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TWO ESSAYS IN THE FUTURE HOPE 389 

metaphysics that his solutions are in the nature of dialectical adjust- 
ments rather than pioneer investigations. As a record of past move- 
ments of thought the book is a valuable interpretation; but it scarcely 
does justice to the more radical tendencies of present thinking. 

Gerald Birney Smith 
University of Chicago 



TWO ESSAYS IN THE FUTURE HOPE 1 

A recent volume by B. H. Streeter is one of many produced by the 
mental and spiritual exigencies of the war. Its aim is to "co-ordinate 
Scientific, Psychical, and Biblical research." It essays to present the 
unbiased results of the best thinking in the several fields by which 
the problem of immortality is conditioned. It is frankly apologetic 
in the best sense. It seems to us a valuable contribution to the literature 
of the subject. 

The nine papers of the collaborated work are necessarily of unequal 
value and will appeal according to the temperament of the reader. 
Chapter i discusses "Presuppositions and Prejudgments," aiming at a 
clarification of the intellectual background and an evaluation of certain 
mental attitudes and prejudicial superficialities. Chapter ii treats of 
"Mind and the Brain," being "a discussion of immortality from the 
standpoint of science." The problem of the psychophysical relationship 
is discussed. The conclusion is that "for the present, therefore, so far 
as science is concerned, life after the grave is not a proved fact, but the 
evidence is sufficient to justify faith in it" (p. 71). Chapter iii deals 
with "The Resurrection of the Dead." The discussion is interesting 
and suggestive. As founded primarily on the biblical basis, the argu- 
ment seems to the reviewer often unconvincing and weak. In chapter iv, 
on "The Life of the World to Come," Mr. Streeter seeks to replace the 
traditional picture of heaven and hell with a picture that shall correspond 
to our moral realities. Chapter v, on "The Bible and Hell," studies the 
conception of endless punishment and arrives at the conviction that a 
static place of torment is a picture congenial to an earlier stage but 
incredible to modern ethics with its evolutionary emphasis. Chapter vi, 
"A Dream of Heaven," is a conception of the spiritual imagination set 
forth with constraint and reasonableness in excellent literary form. 
Chapter vii, "The Good and Evil in Spiritualism," and chapter viii, 

'Immortality. An Essay in Discovery. By B. H. Streeter and Others. New 
York: Macmillan, 1917. xiv+380 pages. $2.25. 



390 THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF THEOLOGY 

"Reincarnation, Kama, and Theosophy," are timely discussions setting 
forth with ability a critical estimate of these thought-movements in their 
significance for the problem of immortality. Chapter ix, "The Undis- 
covered Country," treats of the revived interest in the future life and of 
the paths toward discovery — the way to the sense of reality in dealing 
with the unseen world. 

A new book by A. W. Martin gives the substance of eight lectures 
on modern occultism, 1 delivered by the author before the Society of 
Ethical Culture. In clarity and directness of thought and in his use of 
unambiguous English the author shows himself a teacher of ability. The 
fact that the race, by various paths, has with practical unanimity arrived 
at belief in continued life after death is the text which Mr. Martin 
expounds. 

Chapter i deals with "Three Minor Foundations" which are set aside 
as inadequate, namely, the universality of the belief, the instinctive 
desire for immortality, and intuition. Chapter ii briefly discusses "The 
Christian Foundation," namely, the belief in the bodily resurrection of 
Jesus. The conclusion reached is that the resurrection is not a founda- 
tion of belief for us, since we believe in the spiritual center but find it 
impossible to believe in a physical resurrection. Materialism is disposed 
of in chapter iii, as philosophically unconvincing. The ethical attitude 
toward modern occultism — spiritualism, psychical research, theosophy — 
is the theme of chapters iv to vi. Here the author's ethical sense con- 
vinces him of the insufficiency and superficiality of these fields as founda- 
tions for belief in the future. Chapter vii treats at length of "The 
Theosophical Belief, Reincarnation." This theme was evidently the 
real objective of the original eight lectures. His conclusions may be 
summarized in his own words (p. 43) : " We conclude that, as compared 
with the corresponding teaching of orthodox Christianity, we infinitely 
prefer the theosophical view. Yet, by reason of the grave objections 
which we must register against the reincarnation hypothesis, we have no 
alternative but to reject it as fully as we do the Christian conception of 
Heaven and Hell." Chapter vii, "The Foundation in Moral Experi- 
ence," offers a confident support for faith in the future, drawn from the 
implications of moral experience and moral reason. Chapter ix treats 
of "Misuses of the Faith in a Future Life," superficialities, crudities, 

1 Faith in a Future Life. By Alfred W. Martin. New York: Appleton, 1016. 
xvii-r 203 pages. $1.50. 



A CONTRIBUTION TO BIOGRAPHY 391 

literalisms, superstitions, and falsities that too often characterize con- 
ventional teaching. Chapter x discusses "The Moral Life in the Light 
of Immortality." 

Herbert A. Youtz 
Oberlin Graduate School of Theology 
Oberlin, Ohio 



A CONTRIBUTION TO BIOGRAPHY 1 

To a discriminating reading public Stopford Brooke is known as the 
author of two famous books, the life of F. W. Robertson, Robertson of 
Brighton, and the Primer of English Literature. The life of Robertson, 
published in 1865, when its author was in the early thirties, was nothing 
less than an event in theological circles, a portent, a calamity. It was 
most cordially welcomed by the Broad Church, while the "evangelical" 
newspapers heaped abuse impartially upon biography and biographer. 
It attained at once a large sale and is still a widely influential book. 
Of the Primer, published ten years later, hundreds of thousands of copies 
have been sold. More than once revised by its author, it has been 
translated into many languages and is regarded today as the clearest, 
the most judicious, and the most readable guide to English literature 
which has yet appeared. The claim of Brooke's many other books — 
sermons, poems, literary history, and criticism — charming as they are 
in style and affluent in content, was never urgent, and what vogue they 
once possessed is now rapidly passing. To his family and his intimate 
friends, however, Stopford Brooke, the maker of books and the eloquent 
preacher, was to the end of his life not merely an immensely interesting, 
but ever a surprising, personality. No one quite understood him. 
James Martineau once said of him enigmatically that he never grew up. 
Five days before his death, in his eighty-fourth year, Brooke wrote to a 
friend, "I love fullness and satisfaction, even though I am certain of the 
passing of fullness into decay. Perhaps I think I shall never live to see 
decay. " His biographer does not profess to explain him. 

Dr. Jacks refers more than once to Brooke's "multiple personality," 
at once Christian, pagan, mystic, artist, preacher, poet, in language 
which leaves the reader wondering what has been left unsaid that might 
possibly furnish a clue to his perplexity. In particular the chapter 
entitled "The Myth of the Three Springs" presents, as Dr. Jacks 

1 Life and Letters of Stopford Brooke. By Lawrence Pearsall Jacks. Two vol- 
umes. New York: Scribner, 191 7. x+350 pages; vii+368 pages. $4.75.