Skip to main content

Full text of "Aramaic Lěhenâ, Concubine"

See other formats


STOP 



Early Journal Content on JSTOR, Free to Anyone in the World 

This article is one of nearly 500,000 scholarly works digitized and made freely available to everyone in 
the world by JSTOR. 

Known as the Early Journal Content, this set of works include research articles, news, letters, and other 
writings published in more than 200 of the oldest leading academic journals. The works date from the 
mid-seventeenth to the early twentieth centuries. 

We encourage people to read and share the Early Journal Content openly and to tell others that this 
resource exists. People may post this content online or redistribute in any way for non-commercial 
purposes. 

Read more about Early Journal Content at http://about.jstor.org/participate-jstor/individuals/early- 
journal-content . 



JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary source objects. JSTOR helps people 
discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content through a powerful research and teaching 
platform, and preserves this content for future generations. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit 
organization that also includes Ithaka S+R and Portico. For more information about JSTOR, please 
contact support@jstor.org. 



322 JOURNAL OP BIBLICAL LITERATURE 

At any rate, Arab, tdjila is a denominative verb, as is also Arab. 
tdqula, to be weighty (contrast AkF 23). The original mean- 
ing of sa-qal, to weigh, is to lift; cf. Aram, seqdl, also our to 
weigh anchor and to weigh a ship that has been sunk. A thing 
that is easily lifted is light (Heb. qal). In Assyrian, suqallulu 
(HW 686) is used of clouds floating or hovering (lit. hanging, 
suspended) in the air. Ethiopia saqdla means to hang, suspend. 
The two pans of a balance are suspended. Also Arab, cdqala = 
sdqala, to polish, is a Saphel of qal; cf. nehost qaldl, burnished 
bronze in Ez. 1:7; Dan. 10 : 6 and the verb qilqdl in Eccl. 10 : 
10 (see Mic. 98). The statement made in Fiirst's lexicon that 
we must read segdl instead of soldi in Jud. 5 : 30 is gratuitous 
(JAOS 34, 423). Nor can Heb. segdl be combined with Arab. 
sdqala = jama' a. Arab, sdqala = udzana is a doublet of tdqala; 
but both verbs are loanwords. 

I have subsequently noticed- that Rodiger in Ges. Thes. 1363 
refers to both Arab, tdjila and sdqala = jama' a, although he 
combined the verb sagel with Arab, tdqula, to be pregnant. My 
attention was drawn to the connection between Heb. segdl and 
Arab, tdjila by the form 'atjal cited as a parallel to Arab. 
' dusaj = ausag = Assyr. (u)asagu, brier (see my note on 
Askari, soldier, and Lascar, sailor, in JAOS 36). 



ARAMAIC LEHENA, CONCUBINE 

In my paper on Heb. leg, wanton, and melig, spokesman (BA 
10, part 2) I have shown that Heb. leg corresponds to Arab. 
dd'ig. We find interchange between d and I also in Arab. 
da' aba, to play = la' aba, while da' aba, to repudiate, is a trans- 
posed doublet (AJSL 32, 65) of ddfa'a (with partial assimi- 
lation of p to d. In the same way Aram, lehend, concubine, 
stands for deliend = deliema = dahimat. The stem appears in 
Arabic as ddkama = ndkaha. "We find also ddxama = jama' a. 
For the partial assimilation of the original m to the initial d 
cf . Heb. dasen, fat = Arab, ddsim, Heb. dasn, offal = Arab. 
samdd (ZDMG 58, 631, below; JBL 32, 221, 5). 

Wetzstein in Delitzsch's commentary on Canticles and 
Ecclesiastes (1875) p. 454, n. 1 derived Aram, lehend from Arab. 
Idhma, to be concealed; according to Wetzstein a concubine 



BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS 323 

was called the concealed one because she was secluded in the 
harem, or because she was not recognized as a legitimate wife. 
Fleischer in Levy's Talmudic dictionary (2, 535) combined 
Aram, lehena with Arab, laxnd', malodorous. Our whore has 
undoubtedly been associated with ME hore, filth, although it is 
etymologically connected with caritas, love, just as German 
Buhlerin, courtezan, meant originally beloved. Arab. Idxina, 
to have a rank smell, is used especially of the armpits and the 
vulva (contrast BL 75, n. 30; 91, n. 40). 

