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54 



MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES 



[Vol. xxx, No. %. 



lisson's predilection for the. genre, but the facta 
bear him out; let it be remembered that the 
great attacks on the doctors are delivered in 
IS Amour medecin, Monsieur de Pourceaugnac, 
and Le Malade imaginaire; that M. Jourdain 
and the masters that surround him, as well as 
the parasitic nobles, figure in a comedie-ballet; 
that the philosophers Fancrace and Marphurius 
appear in Le Manage force; and that in Georges 
Dandin one of the most searching questions of 
any society and any time is propounded. Mr. 
Fellisson does not claim that Moliere did this 
consciously ; but he did it, and the presence of 
this social satire in these pieces does more than 
any other one thing to bring them near the 
level of the greater works. 

This book is not one that the student of 
Moliere can afford to neglect. If the author 
does not succeed in reconciling us to the pas- 
torals, if we must still regret that the great- 
ness of a man was subjected to the littleness 
of a king, yet for the best of the comedies- 
ballets he performs a service well worth the 
doing. He analyzes them with a scholarly 
thoroughness, he brings to bear on the sub- 
ject many points of internal and external evi- 
dence hitherto unknown or ignored, and, fin- 
ally, raises them to the dignity of a place of 
their own in the petit theatre of Moliere. 



Walter Peibce. 



Ohio State University. 



Les Chants des Grecs et le philhelUnisme de 
Wilhelm Mutter par Gastoh Caminade. 
Paris: Librairie Felix Alcan, 1913. 8vo., 
198 pp. (Bibliotheque de Philologie et de 
Litterature modernes.) 

This intelligent, thoroughgoing work of 
French scholarship shows a fresh and vital in- 
terest in German culture, and offers a happy 
token of the social and friendly influence of 
humane studies. The author treats the German 
War of Liberation objectively and sympathetic- 
ally (Napoleon's rule is termed "une oppres- 



sion humiliante et brutale"). The order of 
presentation is clear, and there is every evi- 
dence of wide and deep research. Good use is 
made of B. F. Arnold's important study, Der 
deutsche Philhellenismus (Euphorion, 1896) ; 
although the author does not rise to Arnold's 
distinction of style, he shows himself well able 
to continue Arnold's investigations in an inde- 
pendent spirit. Like the latter, he views the 
German enthusiasm for the independence of 
the Greeks under three heads: the passion for 
political freedom; religious faith; 1 love of 
ancient Greek culture. 

All of these elements are accounted for, and 
studied exhaustively from their beginnings. 
The author is among the first to exploit the 
materials contained in Muller's singularly in- 
timate diary (Chicago, 1903), but one gains 
the impression that he is not familiar with the 
very rare Bundesbliithen as a factor in account- 
ing for the doings of Muller's Muse, "cette 
modeste et paisible fille des champs," after 
1821, — a suspicion which is strengthened by 
the fact that no mention is made in the bib- 
liography of the easily accessible reprint of 
Muller's contributions in the Publications of 
the Modern Language Association of America, 
Vol. XIII. 

Beginning with a general survey of German 
enthusiasm for Greek liberation, the work con- 
siders in turn the evolution of the Griechen- 
lieder, their historical background, literary in- 
fluences, their literary value, the significance 
of Muller's translations of Fauriel's Greek 
Volkslieder.* 

Muller's poems are justly held to be the 
most interesting products of the whole move- 
ment, because they give the most faithful pre- 
sentation, in their entirety and in their details, 
of the vibrant enthusiasm which stirred all 



'In paying tribute to Mailer's dream of devoting 
himself to studying theology, and living " ganz fflr 
Gott und gein Wort," Caminade omits mention of 
Mailer's touching preliminary, that he should first 
draw the grand prize in the lottery. 

1 It is not generally known that the MS. of Daniel 
Banders' important collection of modern Greek folk- 
songs has been acquired by the library of North- 
western University. 



February, 1915.] 



MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES 



55 



Europe in witnessing the regeneration of 
Greece. 

