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Babylonian Elements in the Levitic Ritual* 


IN a footnote of my paper on " The Origin of the Penta- 
teuch," read at the meeting of the American Oriental 
Society in New York, March 1894,' I pointed out that the 
Hexateuchal Priestly Code seemed to be influenced by Baby- 
lonian institutions, and that we could trace the Babylonian 
prototypes, not only for certain Jewish rites, but also for 
several technical terms of the Levitic ceremonial ; I stated 
that the term qorhdn ' gift ' or ' offering ' was a Babylonian 
loan-word,'' and that the euphemism ' clean place ' for ' dump- 
ing ground,' ' was found in the cuneiform incantations.'' My 
explanation of this euphemistic' term was adopted by Profes- 
sor Zimmern" of Breslau in the first part of his Contributions to 
the Study of Babylonian Religion^ which contained an excellent 
interpretation of the so-called Surpu'-series of incantations. 
The second part of this valuable work, the first half of which 
was issued a few months ago, contains a number of cuneiform 
ritual texts for three classes of Babylonian priests : bardti, 
t>e, and zammare, that is, diviners, enchanters, and singers. 

* Note the following abbreviations : ^5A'7'. = Paul Haupt, Akkadische 
und Sumerische Keilschrifttexte (Leipzig, 1881); — A K. = Authorized Version ; 
—A Jir.=Friedrich Delitzsch, Assyr. VVorterbuch (Leipzig, l886fr.) ; — HW. 
=Friedrich Delitzsch, Assyr. Handmorterhuch (Leipzig, 1896); — KAT.'^=: 
Eberhard Schrader, Die Keilinschriften und das Alte Testament^ second edi- 
tion (Giessen, 1883); — KB.=-^. Schrader, Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek, vols, 
i.-v. (Berlin, 1889-96); — j^. = Sir Henry Rawlinson, The Cuneiform Inscrip- 
tions of Western Asia (London, 1861-91); — i?F. = Revised Version ; — SBOT. 
= Paul Haupt, The Sacred Books of the Old Testament, critical edition of the 
Hebrew Text, printed in colors, with Notes (Baltimore, 1893 ff.) and new 
English Translation, with Explanatory Notes and Pictorial Illustrations 
(New York, 1898 fT.) commonly known as The Polychrome Bible ; — ZA.— 
Zeitschrift fUr Assyriologie (Munich, l886fr.); — ZAT.=^Zeitschrift fiir die 
Alttestamentliche IVissenschafi (Giessen, 1881 flf.). 


The specialty of the barilti was haruspicy, prognostication 
by inspection of the entrails of victims slain in sacrifice, above 
all hepatoscopy, divination by inspecting the liver of animals 
offered on the altar of the gods. This Babylonian practice is 
alluded to in the twenty-first chapter of the Book of the 
Prophet Ezekiel, containing the wild ode to the avenging 
sword of the Chaldeans : "A sword, a sword! Sharpened and 
polished! Sharpened to slay ! Polished to flash forth" light- 
ning !" etc." We read there in v. " : " The King of Babylon 
stands at the fork of the road" to practice divination : he 
shakes the arrows, consults the teraphim,'' inspects the 
liver." In the sixth part of the Cuneiform Texts from Baby- 
lonian Tablets etc. in the British Museum (London, 1898) we 
have a photographic reproduction of an ancient Babylonian 
terra-cotta model of the liver of a sheep," divided into some 
fifty squares for the purpose of divination. 

Occasionally the Babylonian bartlti resorted to other meth- 
ods of divination, especially hydromancy, including cylico- 
mancy and lecanomancy,'^ divination by means of cups or 
bowls : oil" was poured in a cup" filled with water or vice 
versa;^^ when the oil sank, reached the bottom of the cup, 
re-ascended, it had a special meaning ; also when it remained 
compact, or divided itself, touched the cup on the right or 
left, in front or behind etc. Cf. in the story of Joseph, Gen. 
44' : "Why have ye stolen the silver cup ?" Lo, it is the one 
out of which my master drinks, and with which he divines.""" 
It is possible that the Babylonian barilti were authorized to 
interpret all omens including auguries, portents, etc." 

While the specialty of the bartlti was haruspicy, above all 
hepatoscopy, the dSife'^^ recited incantations and performed 
rites of atonement, and the zammare^' sang religious hymns. 
The ritual tablets for the singers will be published in the 
second half of the second part of Professor Zimmern's work, 
which will be issued in the course of this year. These ritual 
texts will give us a much more accurate conception of Baby- 
lonian religion than do the cuneiform hymns and incantations 
which have been published during the past twenty-five years. 
A number of these ritual tablets are incidentally referred to 
in Delitzsch's Assyrian dictionary ; but to the majority of 
Assyriologists the texts, except some fragments published in 
the second volume of Rawlinson's corpus inscriftionum, have 


been inaccessible. In his interesting introduction to these 
ritual texts Professor Zimmern adopts my theory that there 
may be a historical connection between the Babylonian cult 
and the Levitic ceremonial as described in the Priestly Code. 

The Babylonian barAti formed a special guild. No one was 
admitted who was not of priestly descent, of legitimate 
birth,'* clean-limbed, without any defects of the eyes," teeth,'" 
or fingers.'" A member of the guild whose stature and form 
was not perfect,"' or who was suffering from a contagious 
skin disease,'"' was unfit for the priestly functions ; he was 
still counted as one of the brethren of the craft, but was not 
allowed to oiticiate as bar4.^° The institution of the barilti 
was an old one ; they are mentioned more than 2,000 years 
B. C. under the reign of King Hammurabi, supposed to be 
identical with Amraphel," King of Shinar, in the fourteenth 
chapter of the Book of Genesis. Just as the Etruscan harus- 
pices were supposed to have received their knowledge from 
Tages, so the art of the Babylonian bar-dti was looked upon as 
a special revelation of Ea," and the origin of their priesthood 
was traced to the ancient mythical king of Sippar, Enmedur- 
anki, who is evidently identical with the seventh primeval 
king of Berossus, Evedoranchus of Pantibibla,'" and also with 
the Biblical Enoch," seventh in descent from Adam, in the 
line of Seth." 

BarA, or more accurately bdrA (for bdri'u) is the participle 
of barA 'to look, inspect,' originally 'to discern.'" Professor 
Zimmern thinks" that this Babylonian term may be concealed 
in the obscure D'OaTr HDh Is. 47" {K'thtb TSlTX), AV. 'the 
astrologers' (margin, 'viewers of the heavens ;' i?K margin, 
' dividers of the heavens '), LXX. 01 dorpoXoyot rmi ovpavov, Vulg. 
augures cali^^ This passage is rather doubtful, but it seems to 
me certain that we have the name of the Babylonian diviners 
in Is. 44" and in Jer. 50" where the Received Text has D'l^ 
'liars' instead of 0**13 'diviners.'" For the Hebrew "I^D 

'inn,'' D'QDpl DHi niriK in is. 44" the Vulg. reads irrita 
faciens signa divinorum et ariolos in furorem vertens /" in the 
same way the Vulgate has for I'^NIJT D'ISn "^N IT] > in Jer. 
50", Gladius ad divinos ejus" qui stulti erunt. A Shaf^el form of 
the root "13 is found in Jud. 7'^ "llDDD HX pI^HJ ;^bji^3 M'T 
inn£J'»') 1122^' nNI Ol'^nrr, "when Gideon heard the account 


of the dream (and its interpretation) he bowed in adoration," 
where 1"IDJJ'''^ P\iV\ probably represents a later gloss. 

Before the Babylonian ia7-ii rendered a decision concerning 
the advisability of an act to be undertaken by the enquirer, 
he seated himself on the ^ussi da'dnilti, the seat of judgment." 
His principal function is sakdnu sa dddni, to determine the 
proper time for an undertaking, and Zimmern" thinks it not 
impossible that the Biblical name for the Tabernacle of the 
Congregation (so AV}j, or Tent of Meeting (so RV), or Tent 
of Revelation," Heb. *1J71JD "^ilK, may originally have denoted 
the tent where the proper time for an undertaking was deter- 
mined ; both nyiJ3 and Assyr. dddnu go back to the same 
root." The technical term for a favorable answer is annu, 
which corresponds to Heb. nj^ ' to answer, to respond, to 
give a favorable reply.'" Zimmern's view that this annu is 
connected with the Assyrian demonstrative pronoun ann-A 
'this' (_cf. Heb. n^H) seems to me untenable. 

The indication of the divine will from which an oracle is 
derived is termed iertu," and I showed several years ago" that 
this word was identical with Ethiopic teniMrt ' instruction ' as 
well as with Heb. miD, while Aram. KJinN and Ethiopic 
6rtt corresponded to the Assyrian byform of teriu, viz. -Artu. 

Both Artii and tertu go back to the same stem "I^{K = irUD-'" 
Professor Zimmern adopts my view." He also raises the 
question whether the Heb. DmK in D'Ori^ D*"1")N may not be 
connected with this Assyr. ■Artu=-tertu. I believe, however, 
with Wellhausen and Schwally," that DHIX must be com- 
bined with ")")J< ' to curse,' while D*Qf1 means ' blameless- 

ness," acquittal ' : D'"nN represents the unfavorable, condem- 
natory answer, Assyr. ullu, and D'Qfl the favorable, acquitting 

answer, Assyr. annu.''^ In the Greek Bible we read in i Sam. 
14*', after Jonathan's violation of Saul's taboo •.''^ " Saul said: 
O Yahweh, God of Israel, why hast Thou not responded to Thy 
servant this day ? If the guilt be in me or in my son, Jona- 
than, O Yahweh, God of Israel, give Urim ; but if thus Thou 
say : It is in my people Israel, give Thummim."°° Here 
Thummim corresponds to Assyr. annu, the favorable answer of 
the deity, and Urim to the unfavorable answer, Assyr. ullu," 
which may be connected with the Heb. n'7K, 'curse': Assyr. 
«//«/« means 'bound,'" just as Assyr. ardru means not only 


'to curse ' but also 'to bind';" or as Heb. *15D denotes both 
' association ' and ' enchantment.' 

