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786 THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF THEOLOGY 

misinterpreted, being viewed as an imputed rather than an ethical 
transaction. 

One question does not receive adequate attention, indeed is hardly 
more than touched upon. What authority has the apostolic teaching 
as compared with that directly attributed to Christ ? Are the epistles 
authoritative to us as truly as are the four gospels ? The lecturer 
would evidently answer the latter inquiry in the affirmative, but does 
not undertake to discuss the grounds on which that conviction rests. 

The book is certainly a helpful contribution toward the solution of 
the problems suggested by the title. Their adequate solution, how- 
ever, demands not only exegetical accuracy and doctrinal insight, but 
broad historical research. The second sentence in the opening lec- 
ture, "The material for the study lies within the boards of the New 
Testament," is only partially true. Hort would have put the case 
differently. 

Wm. Arnold Stevens. 

Rochester Theological Seminary. 



Die griechischen christlichen Schriftsteller der ersten 
drei Jahrhunderte, herausgegeben von der Kirchenvater- 
Commission der konigl. Preuss. Akademie der Wissenschaf- 
ten. Band 4 : Der Dialog des Adamantius: Tlepi rfjs eh ®eov 
6p6rj<! Trunewi. Herausg. von W. H. van de Sande Bak- 
huyzen. Leipzig: Hinrichs, 1901. Pp. lvii -+- 256. M. 12.50. 

In a less critical age the dialogue of Adamantius On Eight 
Faith in God would have appeared among the works of Origen. 
Adamantius was one of the names of Origen, and Rufinus translated 
this dialogue into Latin as a genuine work of Origen's. At least as 
early, then, as the close of the fourth century it was ascribed to Origen, 
and his responsibility for it does not seem to have been questioned till 
the time of Andreas Rivetus, to whose doubt Wettstein was the first to 
call attention. Rivetus urged the reference (872a) to Christian kings 
in the writer's day as decisive evidence against its being Origen's. 
Modern criticism, however, rejects the passage as the work of a reviser, 
and as early as 1685 critics based their denial of any connection of 
the work with Origen on irreconcilable differences in doctrine — e. g., 
of the resurrection — between this dialogue and the genuine writings 
of that father. 

The dialogue was composed by no very original author not earlier 
than Methodius' irepl rov avre£ov<riov and Trtpl dvaoroo-ecos — these supply 



RECENT THEOLOGICAL LITERATURE 787 

the terminus a quo; it was written before the end of the persecution of 
the Christians, that is, before the edict of Galerius, 311 A. D. This 
was also about the time of Methodius' death, so that the dialogue was 
probably written not far from the year 300, though it has since under- 
gone some reworking. Its chief interest lies in the reflection of the 
teachings of Marcion and Valentinus, against whose heresies it is 
directed. Adamantius appears as the champion of the orthodox church 
against the Marcionites Megethius and Marcus, in public debate before 
an umpire of their own selection, the heathen Eutropius. Megethius 
maintains that there are three principles, the good God, the Demiurge, 
and the evil God ; that the Old Testament precepts emanated from 
another God than those of the New, and that the father of Christ was 
another than the Creator of the world. These and other Gnostic posi- 
tions taken by Megethius and Marcus are overthrown by Adamantius, 
to whom Eutropius awards the victory. In the second part of the 
dialogue, Marinus, a follower of Bardesanes, appears as the chief oppo- 
nent of Adamantius. He advances three propositions : that the devil 
was not created by God ; that Christ was not born of a woman ; and 
that there is no resurrection of the body. Again Adamantius triumphs, 
and the umpire is so affected by his arguments as to seek admission to 
the church. 

This and much more, by way of introduction to the dialogue, 
Bakhuyzen has given in a compact and comprehensive essay. In this 
is included a catalogue of the manuscripts of the dialogue and of the 
translations and editions, and upon it follows the text. The Greek 
occupies the left-hand page, and is accompanied by the Latin of 
Rufinus on the righ-hand page. The lower margin is devoted to 
textual notes. Indexes of Scripture passages quoted, names men- 
tioned, and important words used, Greek as well as Latin, complete 
the book. 

The ten Greek manuscripts of the dialogue go back to a lost 
exemplar which was itself very corrupt. They fall into three groups, 
of which the Venice manuscript (B) of the twelfth century, the oldest 
textual witness; the Bodleian manuscript (C) of the early sixteenth 
century; and the two Paris manuscripts (FH) of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, are severally the representatives. All the other manuscripts con- 
nect themselves more or less closely with the Venice manuscript. 
Upon these four representative codices, then, with some help for the 
latter part from the two works of Methodius mentioned above, 
Bakhuyzen has constructed his text. Of translations the earliest and 



788 THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF THEOLOGY 

most important is that of Rufinus, which is more faithful than his 
translations of Origen's works, although in the longer speeches con- 
siderable liberties are taken. Rufinus' translation is here published on 
the basis of Caspari's edition. Adamantius enjoyed a singular revival 
in the sixteenth century, when no fewer than four new Latin transla- 
tions of the dialogue were made — those of Picus, Perionius, Ferrarius, 
and Humfry. But the first edition of the Greek text did not appear 
until 1674, when the younger Wettstein published it from a manuscript 
no longer extant. In 1733 de la Rue included the dialogue in his 
edition of Origen's works, and Migne and Lommatzsch have added 
little to his work or that of Wettstein. There was thus a real need for 
a critical edition based on broader manuscript evidence and accom- 
panied by an adequate introduction and apparatus of readings, and 
such an edition this newest volume of the Prussian Academy's series 

certainly is. 

Edgar J. Goodspeed. 
The University of Chicago. 

Das Testament unseres Herrn und die verwandten Schrif- 
ten. Von F. X. Funk. (= "Forschungen zur christlichen 
Litteratur- und Dogmengeschichte." Herausgegeben von 
Ehrhard und Kirsch. Zweiter Band. Erstes und zweites 
Heft.) Mainz: Kirchheim, 1901. Pp. xii + 316. M. 16. 

Of German scholars few were better prepared than Franz Xaver 
Funk, the Roman Catholic professor at Tubingen, successor to the 
well-known professor, afterward bishop, Hefele, to give a thoroughly 
intelligent verdict on the so-called " Testament of Our Lord," which 
has been introduced to the learned world with so much pretension by 
the Roman Catholic patriarch Rahmani of Antioch. As early as 1891 
he had published a monograph of more than three hundred pages on 
the Apostolic Constitutions, with which the new document is closely 
connected, and never since has he lost sight of this kind of literature. 
Hence the title of the book : Das Testament und die verwandten 
Schriften, i. e., the early Christian writings connected with it. The 
importance of Funk's book lies not so much in the elucidation he has 
given of the new text, as in the conclusions at which he arrives as to 
those kindred writings which have long been known. That the newly 
published Testament was not a work of the first or second century 
everyone saw at once, except the editor and the reviewer, as I see from 
the last page of Funk's book, in the Dublin Review (1900, pp. 245-74) ; 
and it does not matter much whether we refer it, with the bishop of