Batten, Ezra-Neh. (SBOT) 60, 29 compared Arab, lahn, 
note, tune, song; he thought Aram, lehena meant originally 
singer and then concubine. Oriental female singers are not 
overprudish (Jacob, Altarab. Beduinenleben, 1897, p. 103). 
Neither Fleischer's nor Batten's etymology was new: the 
combination of Aram, lehena with Arab, laxana was suggested 
long ago (1757) by Simonis; see Ges. Thes. 754" where 
Gesenius mentions also the derivation of Aram, lehena from 
Arab Idhina. This is also recorded in Fiirst 's dictionary. J. D. 
Michaelis in his translation of Daniel (1781) explained 
segldteh u-lehendteh as seine Tanzhuren und Sangerinnen. 

The original form of the root (AJSL 23, 252) was dah, to 
push (cf. my remarks on berdh, Cant. 8: 14, in BL 77, n. 41). 
We find this root in Heb. dahdh, dahd, dahdf, dahdq ( Ges. Thes. 
333 a ). In Ethiopic, dahdla means to repudiate (lit. to push 
away, thrust oat) a wife. In Syriac, dehuqid denotes 
repudiation of a wife. We find the same root also in Ethiop. 
madhe, upper millstone (cf. GB 16 754 a ) and in Eth. nddha, to 
push, impel. In Arabic we have dahlia, ddhaba, ddliba'a, 
ddhaja, ddhaza ddhama, ddhd-iddhu = ndkaha, jama' a. As 
stated above, we have also ddxama = jama' a, but ddxala, 
'aldihd corresponds to Heb. bd elehd. Also Arab, ddhdara, 
ddhraja, and ddhmala, to roll, mean originally to push. The 
primary connotation of ddhara and ddhaqa, to reject, is to push 
away. Cf. also ddhqaba, to push from behind, and inddhasa, to 
be put in (originally pushed in). Lengerke, Daniel (1835) p. 
285 stated that the original meaning of ddhd-iddhu was to push. 

The original form with initial d instead of I may be preserved 
in Dan. 6 : 19 where we find dahudn instead of lehendn, concu- 
bines. Marti and Prince, Daniel (1899) p. 236 substitute lehe- 



324 JOURNAL OP BIBLICAL LITERATURE 

nan (cf. also Driver, Daniel, in the Cambridge Bible for 
Schools and Colleges, 1900, p. 77) but it is sufficient to read 
dehenan. Bertholdt, Daniel (1806) p. 413 derived dahuan 
from Arab, daha-iadhu. According to Hitzig, Daniel (1850) 
p. 96 dahua corresponds to Arab. Mhuah, i. e. mulier cum qua 
luditur. The translation concubine was proposed in Moser's 
Heb. lexicon (1795). Havernick, Daniel (1832) p. 222 
thought that dolman was identical with lehenan; he regarded 
the d as verhdrtete Aussprache of the I. The d, however, is 
more original than the I. We need not suppose that Dan. 5 and 
6 were written by the same author (Lagarde, Mitteilungen 4, 
351; Barton in JBL 17, 62-86). 

Paul Haupt. 

Johns Hopkins University. 



HOW LONG? 

In several communications at various times I have called atten- 
tion to the similarity of ritual use of the 'How long' in Baby- 
lonian and Hebrew psalms. I desire to add one other instance 
of what I believe to be similar use of the phrase in the two 
psalmodies. In Babylonian psalmody the phrase 'How long,' 
or 'How long thy heart' is sometimes used to indicate psalmody 
itself, as 'The psalmist speaks no more the 'How long thy 
heart,' meaning that psalmody is silent. We have, I think, a 
parallel use in Hebrew in Psalm 74. 9. 

T 

T - . - " t • : 

' Our signs we have not seen ; there is no more a prophet, nor 
is there among us a psalmist, i. e. one knowing ' How long ' ; 
not, as commonly rendered, one knowing how long this calamity 

will last. 

John P. Peters. 
New York City.