According to the Priestly Code (Exod. 28'° Lev. 8') the 
Urim and Thummim were kept in the tDflJJ'D [CTT,"" 'the 
breastplate of judgment,' that is, the sacred pouch or bag"' 
worn on the breast of the high-priest. The ' sacred pouch of 
the mystery of heaven and earth ' ( Assyr. takdlta"'' sa piristi " 
same u erfiti'") plays an important part in the cuneiform ritual 
texts ; it is repeatedly mentioned in connection with ' the tab- 
let of the great gods.' " 

Following Delitzsch"^ and Jensen, Professor Zimmern 
believes that the Hebrew term riHD 'covenant' is identical 
with the Babylonian birtlu, which is derived from the same 
stem as bani 'diviner'; JinD seems to be a Babylonian loan- 
word, just as rrnn," and the original meaning of ri*"lD may 
have been ' oracle.' When Yahweh made a covenant with 
Abraham, promising to his descendants the whole land of 
Palestine from the Stream of Mugr" to the Euphrates, he told 
him to take a heifer," a she-goat, and a ram, each of them 
three years old, also a turtle dove and a young pigeon. These 
were to be divided in two, except the birds, ^ and the half of 
each placed against the other.'" A similar ceremony is men- 
tioned in the so-called Cuthean Legend of Creation :" before 
setting out on his campaign the king enquires of the gods ; 
fourteen male lambs are placed in two rows opposite each 
other," evidently for the purpose of inspecting the intestines 
of the victims, in order to obtain oracles" concerning the 

In Lev. 24." we read that twelve cakes are to be baked of 
fine flour and set before Yahweh, in two piles, upon the table 
of pure gold." In the Old Testament it is nowhere stated" 
that this ' showbread ' was unleavened," but we know that 
according to the later custom these cakes were made without 
leaven." In the Babylonian ritual one,'' or three, or six 
dozens" of showbreads were laid before the deity, and it is 
expressly stated that these cakes are to be unleavened, Assyr. 
mutqu/° in fact, mutqu is given in the cuneiform vocabularies" 
as the equivalent of akal pdni 'showbread ' Heb. D'.3S DH'^-*'' 

According to Deut. 18' the offerer had to give " the sacri- 
ficer the shoulder,"' the jowls, and the rennet" stomach, /. e. 


the fourth or digestive stomach of a ruminant, the abomasum, 
not the omasum" or third division of the stomach. The ren- 
net stomach was a favorite dish at Athens." Stomach and 
head are still the butcher's fee in Arabia." The shoulder" 
probably refers to the right shoulder*' (Assyr. imittu). This 
Deuteronomic regulation is at variance with the Priestly 
Code"" which prescribes the brisket and the right thigh" as 
the priest's due at a sacrificial meal. 

According to the famous stone tablet" of the Babylonian 
King Nabu-pal-iddin (the contemporary of King Assur-nagir- 
pal of Assyria, B.C. 884-860) the priests of the temple of the 
Sun-god at Sippar were entitled to the loins," the hide," the 
rump,"" the tendons," half' of the abdominal viscera"* as well 
as of the thoracic viscera," two of the legs,"" and a pot of 
broth.'" In the cuneiform ritual texts published by Professor 
Zimmern the imittu or 'right hand' (HJ^D*) is often men- 
tioned.'"'^ This can hardly mean the right thigh, as Zimmern 
translates, but must denote the right shoulder.'" In connec- 
tion with the imittu we often find xin(d, sume, occasionally with 
the addition of silqu}"^ These terms have not been explained 
by Professor Zimmern, nor are they given in Delitzsch's dic- 
tionary ; but it seems to me that xin^d (dual)'"' corresponds to 
Heb. O'V"?!! ' loins,' in Biblical Aramaic f{lf~in , and in Syriac 

'S"**! while s«»?^ and silqu^"'' mean 'roasted meat' and 'boiled 
meat ' respectively, in Arabic i^y^l** **■ and {J^JLmjis |vi (Heb. 
,^L,^,„6 -,jj>2 and '7tJ>5D "it^D). Assyr mmCr'' appears in 


Syriac as l-^a^ ' burnt-offering ' or ' sweet smoke.' In Ethiopia 
we have Saw'a^'" 'to sacrifice,' and the word rt^ ' sheep,' '°° and 
even '^ 'present,'"" may go back to the same root. Si/qu 
seems to be connected with the stem p'^tJ' which means not 
only 'to cut up,"" but also 'to boil,' "" just as PlDtD means (in 
Hebrew) ' to slaughter,' and (in Arabic) 'to cook.' 

It is stated repeatedly in the cuneiform ritual texts that the 
sacrificial animal must be without blemish (Assyr. salmu, 
Arab. *jl-*«)."^ In another passage we are told that the offer- 
ing of a great man (Assyr. rubtl) is different from the offering 
of a humble man [muSkinuY^* just as we read in the Book of 
Leviticus : " If the means of the offerer do not suffice for a 


lamb, he may bring two turtle doves or two young pigeons ; 
and if this be too much for him, one tenth ephah of flour." "^ 

Before the appearance of the second half of Professor Zim- 
mern's book, which will contain the conclusion of the ritual 
texts for the Babylonian enchanters, I must refrain from dis- 
cussing the functions of the dsipe. As stated above, their 
specialty was incantation and expiation. The latter is called 
kuppuru in Assyrian, which is, of course, identical with the 
technical term for 'atonement' in the Priestly Code, "IQS- 

The original meaning of this stem seems to be ' to wipe off,' 
not ' to cover,' as Albrecht Ritschl supposed in his famous 
dogmatic work on The Christian Doctrine of Justification and 
Atonement}^'' Ritschl's knowledge of Semitic was, according 
to Lagarde's Mittheilungen, somewhat inadequate. The mere 
fact that the government appointed Ritschl official Examiner 
in Hebrew proves that he did not know much about it.'" 

In one of the ritual tablets for the enchanters or atoners it 
is stated that a lamb is to be sacrificed at the gate of the 
palace, and the blood of this lamb is to be put on the lintels, 
on the figures flanking the entrances, and on the doorposts at 
the right and left."" 

It is true a good many of the so-called religious rites prac- 
ticed by the priests remind us of the familiar story of the old 
lady who followed a bishop around and was confirmed a 
number of times because she had found it good for rheuma- 
tism. "° Nevertheless I believe that the elaborate priestly 
ritual as we find it in the Priestly Code is influenced by Baby- 
lonian institutions. The comparative study of the ante- 
islamic religion of the Arabs undoubtedly throws much light 
on certain forms of ancient Israelitish worship ; but if we 
want to trace the origin of the later Jewish ceremonial of the 
Priestly Code, we must look for it in the cuneiform ritual 
texts of the Assyro-Babylonians.'^" 



' '&Q^ Journal of the American Oriental Society^ vol. xvi. p. ciii. 

"^ I stated that more than thirteen years ago in Helraica, vol. iii. p. lOg, 
note 5 ; contrast Dillmann-Ryssel's commentary on Exodus and Leviticus 
(Leipzig, 1897), p. 428. Note Mark 7" : Kopjiav b can Supov. The word gor- 
bdn is not derived from the stem qardbu ' to approach,' but from kardbu — 
*^-|2 'to bless' (I/ir. 351'); e/. ny)'2 2Kgs. $''■ The p in p-|p 
is due to the influence of the «-vowel in kurbdnu ; cf. below, note ^. For 
the transposition in kardbu = bardku compare Ethiopic mehra := rahima 
(ZDMG. xxxiv. 759). 

3 Lev. 4'2 6"; contrast KQtD DIplD Lev. i4«-^5 

^ 4 R« 8"', 14, No. 2, rev. 2. 

^ For euphemisms in Semitic cf. the Johns Hopkins Contributions to 
Assyriology and Comparative Semitic Grammar, edited by Friedrich Delitzsch 
and Paul Haupt (Beitrdge zur Assyriologie), vol. iii. p. 577, 11. 26 ff. and the 
introduction to Dr. Karl J. Grimm's thesis on Euphemistic Liturgical Ap- 
pendixes in the Old Testament (Baltimore, 1900). 

" Cf. op. cit., p. 33, n. 4 ; p. 59, 1. 165 ; Dillmann-Ryssel, Exod. und Lev., 
p. 464. Delitzsch in his Assyr. Handworterbuch (HW.) refers for asru ellu 
'clean place' to his great Assyr. Wbrterbuch (AW.); unfortunately the 
fourth part of this thesaurus, which will contain the article ellu, has as yet 
not been issued. 

' Beitrdge zur Kenntniss der babylonischen Religion (Leipzig, l8g5), being 
vol. xii. of the Assyriologische Bibliothek, edited by Friedrich Delitzsch and 
Paul Haupt. Cf. L. W. King's review in The American Journal of Semitic 
Langtiages, vol. xiii. pp. 142 ff. 

* That is, ' burning' (fl"ljj'), referring to certain symbolic rites in connec- 
tion with the incantations. Another series of incantations is called maqlA 

{cf jer. 29^^ '7M ^12 D'7p IJJ'N 3n?<D1 I.TplVD m.T "jD'JJ" 

{J>Ji{2); see Knut L. Tallquist, Die assyrische Beschworungsserie MaqlA 
{Acta Societatis Scientiarum Fennicce, Tom. xx. No. 6 ; 1894) p. 23. 

* Instead of n")2 t^'XVX^ TVD'? °^ ^^^ Received Text we must read, 
with Cornill, pl^ ^T\T\ \V^ '■> ^'^ Peshita renders pl^fll ; '^e Vul- 
gate, ut splendeat, limatus est; Cornill's emendation has been adopted by 
Orelli, Bertholet, and Toy. 

1° See Professor Toy's new English translation of Ezekiel in SBOT. 
(New York, 1899), pp. 34 and 137, and his critical notes on the Hebrew 
text (Baltimore, 1899), p. 73, 11. 39 if. 

" The following D'D"nn ''112! SI'K'IID ' at the head of the two roads ' 
in the Received Text is a gloss on the preceding 'I'nn DJ< (Arab, xi'j^ 
mdfriqe; in Rabbinical Hebrew the part of the lung from which the lobes 
of the lung (HNn *J1{<) branch oflF is called QIK 'mother'). Cf. the 
Latin epithet of Hecate : Trivia, Greek rpmiiTi^. 


'^ For D'2"ljn , probably ' ancestral image,' see H. P. Smith on i Sam. 
19'^. In the glossary appended to Kautzsch's Textbibel (Freiburg i. B. 
i8gg) Teraphim is supposed to denote in that passage an image of Yahweh. 
The plural seems to be amplificative ; cf. the references in Toy's critical 
notes on Ezekiel, p. 87, 1. 4. 

'^ D'lfna "ipi^ DDp DDp*? -|-nrr dk bv "^na -|'70 loy 'D 

"]33!3 nK"1 D'fi'inD "^J^C- — Hugo Grotius remarks in his Annota- 
tiones in Vetus Testamentum, on Ezek. 21" (Heb. ^*) : Nee dubitandum futo 
quin artes ilia a Chaldceis ad Lydos, a Lydis ad Hetruscos venerint, Diod. 
Sic. ii, 29 says of the Chaldeans : — avrixoi'Tai S' iv\ Tzokv kuI /lavTiKtjg, jroiov- 
fievoi TrpopprjGecg nspl Tcn> p.£XK6vTijVy koI tg)v jiev na^apixolQ^ ro)v 61 ■&v(jiai(;y to)V 6* 
aMaig rmlv cTruSalc: airoTpoTrag kokoiv Kal Tc7i£i6Beig aya^Civ neipavrai vopi^etv. 
kuiretpiav 6' exovot Kal TTjg Sia rav oluvoiv [lavTiKiJQ^ kw-Kvioiv re Kot Tepdruv s^Jjyi/' 
Geig aTTotpaivovrac. ovk d(7(506>c 6^ noiOvvTai Kal ra Trepl 7?jv hpocKOTziav aKpo)g eirt- 
Tvyxdvsiv vo/ii^ovreg. Diodorus speaks only of lepooKoiiia in general, and 
does not refer especially to i/TraTccKOTria, just as the Vulgate has ex/a con- 
suiuii foi the Hebrew 1332 HN") > while the LXX. renders ^irarocKom/- 

'* Not a human liver, as stated in Dr. Budge's prefatory note prefixed to 
the volume ; cf. Dr. A. Boissier's interesting X'ote sur un monument babylo- 
nien se rafportani h, V Extispicine (Geneva, 1899), p. 3. 

