasteau d' Amour, and approaches to its
descendants, the French moralities, admirably
analyzed. But nothing is said of the striking
differences between the Latin and the English
version of the tale, altho Herrtage's edition* is
cited. The omission, fortunately, does not in-
validate Miss Traver' s conclusions, for the English
version is even closer to Grosseteste than the Latin.
As a link between the source in Grossteste, how-
ever, and the diverging Continental version, it
supplies an interesting confirmation of Oesterley's
theory that England was the original home of the
Gesta Romanorum and the English the earlier
version. It was also perhaps not without influ-
ence in the subsequent history of the allegory, for
a comparison with the Court of Sapience suggests
that it rather than Grosseteste and rather than
the Continental version was the immediate model,
at least of the first part. Finally, on page 158
Miss Traver has cited a rather remote story from
the fifteenth century example book Jacob's Well,
but has overlookt a story in the same collection
which is closer on the whole to our allegory. 6
But some omissions, in tracing the history of so
extraordinarily widespread a form thru a field
hitherto so little explored, were inevitable. Miss
'Ward, Hist of Eng. Dram. Lit., I, 25, 105; Cham-
bers. The Medieval Stage, II, 152.
4 S. Herrtage, The Early English Versions of the Gesta
Romanorum, E. E. T. S., ext. ser. xxxin, pp. 132-135.
6 Jacob's Well, ed. Arthur Brandeis, E. E. T. S., orig.
ser. cxv, pp. 138-141 : " Angels and Fiends contending
for the Rich Man's Soul."
MODEBN LANGUAGE NOTES.
[Vol. xxiv, No. 3.
Traver's dissertation certainly illuminates a terri-
tory that has too long been left obscure by the
students of medieval literature, and incidentally
presents a number of valuable suggestions and
Robert L. Ramsay.
University of Missouri.
Beowulf nebst dew, Finnsburg-Bruchstuek mit Ein-
leitung, GlossarundAnmerkungen herausgegeben
von F. Holthausen. I. Teil : Texte und
Namenverzeichnis. [Alt- und mittelenglische
Texte herausgegeben von L. Morsbach und F.
Holthausen. Bd. 3.] Heidelberg : Carl Win-
ter's Universitatsbuchhandlung ; New York :
G. E. Stechert. (1905.) 112 pp.
The appearance of this edition is an event in
the annals of Beowulf bibliography. Coming from
a distinguished Old English scholar and an ac-
knowledged master of textual criticism, it is fully
abreast of the progress of Beowulf studies and
shows a marked advance over its predecessors.
In contrast with the editions of Heyne-Socin and
Wyatt, it recognizes to the fullest extent the met-
rical principles established by Sievers, which call
for a large number of slight changes. Also in
other respects it is clearly seen to be absolutely
free from what has been styled by the editor the
'curse of conservatism.' Yet it contains much
less of the provisional and speculative element
than Trautmann's recension. For while the lat-
ter apparently is not designed as a text-book and
certainly is what it claims to be, a ' bearbeiteter
Text,' Holthausen' s text is primarily meant for
college use and follows strict business principles,
which forbid unnecessary and individualistic alter-
Of course, opinions will be found to differ in
many cases as to the necessity of an emendation.
Personally I am in favor of a more cautious treat-
ment of the -transmitted text. As a number of
instances in which I am bound to disagree with
Holthausen, have been discussed in my papers
published within the past year in Mod. Phil.,
Mod. Lang. Notes, Anglia, JET. Arehiv, I trust I
shall be excused from going over the same
ground again. I should like, however, to express
in this place a doubt as to the advisability of
assuming a gap of (at least) two half-lines in so
many places as Holthausen has done. 1 It is true,
some words may very well have dropped out after
11. 935, 1106, 1174, but most of the other pas-
sages involved seem to me to admit of a reasonable
interpretation without drastic measures. As an
instance (of a debatable character) I mention
1. 1981 : geond fxet side reced BTcereSes dohtor.
There seems to me greater risk in assuming a
lacuna than in regarding side (cf. geond fiost
side sel, Andr. 762), which is added above the
line ("in the same hand I think, but with
another ink" Zupitza) as a wrong insertion in
place of heal or hea (Sievers, Beitr., x, 313) ;
cf. hand for mund 965, hild for Und 1073.
Moreover, HcereHes dohtor / lufode 8a leode need
not be taken as parenthetical, as lufian may de-
note 'manifest one's love,' 'treat kindly' (IT.
Arehiv, cix, 305).
A good many emendations are original with the
editor, the majority of them having been previously
published in various journals, especially in Z. f.
d. P., xxxvii, 113fF. Not a few are singularly
ingenious, and several appear either positively
convincing or distinctly probable. As a splendid
specimen eame on eaxle 1117, may be cited.
A few casual notes may be subjoined. Line
1022 ff. Of the two possible punctuations the fol-
lowing is to be preferred : . . . helm ond byrnan;/
mcere madfoumsweord manige gesawon j beforan
beorn beran. Cf. Mod. Phil, in, 244. L. 1032 f.
The simplest and most satisfactory solution of the
difficulty would be to write (with Thorpe) meahte,
with the understanding that the singular laf has
collective force. L. 1302. Why should the ms.
reading be changed ? under heolfre means ' cov-
ered with blood ' (= blodge beadufolme 990) ; cf.
H. Arehiv, crv, 291. L. 2586 ff. I cannot bring
myself to believe that grundwong should not
denote the same as eormengrund, ginne grand.
LI. 25866-88 and 2589-90a express nearly the
same idea, the former negatively, the latter posi-
tively. Considering further the contrast between
wolde and seeolde [o/er] willan, we may venture
to translate literally : ' that was not a ready (will-
'Also Trautmann, Bonner Beitr., xvn, 177, mentions