Caminade agrees with the editor of the crit- 
ical edition of Miiller's poems (Berlin, 1906) 
in the reconstruction of the third fascicule of 
the Neue Lieder der Griechen, which was sup- 
pressed by the Leipzig censorship in 1823. The 
missing eighth song, which Miiller sent Brock- 
haus on July 17, 1823, is still unaccounted for. 
It may he mentioned that Mrs. N. C. Terrill 
of the University of Kansas has elaborated a 
plausible argument for including the Hymne 
auf den Tod Raphael Riegos in this group, in 
spite of intrinsic chronological obstacles. The 
reasoning is based upon the following facts: 

(1) In an unpublished letter to F. A. Brock- 
haus, written as early as January 29, 1823, 
Muller wrote: "Vielleicht singe ich bald 
Lieder der Hispanier. Die Antwort des Kortes 
an den heiligen Bund ist grossartig und wiirde 
sich leicht einer poetischen Behandlung fugen." 

(2) Muller had a remarkahle habit of celebrat- 
ing the death of his heroes long before the 
event, as in the case of Canaris (Konstantin 
Kanari), Botzaris (Bozzari), and Odysseus 
(Odysseus' Tod), a poem sent to Brockhaus on 
September 12, 1822, but withdrawn by its 
author on September 29, on the convincing 
ground, "da dieser entweder lebt, oder ein 
Verrather ist." The details of Biego's execu- 
tion (November 7, 1823) reflected in the poem 
seem to me, however, to go beyond the powers 
of any poet, be he never so prophetic. 

Another problem lies in Miiller's relation to 
the modern Greek "political verse" of fifteen 
syllables, which he employed so largely in 
translating Fauriel (the original French vol- 
umes published in 1824 and 1825). Arnold 
and Caminade count eleven Griechenlieder in 
this form, but there are, strictly speaking, but 
four, all of them in the suppressed Drittes 
Heft, and all written toward the end of 1822 
or in the earlier part of 1823. No satisfactory 
reason has yet been shown for Miiller's sudden 
adoption of this most characteristic meter be- 
fore the appearance of Fauriel's collection. 

The task of distinguishing between the two 



editions of the Missolunghi-bTochure (p. 33) 
is reduced to zero if one bears in mind that the 
Dessau copy is printed in Latin letters, while 
that of Dresden is in German text. 

Caminade's singular accuracy in regard to 
obscure and scattered German sources is espe- 
cially praiseworthy. On p. 32, 1. 2, for Kana- 
ris should be read Kanari; for von der Rechte 
(p. 33), von der Recke; for Griechischer Feuer 
(p. 142), Griechisches Feuer; for T 'ester (p. 
113), Teste. Before the mention of Max 
Miiller's untrustworthy sketch of his father's 
life in the Allg. Deutsche Biographie some 
danger-signal should have been displayed. On 
p. 24 the name of a professor who has worked 
in this field undergoes a painful mutilation. 
The poem Gegen die Pharisder (p. 29) ap- 
peared later as Griechisches Feuer, and not as 
Die verpestete Freiheit; similarly on page 30, 
after Griechisches Feuer should occur, in 
parenthesis, " deja paru." 

To the biographical sources on p. 194 should 
be added an article on Miiller's Diary and Cor- 
respondence in the Deutsche Rundschau for 
March, 1902 ; among " German periodicals " 
(p. 198) might well be mentioned the Deutsche 
Blatter fur Poesie, Litteratur, Kunst und 
Theater, Breslau, 1823, as being the only 
source for Miiller's dramatic fragment, Leo, 
Admiral von Cypern, a production which has 
a real bearing upon the matter of the book. 
There is, unfortunately, no index to this other- 
wise well-elaborated publication. 

I cannot forbear to plead here for a full edi- 
tion of Miiller's letters to F. A. Brockhaus and 
his son Heinrich, extending from 1819 to the 
last day of the poet's life. One hundred and 
twenty-nine in number, they shed an incom- 
parable light upon his entire literary activity, 
but they remain locked away in the inaccessible 
archives of the Brockhaus-firm in Leipzig. 
Surely there can no longer be any good reason 
for withholding them from publication ! 

James Taft Hatfield. 
~Norfhu>estern University.