'* v&po^avrua, Kv'KiKop.avTeia, XeKavo^iavreia (or ?ieKavoaKOiria). Franz Delitzsch 
in his commentary on Genesis, fourth edition, p. 479, writes 'AcvKaDOfiapreia, 
and this mistake is reproduced in his Neuer Commentar iiber die Genesis 
(Leipzig, 1887), p. 483, as well as in Strack's commentary (Mttnchen, 1894), 
p. 136. ¥or hydromaniia^ cf. Pliny xxxvii, 192: Anancitide in hydromantia 
dicunt evocari imagines deorum, synochitide teneri umbras inferorum evocatas, 
etc. Strabo, § 762 says : ivapd roig Ilipaai( ol fiayoi Kal veKpojiavTei^ Kal en ol 
?.ey6/ievoi ?^Kai'o/idvTei( Kal vipopdvTei(, vapa 6e toIq 'AaavpioiQ ol XaMalot, ■jrapd 
6e Toig 'Pupaioig ol TvppijviKol oIo>vock6-koi. Toiovrog Si riq rjv Kal 6 MuaijQ Kal ol Sia- 
it^dpevot CKeivov, Tag piv dpxdq /la/Sdircf ov (j>avlaQ kKTpaitdpevot 6' eirl to xelpov. 

" Assyr. samnu. 

" Assyr. Msu, Aram. Q3 , Heb. D'J3. 


'* Assyr. me ana Samni innadii. 

"f]D3n I^'DJl na DnnjJ no"?; so we must supply, with 
Kautzsch's Textbibel (Freiburg i. B., 1899) following LXX., im n kKliTpaTs 
pov TO k6vSv to dpyvpovv. The words might be omitted if they were spoken 
after the cup had been found in Benjamin's bag ; but in their present con- 
nection they are indispensable ; contrast Ball ad loc. 

■"> Heb. <i3 £j^nj» trm Kim 'si 'jik nnc'' -iti'K nr nT^h . 

^' The Assyrian name for astrologer is kaM, and the interpreter of dreams 
is called sd'ilu. According to Professor Jastrow at the Oriental Congress 
held at Rome in Oct., 1899, '\T\''phiWr\ '" " ^^'^- ^"^ is a denominative 
verb derived from this noun sd'ilu; nin'*? liTn'^KCn means, accord- 


ing to Professor Jastrow, ' I have dedicated him as a priest to Yahweh,' 
See Bulletins of the Congress, No. g, p. 15, and the present number of this 
Journal, p. iisq. 

'^ The stem of dsipu is tlJJ'T (so Praetorius in Literaturblatt fur orien- 
talise he Philologie, 1884, p. i()l),ef. siptu {consti. sif at) 'incantation'; initial 
1 appears in Assj'rian as X i see my Sumerisehe Familiengesetze (Leipzig, 
1879), p. 48, n. 3 ; Delitzsch, Assyr. Grammar, §41 ; Assyr. Handworterbuch, 
p. 247. Heb. D'D^X (I^^"- i'^" 2') ^"'^ Aramaic pfi^X (Syr. aUdfd 
or dsSfd) are Babylonian loan-words. 

23 Heb. □nntr'p, fem. niinirp- 

"•' Assyr. sa zerusu ellu, not 'noble' as Zimmern (op. eit., p. 87, n. 6 ; p. 
iig, 1. 30) translates. Cf. Lev. 21"'' and Canon Driver's new English 
translation of Leviticus in SBOT., p. gi. 

-■'Assyr. zaqtn end, literally, ' starrdugig,' that is, ^ staardugig, affected 
with cataract ;' ef. English ' to stare, star-blind,' ete. (Heb. VJ'^ lOp 
I Kgs. I4'' ; nop VJV1 I Sam. 4^^ ; see also Professor Macdonald's note 
in vol. xiv. of this Journal, i8g5, p. 57). The Vulgate renders the Heb. 
")J>T^2 / /Dn ' Lev. 21'° : albuginem habens in oculo ; the Peshita has 

x^jinl '»\i |')c5Q»i» ; ef.Toh. 2'". LXX. renders in Lev. 21-" nrlXkoq tov( 
6<t>&aXuov(;, which means, according to Hesychrius, /laSapof Kal ^£2,eirtafihos 
roiif hip-daliiov^. Albugo denotes not only 'white spot' but also 'white 
scales ;' Pliny speaks of albugines eapitis. In Arabic, ' cataract ' is called 

,,\.j>ju\ ^i JUoL*-J ' whiteness in the eye.' For 7y5^ '"Z- Wetzstein's 
remark in Delitzsch's commentary on Isaiah, 4"" ed., p. 336, n. 2. The 
rendering ' blear-eyed ' (see vol. xvii of this Journal, p. 160 below) is very 
uncertain. Zimmern translates zaqtu end: ' cross-eyed,' but this is un- 
doubtedly wrong. 

^^ Assyr. xep4sinnd; ef. Zimmern, op. eit., p. g7, n. f ; p. itg, 1. 3T. 

2' Assyr. sa ubdnsu nagpai; Zimmern, op. eit., p. 97, 1. 5 ; p. 119, 1. 31. 

*8 Assyr. ia ina qAmti u ina mtndtisu Id suklulu (Zimmern, op. eit., p. iig, 
1. 28). We must, of course, read, with Jensen, qAmiu (Heb. nOlp ' Sam. 

lb', Arab. JLxLji qdme or JL/0«_i' qaume, Syr. ji' Vin n) instead of gattu 
(Delitzsch, Handworterbueh, p. 207'); qAmtu corresponds to HOlp, while 
mtndti is the equivalent of Heb. nN"10 • Mindti is the plural of Heb. p^ 

' species ' {cf. ("IJIDj"!); it l^-is no connection with mtnu {=minyu) ' num- 
ber,' Aram. pJO > <:f. Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. xiii. p. 

ccxliii. n. 14 ; Johns Hopkins University Circulars, Feb. 1889, vol. viii. No. 
6g, p. if'; Beitr. zur Assyr. i, 124 ; contrast Delitzsch, Prolegomena (Leipzig, 
1886), p. 143 ; Handzvorterbuch, p. 417''. 

2' Not 'leprosy,' as Zimmern translates. It might be well to state in this 
connection that ' leprosy ' in the Bible is a generic name for a variety of 


skin diseases including psoriasis, scabies, and lues venerea, also leucoderma 
or albinism (Lev. 13'^), etc. There is no evidence that the various features 
of cutaneous affections described in the thirteenth chapter of Leviticus 
refer to true leprosy {Lepra Arabum or Elephantiasis Gracoruni); cf. Mr. 
Clifton H. Levy's abstract of my lecture on " Medical and Hygienic Fea- 
tures of the Bible," in The Independent, New York, July 13, 1899, p. 1907"; 
and the synopsis of my paper on "The Sanitary Basis of the Mosaic 
Ritual " in the Bulletins of the Twelfth Oriental Congress (Rome, 1899), ^O- 
I3> P- 7 i 2.1so critical notes on Numbers 6'^ in SBOT. 

'" Cf. Zimmern, op. cit., p. 119 below, note «' and Lev. 11'''' , 6'**' ; Num. 

" See C\vey'ae-'^\'!ick' ^ Encyclopedia Biblica, s. v. "Amraphel." 

^'^ Cf. Jastrow, Religion of Babylonia and Assyria (Boston, 1898), p. 62. 

33 Ew(?apa;fOf M Jlapn/Ji'iS/lwii ; cf. Delitzsch, Wo lag das Baradies (Leipzig, 
1881), p. 149. Sumerian En-me-dur-an-ki was pronounced Evveduranki. 
For the assimilation of the n to the following m, see Haupt, Die akkad. 
Sprache (Berlin, 1883), p. 8 ; and for the change of m and v, ibid., p. 6 ; cf. 
Zeitschrift fiir Assyriologie, vol. ii (1887), pp. 263, 265 fF. and Zimmern, op. 
cit., p. 116, note a; p. 119, 1. 23 ; see also Bloomfield's paper on the corre- 
lation of wand m in Vedic and later Sanskrit in X\ve Journal of the American 
Oriental Society, vol. xiii. p. xcvii. 

^ Gen. 5'^". Cf. Haupt, Der keilinschriftliche Sintfluthbericht (Leip- 
zig, 1881), p. 28, n. 28 ; Alfred Jeremias, Izdubar-Nimrod (Leipzig, 1891), 

P- 37- _ , 

35 Cf. Jude 14 : sfido/ioi cnrb 'Adaft 'Evi^Xt zaueet4 sdbt emna Ad&m, Enoch 
60^; ibid. 933, dna sAbt taualadkA baqaddmtt sanbat. Cf. R. H. Charles's 
articles on the Ethiopic Book of Enoch and the Book of the Secrets of 
Enoch, in Hastings's Dictionary of the Bible, and G. Beer's new translation 
of the book in Kautzsch's Apokryphen und Bseudepigraphen des Alten 
Testaments (Freiburg i. B., 1899). 

^^ Cf. Heb. Vi^ 'between' and pfj'^ 1 17^13)1 'discrimination, dis- 
cernment, insight.' Assyr. ina berisunu means ' between them, among 
them, in the midst of them ;' see B eitr age zur Assyriologie, vol. i. p. 160, n. 

**. The Assyrian stem {^"12 or '"l^ ' to discern,' must be connected with 
the Hebrew stem "1")2 > ^- S- ^zek. zo^s Q'T^Qpf 03Q TinDI 


□♦^JJ^iani , Targ. JJ'nSN") ' I ■win separate, sever,' but LXX. tUy^u,, 
Vulg. eligam, Pesh. l-=i^lo {cf. the passive participle D*")")'!^ ' selected,' 
I Chr. 7'"' 9«2 j641. fem. JI^T^^ ' select, choice,' Neh. 5I8). It is there- 
fore not necessary to read in i Sam. 17', with Weir-Driver; Kittel- 
Kautzsch, Budde, Lohr, H. P. Smith (cf. Zimmern, op. cit., p. 90, n. 6), 
')")n3 (so Targ.) instead of the received ))"^3 (so Thenius, Wellhausen, 

Siegfried-Stade, GrStz), following LXX. hU^aa'de, Vulg. eligite, Pesh. 
a-CV, J and the parallel passages i Kgs. 18'^ Josh. 24'* 2 Sam. 24'^, For 
the infinitive Qll^'? in Eccl. 3'* (Ges.-Kautzsch, §67, p) LXX. has 


oTi SiaKptvel avTovQ (6 &s6q), Vulgate ut probaret eos {Deus), Pesh. ^3— l] Ij— S? 
jai^ (cf. Euringer ad loc). In Ethiopic "|"13 means ' to penetrate.' 

It is not impossible that "11^3 '^ ^ secondary development of the root 
"ID ' j"*t ^^ firi"!' i" Deut. 32" and nSHID '" Gen. i^ must be con- 
nected with Arabic Oj, \^'rS\^ raffa, rafrafa (= SAa»LAi». Ja_v*j) 'to 
expand and flap the wings;' see my remarks in Hebraica, i. 178, n. 4 ; Beitr. z. 
Assyr. i. 166; iii. 580, 1. 35. In the same way JH^ ('■/• Arabic .j.^ = 
^X^t) may be a secondary development of 7^ 5 P3- '-'/■ ^'^° Arab. »»j 
'to test, to examine' (Sy^X^-i \b\ LiiVj ■XS) and the infinitive "11 J7 

'to test, prove' in Eccl. 9^, Targ. tJ'I^D/i Vulg. tit curiose intelligerem ; 
it is by no means necessary to read (with LXX. mt Kapdia fiov ovforav ISov 
roOToand Pesh. jjoi "\j it* ]ytt >tn\o) n{<"l '3'7l (<cA Euringer (J<2' &<:.). 
Another secondary stem derived from the same root ~|2 is the I'iel "1X3 
' to make plain,' in Deut. i^ (flNm rTDDn HK 1X3 HCTO '^^NIH 
A y. 'began to declare this law,' t. (. 'to make clear, expound'); 27' 

(3DM "IX? nxrn niinn nm '?3 nx D'jnxrr '7^ finnoi); 
Hab. 2' 03 j<-i<ip pT i)?^':) mm'7n *?]; "ixdi prn aho, '^"t*'. 

the vision plainly on tablets so that it may be read fluently'). Barth's com- 
bination of Heb. lX3 with Arab. ^kX. is, of course, impossible. /— A-* 
means originally, like Heb. ")'31?ri> ' ^° transfer,' then 'to translate, 
interpret, explain ' {c/. German ilbertragen, ubersetzeti). The use of the 

preposition \ f in connection with i. f> makes this perfectly plain 

(^^1 l_(y£.| 1(31 TSsmJu ^ l+A Z^ \k&- '-Jvfcl l<il Sj-A^ *iA^ /4^ 
^jo). The synonym lOj-cl ' to make plain ' (xjUl l<3l ''(c**-'! i— Jv^l 
X;SS3j|.) may be a transposition of -aXi , influenced by \_j^l ' to speak 
plain Arabic' (jui jj»so »}% i^"'^^ S»«il5'i_5j^l); cf. the German 

phrase mit Jeinand Deutsch reden or ' to talk plain English ' etc. 
3' Op. cit., p. 85, n. 8. 

38 For the Heb. QODIDD D^flin D'O^ nDil Tl^^^'VI *e Peshita 
reads jjascLa^o )..Vi*s , ■! » >'■? )->r^ ^^aJo^i-sJ ' Let the Chaldeans 
who gaze at the heaven and the stars save thee,' Targ. J^DO lim 
X'33133 |rn X^OC* n'7r0'7 '^ho observe (t-)D) the heavenly 


zodiac and gaze at the stars.' Hitzig, in his commentary on Isaiah (Heidel- 
berg, 1833), suggested D'OtS* ^IDH ^^^^ Himmelskundigen, who have a 
knowledge of the heavens (in Kautzsch's Texthibel : die des Himmels kundig 
sind) from "l^H = Arab. ^^ iff. Arab. ilLA.AJLi /-^^ ' astronomer '). 
In his commentary on Daniel (Leipzig, 1850), p. 29 below, Hitzig proposed 
to read n^H ! perf. Hif. of ")")2 , cf. O")^'^ Eccl. 3'* and above, note 

.... T T ; 

36; see also Hitzig's Psaimen, vol. ii. (Leipzig, 1865), p. 41$ (ad Ps. 139^). 
The omission of the relative pronoun before I'l^H would, however, be 
rather harsh, and it would be better to read 1"13n ^^ perfect Qal oi ")")3 °^ 

T ~ 

n"l3> with the prefixed article as relative pronoun as in Josh. 10'* (E*) 
"in« 'lD'?nn nQn'?On '^JN; </• Ges.-Kautzsch, §138, p; Konlg, 

|T V 

Syntax, § 52 ; Reckendorf, Die syntaktischen Verhdltnisse des Arabischen (Ley- 
den, 1898), § 192) ; Wright-de Goeje^ vol. i. p. 269, D (xjt^JI ji>£ -S'Lti, 
' grateful for what he has,' lit. ' for the with him,' instead of (X^ S\ju 
Sjuo ^jJI). This is preferable to transposing "l^KO and reading 

: 'py 1N2' D'E'irr'7 Dnj;io (^/. Jer. 4°': -^^'^^o i(^'iiT\ rby^ 

n'^23 1 /Jn N7)- ■^'-"^ ^^ "^^ '-'^ ^^ Hebrew article as a relative see 

; T 
also D. B. Macdonald's note in The American Journal of Semitic Languages, 
vol. xiii. p. 213. 

It is, of course, impossible to take (with Gesenius, Lehrgebdude, § 126') 
!|'l2n ^s a construct state in A ; nor is there a plural in H in Assyrian 

(against my Sumer. Familiengesetze, p. 23, n. 5 and Delitzsch's Assyr. 
Grammar, § 67, 5) ; Asiyr. j>ar(u reltdtu must be explained as a compound 

like rn'7yQn TC for ThVt^Xy 'TtJ* (Hebraica, ii. 98, n. 2 ; xi. 19. 27) 
or jT13J< f1'3 (Ges.-Kautzsch, § 124, n). The pointing 'I'^^n is not so 

T - 

radical an emendation as the substitution of '"^fj {cf. Aram, p'^f 1 Dan. 
jsi ^4 57.11 and the Heb. verb Ifj) 'to cut up, divide,' i Kgs. 3'* *"; 

Ps. 136'') or 'j^ri (cf ninn pn prov. i& -, n^'? pm prov. 

21' 24'*, parallel to "IJJ'flJ ^If j i Vulg. inspector cordis = servator animce, 
Targ. 'pX^, Pesh. 1^), although Vy\'p\ is used in modern Hebrew for 
' astronomer.' D^OtJ* nDH evidently refers to the ' astronomers ' Arabic 
^iLJ._AjLj _A_A_ia. or 1*^.^1^ viL-LftJl jjjt? OjLx: and D^frin 

□♦33135 to the ' astrologers ' (Arab. *^Lo , Syr. j-aaoa Jjlc). For 
the Babylonian calculations of the new moon, etc., cf. Die babylonische 


Mondrechnung by F. X. Kugler, S. J. (Freiberg i. B., 1900). A combination 
of 'n^n with Arab. ^jtSC 'to cut into large pieces' L-*-ia_s x » U '-i^ 
IjLo } is impossible (against Gesemus, Jesaia, vol. ii. p. 554; Delitzsch, 
Jesaia^, p. 475); nor can '"1^(7 or '"^^H ^^ combined with Arab. . * ~> 
'to know.' It will therefore be best to read Q^OtJ* 113/1 'who observe 

T - 

the heaven.' 

^' For the frequent confusion of '^ and "1 see notes on the English trans- 
lation of Joshua in SBOT. (New York, i8gg), p. 63, 1. 27. In the same way 
we should, perhaps, read P")3 instead of the Targumic T'l^ , 7*T2 • 
The corruption may have been intentional, to assimilate the word to 
nNl3 'liar.' 

T T - 

" The Targ. renders pi*3 mDlf^ '7D5D , P^^l^- ''"1? ^^'=''^1 Vj^aifi ^ 
i. e., 'enchanters, necromancers'; cf. Roediger's Chrestom. SyrJ s. z>. 
l^oa"! ; Lagarde, IVominalHldung, p. iil, 1. 17 {Register und Nachtrdge, p. 
65); Schwally in Stade's ZA T. xi. 179. The cuneiform prototype of the 
Babylonian word (jaKxav/jac has as yet not been discovered, but liajl (cf. 
Targ. inOr , KrrniDr ; Nnm^l , Nm»31 ' necromancy ;' see Dal- 
man's WSrterbuch) is evidently derived from Assyr. niS Hi zakdru ' to pro- 
nounce the name of a god. to swear ;' cf. Zimmern, op. cit.., p. 55 {Surpu, iii. 

14). Delitzsch's Assyrian dictionary gives this verb under ")pC) ; isqur, 

however, is nothing but phonetic spelling for izkur: the s is due to partial 
assimilation of the z to the following /f, and the q instead of k to the follow- 
ing «-vowel ; cf. my ASKT. 50, 19. 22. 25. 28, see also Beitr. z. Assyr.., i. 
76, n. 2 and above, note 2. For nisu (=Heb. QJ, Syr. \jn.t^ and ].*jJ) 

see my remarks in the critical notes on Ezekiel, p. 82, 1. 24, and for the 
partial assimilation ibid., p. 67, 1. 13 ; Isaiah, p. 152, 1. 39. Cf. below, notes 
60 and 120. Delitzsch's Assyrian dictionary gives nlsuii. e. the form qiil oi 

KtJ'J) on p. 482\ 
" The Peshita reads ^j^iJo (Targ. XPTDDp "7^) ai-^OjJsVi. \^f^. 

In the LXX. we must insert, with Theodotion, at the beginning of 
V. ^" : fiaxtipriv ettI to, /xavTsla (or Tovg /lavrcic) ahrij^, aal e^apSi/acTm (or 
i^apd-ijaovTai). This clause was omitted in LXX. owing to the simi- 
larity of Tov( /idvTsig and rov( fiaxT^i- It was probably added in the 
margin and crept in afterwards, in its corrupt form fia^aipav M tov( 
fiax>lTd( a'vTov, into the text at the beginning of v. *■". This doublet 
in v.^' is not "an accidental repetition from the similar words of 
V. '*" (so Streane, The Double Text of Jeremiah, Cambridge, 1896, p. 
292) but the misplaced corrupt remnant of the original clause at the 
beginning of v. ^*. For Q*^^ (read Q'")^) = jiavTua cf. Is. 16' where 


LXX. has ovx ourwf j /lavrda aov for the Heb. V^2 f^'K*? • ^l^il^ Pesh. 
reads ^oioieowf <AOin\S o p, -^ }jLaai |cai )]. Aquila has in Jer. 50^^, 
TTpof roi? £/c/l£Kroi!c, which is an additional confirmation of the reading D'lD 
with "^ . 

'•' Earth's combination of this 'l^JJ' with "1^3 (Targ. has nHCfl H*!, 
Pesh. BIJ.A.S0 for the Hebrew II^C HKV '^ impossible ; sabrd ' vision- 
ary, dreamer,' and paMru 'to interpret' (Haupt, ASKT. p. 205, No. 27 ; 
Nimr. Ep. 50, 210; 6, 44; Z^. iv. 26, 1. 38) occur in Assyrian side by 
side ; cf. HW. bsg"", 549'', 183*. In 1. 196 of the cuneiform account of the 
Deluge (Haupt, Nimrod Ep., p. 142) we read Atra-xasts sundia usabrlstl-ma 
piristi ildni ismt ' I caused Atra-xasis to see dreams, so he heard the decis- 
ion of the gods;' see Haupt in Schrader's KA T.'^ 78, 28; Guyard, Notes de 
lexicographic assyrienne (Paris, 1883), p. 77 ; Zimmern in Gunkel's Schop- 
fung und Chaos (Gottingen, 1895), p. 428. Bire abre-ma means ' I saw 

visions,' (Aram. ptH nnnnril, Heb. nUVm HNINI orHK-IN"! 
prnD. or *'7N nj<"lJ prn) and tahrtt mMi corresponds to '1 KlfH 
{<»'7»'7 Dan. 2" or K^'?*'? DJ^ ♦1711 Dan. 7' W- vv. '• 'S); Heb. U^U 
n'?*'? |Vrn J°'^- 33'^- For ««««, pi. SundU ' dream,' cf. Arab. (•L-JL-jO 
'dream;' see also critical notes on Daniel, p. 15, 1. 52. In Assyrian, suttu 
'dream' is diiTerentiated from siitu (HJ^) 'sleep;' see JIW. 246''. For 

T " 

the name Atra-xasts or Xasts-atra = Si(yovi}pos, see my remarks in the 
Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. xvi. p. cxi. and the Bulletins 
of the Twelfth International Oriental Congress (Rome, 1899), No. 18, p. 11. 
The relation of "1^,'£) Eccl. 8' and n"in5 (Gen. 40«- »• "^^ '» 41") to Assyr. 

pasdru is discussed in Beitr. z. Assyr. vol. i. p. 181, n. 2 ; see also below, 
note 116, as well as critical notes on Ezekiel, p. 86, 1. 14 ; and for HU'IDD 
colossus in Ezek. 28" <:/. X\XW1^ Lev. f^ and nHtJ'ID Num. iS*. 

Assyr. sabrA can hardly be explained as a combination of the relative 
pronoun 8a and barA (so Jensen, ZA. vii. 174, n. i ; Zimmern, op. cit., p. 
86, n. 3), cf. for these forms Kratzschmar in Beitr. zurAssyriol.,vo\. i. p. 385); 
sabrA must be a Shaf'el form just as sangA ' sacrificer' (cf. Beitr. z. Assyr., 
i, 160, n. 2 ; 178, n. 3) which may be connected with 'pj ' to sacrifice,' 
HIV., p. 673" and 479") ; ial^iA ' outer wall,' {HW., p. 662') may be a simi- 
lar form. 

"' Cf. Zimmern, op. cit., p. 104, 1. 122. Heb. p"^ {^D3 (Prov. 20*) or 

mp^ Np5 ; <•/• 1 Sam. i» (nnro '73; NDorr b:: atr'' |nbn ♦'?j;i 

JTJ,T 73*(l)i4'' (where we must read, following the LXX. ■Kapa rijv irhlriv 
a^o^evo,v rijv 6S6v, HflVD "^V^n T*? NDDH '7j; Dtt'* ♦'^IT mm 
"TTin > '-f- Lohr, ad loc). 
** Op. cit., p. 88, n. 2. 


*^ See the notes on the translation of Leviticus in SBOT., p. 6i, 1, 20. 

■■^ See my note in Schrader's KAT}, 502, s. v. nV") ; Beitr. z. Assyr., i. 
130, n. 2 ; Jensen, ZA. vii. 215 ; HW. 26'', 24", 32'', 232''. The doubling 
of the "^ in ["It/ must be explained in the same way as the doubling of the 

J in nnJtJ' \i2^rv. 6" (so Bar, Strack ; — Ginsbtirg, Marti, incorrectly, 
TWS'W); </- Noldeke, Syr. C?r^ § 105. 
■" Heb. ,"7jt^ is used of the indication of the divine will in i Sam. 9" • 

♦moK ntj'K tr'NH n^rr mjj; mn»i '7iKjr dn nxn ba^t^m 

* '01^2 "IVI/' nf n**?}^ ■ ^* refers especially to answers of the deity in 
response to oracular enquiries or prayers (e. g. 1 Sam. 14^' 23* 28*- '^ Jer. 
23''' 42'' Mic. 3'), and although we find HCp TDK HJ^* (' ^am. 20") 

and 'r\i:^'^ UVT\ DN* l'70rr fl^n d ^gs. I2>^; cf. 2 Chr. lo"^ and 
*ljj^30 ' Sam. 4"), the verb denotes, as a rule, a favorable answer (<r/. 
Payne-Smith, Thes. Syr., col. 2925 above: propitius respondit, exaudivit); 
for DJ1*J V in I Kgs. 12' the parallel passage in 2 Chr. 10' has Q^'V"! 
(cf. Is. 49* quoted below); see also Hos. 2"" (14' is doubtful) and Eccl, 
10". (For the passage in i Kgs. 12'^ iT. compare Beitrdge zut Assyriologie, 

vol. iv. p. 224, where Dr. Zehnpfund points out that the DO^pJ^ or 
' scorpions ' in Rehoboam's answer refers to scarifying instruments (Assyr. 
zuqdqipu, syn. aqrabu ) 

TXlV used especially in the sense of exaudire ; cf., e.g., Ps. 27': 'J^pf 

♦jjyi; Ps. 69"': -f-^^ nj5 70m a~)D ^iDnaiD o niiT ^w^ 
ibid, V. " : -jj;a>» noKD ♦Jj;; ; p^- ^°'- m:f DV3 m.T ']j;;» 
3pj;' ♦n'7« or IDJC'* ; ii'id. V. ': nirr* rcJ'in ^d ♦ni^T nni; 
:ij»Q' yjT' nTTi3Jn ic'np ♦o^q mjr in^j^'o (</• injj;n 

D'OtJTF lO tJ'K^ I Chr. 2i2«; see also v. «« and i Kgs. i8«- '«• »'); Ps. 

65« : ♦jj;£r» ♦n'?K ijjj?n pnifn nwrnj ; p^- "»'' = *d "ttij^ 
nyisr*"? ♦'7 Mm ♦jn'j;/; i^- 49»: r\vy^' Dvai -j^n^jj; pvi nr'3 

*l*nify- See also Pss. ^'• 4' 13* i?" 18"' (2 Sam. 22«) 34^* 38" 60' 
818 86" 91" 99« 102^ ii85 ii9i« 120I 138^; Is. 30" 41" 46' 65*^; 
Gen. 35'; Jon. 2^ Mic. 3" Zech. lO" Job 19' 35'^ In Ps. 222* we must 
read 'p^JU instead of lypf^^ ; see Wellhausen, ad loc. The obscure 
T^'^Vh in 'lie title of Ps. 88 might be interpreted to mean ' to cause to 

respond, to make God grant the prayer'; cf. "I'Om'!' ' f°r the offering of 
the azkarah,' Pss. 38', 70', etc. 

For the Assyrian phrase annu kenu cf. Pss. 69" 143'; for anni salimti cf. 

Gen. 41'": rr]7"lfl Wb^ r>K njy* Wtiia ■ There is no Assyr. annu = 


fn (Jensen). In the so-called Synchronous History annama may mean ' in 
accordance with the manifestation of the divine will'; contrast Schrader's 
KB i. p. 195, where annama is rendered dieses in 1. 3, and in 1. 7 auf beiden 
Seiten! Heb. 7J1 V may be connected with this Assyr. annu; it can hardly 

be derived from \y\y ' cloud.' 

The phrase ^ HJ V generally translated to testify against ' meant per- 
haps originally, 'to augur, to omen, to portend'; for 3 'against' cf. the 
use of this preposition in connection with DH/J > 3*1 > HIO > flK mH 
(Jud. 9-"5 68^ Ps. 5" Gen. ^o''). 

In Eccl. 5" nJl/0 '^ causative of )ZOf_»t_s | 'i "^ ; see Bernstein's 
Syr. Chrest. Kirsch. (Leipzig, 1836), p. 381" below; Pseudo-Callisthenes, 
ed. Budge, 241, 17. We must read, with the Vulgate eo quod Deus 

occupet deliciis cor ejus, y^} r^nt^l HJ^D D^n'^NH 'D , y±) 
being accusative depending on pfj VjjJ , not genitive depending on 

nn,t2tr ; rrTOtj'D nj;^ '« «"« '^ea ; therefore y±^ nno£j':i nj;^o 

"°t nnOJJ'^ 13'? nj^O ; ^/- modem Arabic p^LaXajuuI ' to give one's 
entire attention to a thing.' 
■** Cf. ?f1"lj^ , the title of the Assyrian general-in-chief, 2 Kgs. 18" Is. 

2o', Assyr. tUrtdnu or tdrtdnui^ffW., 716"); both tertu (HW., 51") and *tilrtu 
are modifications of the original form ^tdrtu. For the connection of 7fl"\f1 

and j^TjJ^ , we must remember that Ethiopic mami!hher means 'teacher,' 


while the corresponding Assyr. mumd'iru (HW., 389'") means 'ruler, com- 
mander ;' ^/. Heb. □ntOti' Deut. 2o'- »• » Josh, i" 3'; "1310 Jer. 52«s 
2 Kgs. 25" ({<3i?n "IC' seems to be a gloss to I^IDH)- -Assyr. sdpiru 
means both 'scribe' and 'ruler' {HW., 683''). Heb. "JfJ^ etc. is an 
Assyrian loan-word ; see notes on the English translation of Joshua in 
SBOT., p. 86, 1. 27. The original meaning of ^^D '^ 'message,' Assyr. 

As to the etymology of mumd'ir, the Assyrian stem ma'dru 'to send,' 
cannot be separated from mdru 'child' and miiru 'the young of an 

animal ;' cf. Arab, muhr 'foal,' also ^\\y 'infant' (Is. 49" 65'°) and post- 
Biblical K/*!^ 'foal; Assyr. b4ru 'child' and 'young of an animal' 
(HW., 169"; pir'u 'offspring' 538") and "li] 'bullock.' The primitive 
meaning of the stem "IHQ '^ ''"^ ^^ quick' {cf. Heb. mHQ )i -Assyr. 
mii'uru ' to send * means originally ' to dispatch, to expedite ;' milru ' the 
j'oung of an animal,' and mdru ' child,' mean originally ' quick, lively,' just 
as we call a lively, spirited young girl a ' filly,' or speak of ' casting one's 

colt's tooth,' cf. Arab. Jl^ 'ijl (Heb. Sjj;) 'calf and '<^V7 ' quick,' 


and the German denominative verb kdlbern; THO ' skilled ' (cf. Prov. 

22" 'inDK'7D3 THQ; Ezr. 7*: rw'!:^ nmna thd nsno; 

Ps. 45': "('no ")51D tOj;^ ♦Jiti''? = ^rab. 5sL^_^ 'skill') means origi- 
nally ' quick, nimble, expedite' (cf. our ' quick at figures' and the collo- 
quial German _;?.r). Ethiopic mahhdra (Syr. 5aliB^ 'to train, to teach,' means 
originally ' to make TJ70' (•'^rab. -SCLoY Cf. below, note 73. 

"^ See Kittel's critical notes on Chronicles (Leipzig, 1895), p. 80, 1. 49. 

'" For J{ = n see my remarks prefixed to Glossary I in Schrader's 
KA T? p. 492 ; for }{ = Q <"/. Beitrage zur Assyriologie, vol. i. p. 98 below ; 
vol. iii. p. 580, 1. 33 ; Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. xvi. p. 
cvi. below ; Zeitschrift fur Assyriologie, vol. ii. pp. 270 flF.; Delitzsch, Assyr. 
Grammar, §49, a; note also Assyr. latdnu = la'utdnu, lamutdnu (ffU^., p. 

" See op. cit., p. 91, n. 2. 

'" See Wellhausen's Prolegomena, third edition (Berlin, 1886), p. 412, 
below; the remark is omitted in the fourth edition (1895); cf. Reste ara- 
bischen Heidenthums (Berlin, 1887), pp. 145 and 167 below ; Schwally in 
Stade's ZA T., xi. 172 (1891). 

*' Cf. Arab. - ^ 1 -^^ (Lagarde, Materialien zur Kritik und Geschichte des 

Pentateuchs, vol. i. (Leipzig, 1867) p. 93, 1. i. 

'* Kautzsch remarks in the glossary appended to his Textbibel l^xiXt>\xx% 
i. B., 1899), s. V. Urim : Urlm und Tummtm (d. h. wahrscheinlich '■^ Licht 
und Unschuld"), die heiligen Lose, durch welche die Priester den Willen Gottes 
erkundeten. Wiees nach i Sam. 14, 41 scheint, brachte das Los urim die Schuld 
dessen ans Licht, wegen dessen Gott befragt wurde, dagegen das Los tummim die 

" Saul had tabooed all eating before sunset. The people fasted, but 
Jonathan, who was ignorant of his father's adjuration, ate some honey. 
Yahweh was offended by this transgression, and when Saul enquires 
whether or not he shall renew his attack on the Philistines, Yahweh does 
not respond (i. e. gives no favorable answer). Saul proceeds to discover 
the offender. The sacred lot is cast, first between the royal house and the 
people ; after it has been ascertained that the royal family, represented by 
Saul and Jonathan, is the guilty party, the lot is cast between the king and 
his son. Jonathan is found to be the offender, and is condemned to death, 
but rescued by the people. 

■■^ See Kautzsch's article on ' Urim' in Herzog-Plitt-Hauck'si?^a/-£«<:/<r/('- 
fadie, vol. xvi. (Leipzig, 1885), p. 228 ; Lagarde, Mittheilungen, vol. iii. 
(Gottingen, 1889), p. 352 ; L6hr's new edition of Thenius' commentary 
(Leipzig, 1898), p. 64 ; H. P. Smith's Commentary on Samuel (New York, 
1899), p. 122. The Lucianic recension of LXX. (ed. Lagarde) reads : koI 
eJjte 'Zaovk, KVfiie i Qeb; 'lapafjl, ri hri om cmeKpi^TK Ty SovTm am ai/fiepov • el iv 
efiol fj ev 'lavd&av t^ vl(f> fiov >? aSiKia, Kiipie 6 Qebg 'lapaTjTi, 66q Sy^iov^. koX el rdSe 
eJTTOif, 'Ev Ty Xa^ fj adiKta, Abg baitnriTa. The Vulgate reads : Quid est quod 


non responderis servo tuo hodie ? Si in me, aut in Jonatha Jilio meo, est iniqui- 
tas hac, da ostensionem; aut si ha:c iniquitas est in populo tuo, da sanctitatem, 
Targ. and Pesh. agree with the received Hebrew text. 

" SeeJ/lV., pp. 71'', 113"; Zimmern, op. eit., pp. 88, n. 5. 

^^ HW., p. 70». 

^'^ IIW., 138*; cf, Delitzsch's Hebrew Language viewed in the Light of 
Assyrian Research (London, 1883), p. 53. 

''" Heb. ffj'n may be connected with the Assyrian stem xa^&nu ' to enclose ' 

{HW., 288"); cf. Eth. haddna (Arab, (jl ^ ~- JU-oLs.)- ^^^- fVH 

'bosom of a dress' (cf. Arab. , t*-s^ 'bosom of a dress, pocket, purse'); 

an s is not unfrequently changed into ( under the influence of an adjacent 
n ; cf. {^.u^s z=. HDS I Assyr. pussuxu ' appeasement of the wrath of the 
deity' (Zimmern, op. cit., p. 92, n. 9); ) 1 m n := ..yjiA^. ; "1[J*n 'to bind' — 

Assyr. qafdru (HIV. 590''); Ethiopic quafdra ; see Beilr. z. Assyr., vol. i. 
p ig, n. 27 and the remarks under Q in Gesenius-Buhl'^, p. 555'. 

*' DflE'On ftJ'n '"^y have been a sort of sacred dice-box from which 

the sacred dice were thrown. LXX. renders Ex. 28™ rh Uywv Tijg KpiaeuQ; 
cf. Sir. 45'" and Ryssel's new translation of Ecclesiasticus in Kautzsch's 
Apokryphen und Pseudepigraphen des Alten Testaments (Freiburg, 1899), p. 453, 
note i. According to Hesychius "kiyiov or rather 'Xoytlov was a kind of small 
bowl (elSo( KpaTijpiuKov) ; cf. German Wiirfelbecher, 'dice-cup'; Etymol. Mag- 
num, Tuiyelov, atj/xaivei eldog KparijpoQ; Suidas (ed. Bernhardy), 'koytlov . to 
fiavTelov, bnep E(p6pei 6 lepeiig, hv <J ijaav kyK£Ko?Mfifievoi ol iji' MSoi. Kal Tioyelov, to 
Smaarripiov). It is not necessary to suppose that the Urim and Thummim 
were regular dice marked with spots from one to six ; the sacred lot may 
have consisted of stones of diflferent colors, small cubes or balls, perhaps 
one black and one white, so that Q'^^X would practically correspond to 
our 'black ball.' The method of procedure may have been as follows. 
When Saul wanted to find out who had violated the taboo (cf. note 55) the 
sacred lot was cast first between the royal family and the people. 
The 'black ball' came out first; this showed that the royal family was 
guilty and not any of the people. Had Thummim come out first, it would 
have been necessary to try the people tribe by tribe ; the first tribe that 
was ' blackballed ' would have been tried clan by clan, and the first clan 
that was 'blackballed' would have been tried man by man, and the first 
individual that was 'blackballed' would have been considered to be the 
transgressor (cf. i Sam. 10'"*'). As the royal family, which was repre- 
sented only by Saul and Jonathan, was found to be the guilty party, it 
was sufficient to cast the lot but once more ; if Urim had come out first 
Saul would have been the offender ; the fact that Thummim fell out of the 
^^S^D TtJTT showed that Saul was innocent, and Jonathan guilty of the 
violation of the taboo. It is hardly necessary to add that this explanation 
is to a great extent entirely conjectural. 


'* It is clear that Assyr. takaltu denotes some sort of receptacle, but it is 
not certain that it is a ' pouch ' or ' bag,' it may just as well be a ' case ' or 

'box.' The stem is ^"^2 'to hold;' cf. HW., p. 320'', and Heb. "^'OH 

(73 Is. 40" is corrupt); '75. 


*' Zimmern {op. cit., p. 89, n. 5) thinks that Syriac J^tJ'*")^ 'miracle 
may be a Babylonian loan-word derived ixora piristu. 

" See Zimmern, op. cit., pp. 117, 118 : No. 24, 11. 8, 14, 16. 

*' See Delitzsch, The Hebrew Language (London, 1883) p. 49. 

'* (l~lir\ 1 however, was borrowed at a much later period than jT"13. 

" For the ' Stream of Mugr ' see notes on the English translation of Joshua 
in SBOT. (New York, 1899) p. 81, 1. 44. 

** English heifer, German Farre, fem. Fdrse, may be a Semitic loan-word ; 
see my remarks in Beitr. z. Assyr., vol. i. p. 114, below. 

«^ Cf. Levit. ii« ". 

'" The greater portion of Gen. 15 is late, perhaps as late as the preceding 
chapter. Gen. 14. Possibly the first five verses only are pre-exilic. 

" Col. ii. 11. 5 AT., cf. col. iii. II. 17 S. See Zimmern, op. cit., p. 83 ; ZA., 
xii. (1897) pp. 320, 324, 327 (issued May 1898). The English translations 
published in Geo. Smith's Chaldean Account of Genesis, ed. Sayce (London, 
1880), p. 94, and in the Records of the Past, New Series, vol. i. (London, 
1888), p. 150, are not reliable. 

'* Assyr. sibitli ana pan sibitti buxade ilpuM. 

" Umd'ir barilti does not mean ' I commanded the diviners,' but ' I 
caused them to give a n~lin'; 'f- above, note 48, and Zimmern, op. cit., 
p. 99, n. fi ; the Piel is denominative in these cases. It is possible that 
Arabic 5»-4^ in the phrase iiwA^t «j«i!t ItXi^ t^ » '< J lam tu'H hddd el- 

amr el-mihare ' thou hast not taken up the matter in the right way,' has 
some connection with this stem "IHQ • For the development of the mean- 
ings of the stem "IHO '^f- o"^ English ' expedient,' which means both 
' quick ' (originally ' relieved of impediments ') and ' advisable.' 

'* Cf. Exod. 25^". For the golden table of the showbread see the English 
translation of the Psalms in SBOT., p. 220, 1. 28. 

■" Contrast Josephus, Ant. iii. 6*; 10'. 

" For the origin of the custom of eating unleavened bread at the Passover 
(cf. above, note 60) see notes on Ezekiel in SBOT. (Eng.), p. 199, 1. 40 ; 
cf. Benzinger, Heb. Archaologie (Freiburg i. B., 1894), p. 432 below. 

" Cf. notes on Leviticus in SBOT. (Eng.), p. 96, 1. 30; Dillmann- 
Ryssel's commentary on Exodus and Leviticus, p. 653 below. 

'* In the Hebrew ritual the number of the showbreads was limited to one 
dozen, in accordance with the number of the twelve tribes. The breads 
were offered on behalf of the Israelites (Lev. 24*). 

" Three dozens are mentioned in 11. 33, 61, 138 of the first ritual text a 
published by Zimmern (op. cit., pp. 98, 100, 104); six dozens (for three 
tables) in 1. 44 (p. 98) ; for one dozen, as in the Hebrew ritual (cf. above, 
note 78) see the references given by Zimmern, op. cit., p. 94, 5, a. 


*" See Zimmern, op. cit., p. gS, 11. 33, 43, 45, 47 ; cf. pJljQ Jud. 9", Arab. 
X e t/^ j n matqe, Ethiopic melqat. The fifth form of the verb means in Arabic 
'to smack one's lips with relish' or rather ' to cluck' (French claquer, 
German schnalzeti); i. e. ' to make a noise by bringing the tongue in contact 

with the roof of the mouth' (^J^bft jLaJLj S^^oj »ijLA»ji..Aj ciJj-,^), 
just as nVD 'unleavened bread' is derived from T^^JJ 'to sip with 

delight,' Is. 66"; cf. Arab. (Jaxi v_;L.ia* = -X-uu v_>,«fljj 'sugar cane'); it 

means, originally, 'something sweet,' like Assyr. mutqUy not 'something 
insipid,' as Ges.-Buhl" supposes. In Arabic unleavened dough is called 

^dai {cf. Syr. li-k^), leaven (Heb. ~|j^jj?) is r*r^ • "^^^ ^^^^ r^ 

means 'to bake hastily unleavened bread' (S'vaX^I I61 j^wySoiJI Jai 

^ 1 -^ f, L sJCfcLw ,.y_*.) The primitive meaning of the stem ~\[35 ^^ 

' to loosen ' {HIF., p. 522°) i. e. with reference to dough, ' to make light.' 
«i See v. R. 24, 18 c. d (cf. HW., 436' below); ZA. iv. p. 156, No. 2 (cf. 

Jensen, Kosmol. 279, n. 2). 
*' I shall discuss this term in a special paper. 

Ppaxiova Kai rd aiaydvm ml rd ivvarpov, Pesh. jS^ol^o \.&se ji« , Arab. 

^ Ger. Labmagen. Rennet is connected with Ger. gerinnen ' to curdle, 
to coagulate.' A preparation of the mucus membrane of the rennet stom- 
ach of suckling calves (rennet ferment, Ger. Lab) is used for curdling milk. 

'* Ox psalter ium, Ger. Psalter or Bldttermagen. 

*^ See Aristoph. Equ. 356. 1184 ; cf. Pliny, viii, 180. 

*' See W. Robertson Smith The 0. T. in the Jewish Church., 2'^ ed. 
(London, 1892), p. 384, note. 

*' Steuernagel (1898) translates ein Vorderbein; so, too, J. D. Michaelis 
(Gottingen, 1788): ein Schulterstuck. 

*' Compare Num. 6". 

9" See Lev. 7"-»^ io»; Exod. 29" «»; cf. Num. &" iS'". 

9' They are often termed nflJAI nfll ^^^ rHOnAI plt^. 'wave- 
breast' and ' thigh of presentation.' 'Wave' means 'to move to and fro 
toward the altar,' to symbolize the presentation of the gift to Yahweh. See 
notes on Leviticus in SBOT. (Eng.), p. 70, 1. 19. 

9^ v. R. 60, 61. The tablet (size about 11^ x 7 in.) was found, in 1881, 
by Hormuzd Rassam in an earthenware coffer buried, about three feet 
below the surface, in a corner of a chamber of the ancient temple of the 
Sun-god at Sippar, the present Aboo Habba, about sixteen miles southwest 
of Baghdad. For the representation of the Sun-god's shrine at the top of 
the obverse see notes on Isaiah in SBOT. (Eng.), p. 180, and Proc. Soc. 
Bibl. Arch., June 7, l88r, p. 109; Transactions of the Soc. Bibl. Arch., vol. 
viii. p. 164; cf. ibid., p. 175. 


" Dr. Peiser in Schrader's KB. iii. part i (Berlin, 1892), p. 181, 1. 10 
translates Schenkelfleisch ; this would be, in the case of beef, the ' round' 
(Heb. pTJJ> 'thigh') between the rump (Heb. Tt"!* 1 G&x. Nierenstiick or 
Schwanzstiick) and the leg. But Assyr. sHnu denotes 'the loins' (Heb. 
D'JnO) between the hip-bone and the false ribs. According to Delitzsch's 
new cuneiform chrestomathy, p. 17, No. 133, the ideogram is supposed to 
denote 'loin, hip, thigh, leg,' as well as 'the place at the feet (jm'7Jl"10) 
or at the side of a person,' which is, of course, impossible ; see also HW., 
p. 491^. 

'•* Cf. Lev. 7'; Josephus, Ant. iii. 9^ 

'* Dr. Joh. Jeremias in his inaugural dissertation Die Cultustafel von 
Sippar (cf. Beitr. 2. Assyr.., vol. i. p. 274, col. v. 1. 11) translates Rilcktheil 
(whatever that may mean), but in his commentary (p. 286 = p. 19 of the 
reprint) he substitutes ' ribs,' and this mistake is reproduced in Dillmann- 
Ryssel's commentary on Exodus and Leviticus, p. 423 below. Dr. Peiser, 
/. c, renders 'tendons,' but arkatu corresponds to Heb. ^I"!* (Arab. 

liJ., wdrik or vjirK) and means 'rump' or 'buttock;' cf. Exod, 28'": 
linen breeches D*3T"nyT D'JnSD • ■'^^^'^t^ represents a form wdri- 

katu (see my Burner. Familiengesetze, p. 15, n. 3) : it is by no means 
necessary to read throughout aridiu, tern. plur. of ari4{/UV., p. 242'). 
The D*2~lS tJiat is, ' nates' (not ' the thigh'), was looked upon as the seat 
of procreative power ; see W. Robertson Smith, Religion of the Semites, sec. 
ed., p. 380; cf. D»V'7n <^«"- 35'^ 1 Kgs. 819= 2 Chr. 6'. 

9« Assyr. liu'dni {HW. 168''). Peiser leaves the word untranslated. 

" Assyr. misil. For the connection of this word with Heb. ^JJ'JJJ, that 

T T 

is, a poetic line consisting of two hemistichs, see my note on Prov. i* in 
A. Mailer's and E. Kautzsch's Crit. Ed. of the Heb. Text of Proverbs. 

9' Assyr. karsu. This is n'o'^fipt D"iDn • "o' Hjiv^nn D"i3rr . 

In Arabic tpji kiri (for kdris) denotes especially the second stomach 

(Ger. Netzmagen or Haube) of ruminants, known as reticulum or ' honey- 
comb stomach,' on account of the hexagonal cells formed by the folds of 
its mucous membrane. The verb (ji,__5 means ' to be folded ' or ' wrm- 
kled' {\jajjiy)\ see Lagarde, Bildung der Nomina, p. 44, 1. 20. Dr. Jere- 
mias, /. c, translates die Hdlfte vom Bauche (so, too, HW. 356'); in the 
Commentary he substitutes Bauchlafpen. Dr. Peiser renders das halbe 
Bauchfleisch; this would be 'half of the flanks.' For the Syriac form 
keris, kdrsd see my remarks in Hebraica, vol. i, p. 228, n. i. 

99 Assyr. qirbu (Heb. ]3"lp) refers especially to the viscera in the thoracic 

cavity (heart, lungs, etc.), while karlu denotes the viscera in the abdominal 
cavity (stomach, liver, etc.) ; contrast Dillmann on Lev. i9. This is import- 


ant for Exod. 12'. The qirbu (Ger. Brusteingeweide) is separated from the 
karSu (Ger. Baucheingeweide) by the diaphragm or midriff (Arab. ■_■' ^- 
v^La. 'separating veil,' Heb. p'7lnn Dnp 'dividing membrane'). 

Arabic qalb 'heart' is probably identical with ^^p (see Ges.-Buhl" j^. ?'.) 
For the change of / and r cf. D'V'?/! 'hips' Aram. XV")r7 \ T^'Z*~W 
'chains,' Arab. jLJL»JLw ; HJO'?}'} 'widow,' Arab. jULoJ ; Mand. 
XTQin 'disciple' for KTOS"! (Noldeke, Mand. Gr. § 54). Arab. 
i^«J) y«?-^ means 'hypochondriac region.' Peiser /. c. Xxz.n%\3X^s das halbe 

Innere des Fleisches (? !) ; Jeremias, die Hdlfte vom GekrSse. i. e. ' mesentery,' 
thinking probably of Inster (stomach, intestines and omentum of a calf) and 
Rindskaldaunen. But this would be karsu (cf. ip-rS) not qirbu. 

"" Assyr. qtirstnu, dual qursina, plur. qurstnati {HW., p. 355') «. e. the 
part of the leg between the knee and the foot (Heb. D' V~lO), the knee- 
joint or knuckle (not the ankle bone). Cf. Heb. ''^'Q'T^ "ni^D K*? 
Ps. 18'', Syr. J] ,9a* (with partial assimilation of the p to the initial p 
(c/. note 105). For interchange between /and n see note 104. 

"» Assyr. diqar me stri. In the passage of the Babylonian Nimrod Epic 
quoted HW., p. 634'' s. v. "IJ^JJ*, we must read, not me siri — Heb. T^'Q 

I T T 

Jud. 6" Is. 65^ (Arab. &i(yO mdraqe or si»A*«jO) but lume itri, that is, 

' roasted meat ' (Heb. ♦l'?^ "IJJ'D , '^f- i S^™- 2^'); see below, note 107. 
Dr. Alfred Jeremias, Ifolle und Paradies bei den Babyloniern (Leipzig, 1900), 
p. 16, translates Namen und Geddchtniss. Diqaru is, of course, identical 
with post-Biblical "np ' earthen pot,' Arab, jjji {cf. Frankel, Aram. 

Fremdwbrter im Arabischen, p. 63). 

'»'' Cf. 11. 52, 80, 83, 86, 109, 164, 167, 170, 173, 176, 179, 182, 185 of ritual 
text a (Nos 1-20) published by Zimmern (pp. loi ff.), also text.^ (p. in), 1. 9. 

">' Cf. text a, 11. 52, 109; silqu is omitted in 11. 80, 83, 86, 164, 167, 170, 
173, 176, 179, 182, 185. 

'"■' I learn from Professor Zimmern that his reading xin^ct for the ideo- 
gram ME-KAN is based on the fact that we find in K. 6060 (which will be 
published as No. 56 of his texts) xi-in-i;ava the same context where we find, 
as a rule me-kan. See also ii. R. 40, No. i, 27 and Peiser, Babylonische 
Vertrage (Berlin, 1890), p. 289, ad No. evil. 1. 9 (p. 150). For the inter- 
change between « and / cf. Heb. XV20^ — (ID^*? 1 JJ'*'? = Assyr. nelu 

T : ■ T : • 

'lion,' Arab. ,vjLi0 'image,' jjjij ' daughter-in-law ' = Assyr. (almu, kall&tu 
Syr. "^cuJi-oJ = Assyr. liqtul, etc. (Beitr. z. Assyr., vol. i. p. 17, note 20). 
Ethiopic bendt ' tribute ' = Assyr. bildt ('^'2 Ezr. 4'^- 20 fi\ (Cf Beitr. z. 
Assyr., vol. i. p. 16 r below). There are a number of curious Semitic loan- 
words in Ethiopic, e. g. adldm, plur. ad'idmdi = Assyr. adndti (see critical 


notes on Isaiah, p. 133, 1. 22) ; masmar ' line, verse '== Assyr. muharil {HW. 
421") or niusarA ; with partial assimilation of the s to the following m: 
mazmar, which may be influenced by tazamdra 'to quote, refer to.' 

'"'' Sil-qu is written with the character nun, which is, as a rule, used for 
i;il (contrast Jensen in Zeitschrift filr Keilschriflforschung, vol. i. p. 320, 
note 2 = p. 39 of Jensen's thesis, Munich, 1885); see No. 4 of Zimmern's 
texts (pi. xxiii) 1. 109; No. 5 (pi. xxiv) 1. 109 ; No. 6 (pi. xxiv) !. 52 ; No. 
II (pi. xxvii) 1. 109; traces of nun are visible in No. 12 (pi. xxix) 1. icg ; 
in No. 4 (pi. xxiii) rev. 2, No. 5 (pi. xxiv) obv. 53, and in No. 7 (pi. xxv) 
1. 52 the word is not preserved. If we read (ilqu, the initial ^f must be 
explained as partial assimilation of the initial Q to the final p ; cf. the 
remarks above, at the end of note 40 as well as note 60 ; see also NSldeke's 
Mandaic grammar, § 50. 

'»« Cf. I Sam. 2"; Is. 44""; Ex. 12'. It is possible that ♦'?^f 'to pray' 
(Assyr. (ullil) means originally 'to roast, to sacrifice ;' cf. Heb. "Ij"!^ 'to 
pray '= Arab. JCft 'to sacrifice,' especially 'to slaughter the sacrificial 

lamb' (SwAaa). In Ezek. 8'^ "Ifiy '^ "^'^^ °^ '^^ sweet smoke of 
incense {^'h'^ nibpH "^P^T^ \ pi^ '^ ^ glo^^)- "ibt^rsH 'to pray,' 
on the other hand, means ' to appeal ' to God as the Supreme Judge, to 
ask Him to render a decision ; cf. Ges.-BuW s. v. rhi^T^ ■ I" Ethiopic, 
faldma (1"'^) means ' to roast,' and (alldya ('"S) ' to pray'; but this a sec- 
ondary diflferentiation. The word J^H^'?^ 'prayer' shows that the stem 
of »'^\f ' to pray ' is V'^. It is not impossible that there is some connec- 
tion between nbU and n'7n (Assyr. i'a«,/rfr., p. 585") c/ Aram. {.{p-^X 

T T T It I 

' earth ' = |*"1J^ . According to Zimmern in Ges.-Buhl" 689" ^'pr\'0 '" 

Jud. 5'' is a dialectical byform of Hynji '" '^^ following clause, but this 

is improbable. 

10' Cf ZA. ii. 280; V, 85; HW., 668". The correct rendering 'roast' has 

been suggested by Jensen ; cf. Zimmern, op. cit., p. 95, n. 5. From the 

Assyrian point of view it would be possible to regard Sumil 'to roast' as 

3. Shafcl oi f^ 'to glow, to be hot' (^t\,X«i IJi (ja(-»-<aJI oJi*^-, 

bcl^) just as n")^ 'to be like' might be explained as a Shafel of 

Assyr. emA ' to be like,' cans, ulenii (pronounced ulevf) ' I made like ' 
{HW.., p. 82''). In the same way Assyr. sakdnu ' to make' could be explained 
as a Shafel of jjli', lamti ' heaven ' as a Shafel of m^ ' water ' (cf. critical 
notes on Isaiah, p. 157, 1. 22); '^pJJ' ' to weigh, as a Shafel of 7p , Assyr. 
sardqu ' to steal ' as a Shafel of rtqu ' empty,' Aram. pHD . 'Z- Assyr. 
saraqu ' to pour out,' HW., p. 512'. 


'"* It would be more correct to spell the word with J^ ; contrast Eth. 
zar'e: 'seed,' generally written with {>{ for Xf. The exact equivalent of 
ifiwCu is Eth. sawdya : ' to ripen ' (of grain) ; cf. "TJ^H '^JJ'^ Joel 4". 
Arab. |C^X>a<-* ' ripe, thoroughly cooked ' {cf. y^MO ' to ripen ') is a later 
differentiation of i£yMi = Assyr. sumii. 

"" Assyr, Su'u (Zimmern, cij>. cit., p. 55, 1. 35; JIIV,, p. 632*). Cf. Syr. 

\n2 'to sacrifice,' and X^kAl 'sheep;' see Lotz, Tiglathpileser (Leipzig, 
1880), p. 171, n. 2 ; cf. Brockelmann, s. v. and HW., p. 480''. The 
Bedouins still live chiefly on bread and milk; a pfjj^ , «'. e. a sheep or agoat 

(Exod. 12') is eaten only when there is a guest {cf. ^eivcg) lepeiiaa, Od. 14*'''). 
The settled population of Syria hardly eat any meat but mutton. 

"" Cf. critical notes on Isaiah, p. 204, ad p. 102, 1. 20. 

'" HW., p. 666». The two passages there quoted were discussed in my 
paper "On the Etymology of D'DDJ >" ffeiraica, vol. ni. (Jan. 1887), 
p. no. 

"' C/. Levy's Neuhebr. Worterbuch, s. v. p7£J-', also p'^D . Si/qu := 

beta vulgaris {cf. Brockelmann s. v. ) nNw) has probably no connection 
with this stem ; it may be derived from ■ ""^"z^n*?!* Gen. 40^", 41'^; Deut. 

29" CStrj; 'I'D Kl rb^'' K*?! ; Pesh. -i^iai^ Va i^ ..jLOi jjo 

"" Cf. text a, published by Zimmern, 11. 36, 72, 113, 121, 153; text b, 11. 
9> 15- 

"■' See Zimmern, oji. cit., p. 95, 6. For Assyr. musktnu {ffW., p. 313") 

'humble, poor,' Heb. ?3pJ3 ^^^ Ges.-Buhl'^ j-. v.; the stem may be ]'\2 , 
cf. post-Biblical Q'QJJ^'^ ^"7 V\'2 ' to concentrate one's attention to God,' 
etc., nJ13 'devotion;' so musklnu means originally 'attentive,' then 


'devout,' and finally 'humble, poor' ('JT^ , IJV). I stated in note 54 of 
my lecture on '' The Book of Ecclesiastes," Oriental Studies (Boston, 1894) 
p. 275) that Assyr. «s.^;« was equivalent to Heb. flJOS '?'>'Bj~in ■ In the 
Old Testament we have : •j'TJ^'^ '\rn'2^,\ mH' '?K DDriD*? "U'Dn 

I Sam. f; -]»3D v*?}* ritJ^nsT -laV n^'^Dn Job n-^; p^n K*? -in 

imi "^K nX nJDKJ Vb') la*? P^. 78« (</. v. ^'X Bathgen's render- 
ing wankelmutkig is inaccurate ; 'H'^K'? D^D"? IJ^DH Vh DJ/H IIVI 
Dn^D^K 2 Chr. 20^3. 

"' See Lev. 5'"; cf. 12* 1421 27". An ephah is equal to 77 American 
pints (see notes on Ezekiel, in SBOT., p. 198, 1. 50); consequently j's ephah 
is nearly ^ peck or about 4 lbs. of flour, which would be worth, in this 
country, about iSjiS. while two squabs or young pigeons would cost 40 or 


"* Albrecht Ritschl, Die ckristliche Lehre von der Rechtfertigung und 
VersShnung, vol. ii. chapter iii. §§24, 25, second edition (Bonn, 1874), pp. 
186-208 ; third edition (1889), pp. 187-212. Contrast W. Robertson Smith, 
The Old Testament in the Jewish Church, second edition, (1892), p. 381, n. I. 
Rashi remarks ad Gen. 32^' that "^tj^ in connection with 1\^ , {^J^H i 

and 0*J5 means ' to wipe off,' and that the verb is Aramaic (HN^lJl 

niip \\iih p^ D^jfl "I'm Ntpni p;^ "rsm msD "^Dtr ^J72 

Ryssel, Exodus und Leviticus, p. 466. For the connection between "1C)3 

'to rub, to wipe off, to atone' (cf. IHID Ps. 51^- '^ Is. 432=^ 44") and 
1fl3 ' asphalt,' (lit. ' rubbing, smearing, daubing '), compare Arab. ^am/O 

which means both ' to wipe off, to deterge,' and ' to rub, to anoint,' (Heb. 
nji'/D) i i^-*>*^ ' t" measure, to survey,' on the other hand, is an Aramaic 

(or rather Assyrian) loan-word (= Assyr. masdxu with ^) ; see above, 
note 42. ^ 

■'^' Cf. Paul de Lagarde, Mittheilungen, vol. iii, (GSttingen, 1889) p. 352; 
vol. iv. (Gottingen, 1891) pp. 109, 393. 

"* See Zimmern, op. cit., p. 127, 1. 20. 

'" Cf. Professor Toy's remarks on The Relation between Magic and 
Religion in the Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. xx. (New 
Haven, 1899), p. 331. 

'*" There is no direct reference to Jewish hieroscopy in the Old Testament, 
but I believe that certain features of the inspection of the intestines of 
slaughtered animals, which is still practiced by orthodox Jews, to deter- 
mine whether the meat is fit ( "IJi'O ) or unfit to eat ( nG"lD ) were influ- 
enced by the anatomical knowledge and symptomatological experience 
gained by the Babylonian haruspices. Cf. the regulations concerning the 
pjQpJ^ 'JQ*D discussed in the Talmudic tract Khullin and in the 

-Ii"iy, nj;"! mv, rtD'ntr r\y±>r\, section no, ^nvt:' 

ntO^njJTF *inS< pnD"? (P- 4^ °f tl^^ WUna edition of 1895). An abstract 
of the principal regulations is given in H. G. F. Lowe's Schulchan Aruch, 
Oder Die vier judischen Gesetzbiicher, vol. i. second edition (Vienna, 1896) 
pp. 169 fF. 

It is interesting to note in this connection that the word JO'D > used of 
the symptoms indicating whether or not an animal is fit to be eaten, occurs 
in Assyrian with the meaning ' entrails ;' cf. the description of the battle of 
Halftle in col. v. of the Sennacherib Prism: simdne u munneaunu usardd 
(ir erfiti sadilti 'I scattered their entrails and bowels over the vast field' 
(IfW., p. 49i'>; KB. ii, 108). The stem oi simdnu (form like liddnu, from 
Ju« ) is f^jM* (note the meaning of the fifth form of the verb in Arabic, 


/^Mj^), while munnu (HW. p. 419'') or in4nu (cf. Arab. xjL>9 ma'ne, pi. 

ij«yO mu'un ' umbilical region,' or ' hypochondriac region,' or ' peritoneal 

fat' and 'iJuJo ma'inne 'mark, sign') corresponds to Syriac ia« \<J^ 
'bowels' (lit. 'internal vessels' or 'organs'). Professor Rogers in his 
translation of the Sennacherib Prism in the new series of the Records of the 
Past, vol. vi. (1892) p. 98, repeated my old translation ' trophies and arms ' 
(see " The Battle of Halfile " in the Andover Review, No. xxix.. May 1886, p. 
546, n. 10). The verb pHD ' to inspect ' corresponds to the Assyr. stem 

batdqu 'to dissect' iJffW. 191"); the T for Jl is due to partial assimilation 
to the preceding ^ , as in ^^^{ and '^5^ for Assyr. abdtu, kabatu iff. 
above, note 40). 

There can be no doubt that half a loaf is better than no bread at all, and 
as long as there is no official meat-inspection in municipal abattoirs, as in 
Europe, the Jewish ^{mp'^3 is a useful institution, although modern 
veterinarians would probably attach little importance to a number of points 
which render an animal flfi*!^ .