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"And in fire they must be burned" ; hardly a reference to the 
late, theological conception of the fires of Gehenna as the end of 
the unrighteous, but rather still the comparison with the thorns. 
Just as these are good for nothing but to be burned, and leave 
naught behind but useless ashes, so, too, the unrighteous are fit 
for nothing but to be consumed and leave naught behind them. 
Thus the comparison of the unrighteous with the thorns of the 
wilderness runs through the entire two verses, and brings out 
most graphically the contrast with the righteous king of the first 
half of the poem. 

Julian Morgenstern 

Hebrew Union College 


In the prototype of Gehenna, Heb. ge-hinnom (cf. RE 3 6, 
421, 12) * Hinnom is generally supposed to be a proper name. 
Both the Valley of Hinnom and the Kidron valley seem to have 
been ancient burial-grounds. According to 2 K 23 : 6 the graves 
of the children of the people (i. e. the common people; cf. Jer. 
26: 23) were in the Kidron valley, and (g has for the Valley of 
Hinnom in Jer. 2 : 23 ; 19 : 2.6 the rendering noXvdvSpiov, a 
burial-place for many (cf. 2 Mace. 8:4 and IJG 5 308, n. 2). 
In Jer. 31:40 we find after ue-hol ha-'emq, the whole Valley 
(of Hinnom) the addition hap-pegarim ue-had-ddsn, the dead 
bodies and the offal (JBL 35, 322, below). The explanation 
given in GK § 127, g, is unsatisfactory ; we must insert before 
hap-pegarim the preposition 'im, with = despite; cf. 'im-ze, 
Neh. 5:18 and Arab, ma' a htidti (WdG 2, 164, D). (g has 
i£ IkXcktHv XiOutv, and i£ may be a mistake for lv (cf. koI lv too-oi!™ 
ttXtjOu, in summa copia; Heb. be-hol zot, GB le 80 b , below). 
According to Cornill (g may have read abanim for desanim, 
and bahurim for pegarim (for the confusion of b and p cf. JBL 
35, 280). It should, of course, be abanim bahurot, but bahurot 
may have been written bahur' (JBL 34, 81). Has-seremot ((g 
aaaprj/xmO) might be explained to mean dumps = places of deposit 
for offal and rubbish; it could be a transposition of semerot or 
semarot, a feminine form of semarim, lees, dregs (JSOR 1, 91, 
1. 5) in the sense of waste or worthless matter, sweepings, refuse; 

1 For the abbreviations see vol. 36 of this Journal, p. 75. 


but it is better to read has-serefot following (g L lv rH> ljxtrvpio-p.w 
rov xw>-ppov KtSpmv — M be-sadmot Qidron in 2 K 23 : 4 (ZAT 
26, 306). "We need not emend: be-misrefot (cf. rj irvpd = 
irvpKa'ia., Lat. ustrina, bustum, also German Brennerei, e. g. Kalk- 
brennerei = lime-kiln). In Is. 9 : 4, on the other hand, we must 
read cerefd instead of serefd (JBL 37, 228; AJP 40, 70). 

In the pre-Bxilic period heathen images and altars were repeat- 
edly cast into the Kidron valley and burnt there (cf. 1 K 15 : 13 ; 
2 K 23 : 4.6.12 ; 2 Chron. 15 : 16 ; 29 : 16 ; 30 : 14) . The flaming 
pyres with the dead bodies of the apostate Jews, on which the 
Maccabees feasted their eyes when they went to worship Jhvh in 
the Temple, were in the Kidron valley between the Temple hill 
and Mount Olivet (contrast JBL 27, 47). "Worshipers on the 
Temple hill could not have seen the corpses in the Valley of 
Hinnom south of Jerusalem. Is. 66 : 23.24 is an appendix which 
was added c. 153 b. c. (cf. AJSL 19, 135). The Kidron valley 
is also called the Valley of Jehoshaphat (JAOS 34, 412). The 
Jews as well as the Christians and the Mohammedans of Pales- 
tine believe that the Last Judgment will be held in the Kidron 
valley, and it is the dearest wish of every Jew to find a grave 
there. EB 2662 states that the whole of the left bank of the 
Kidron opposite the Haram, far up the W side of the Mount of 
Olives, is covered with the white tombstones of the Jews. 

Qidron may be an ancient word for KoijxrjTrjpiov, cemetery; it 
may be a transposition of riqdon from the stem raqad which 
means in Arabic to sleep (syn. ndma). We find in Arabic also 
the transposed form dqrada == sdkana, to rest ; dqrada ild, to 
submit (ddlla ua-xada'a, tatdmana ua-taudda' a) . Arab, rdqdah 
denotes the time between death and resurrection; mdrqad sig- 
nifies resting-place, grave. In Syriac this stem has the second- 
ary connotation to mourn and also the privative meaning to 
dance (originally to cease mourning, leap for joy, Arab. 
raqaddn) so that Eccl. 3 : 4 b , ' et sefod ue-'et reqod is translated 
in g> : zdbnd le-marqddu ue-zdbnd la-meraqqddu. Terms for 
to mourn mean also to be soiled, dusky, dark f cf. Lat. squalore 

2 Arab, asdafa, to be dark (and to become light) is a transposition of 
Assyr. sapadu, to mourn, lament. In Syriac sappid signifies, not to lament, 
but to wring the hands. Arab, asdafa means also to sleep (syn. ndma). 
Arab, sdfada has the meaning to leap = to cover, copulate with. Another 
transposed doublet is Arab, idfdssa, to be very dark of face. 


sordidus and Assyr. marsu, soiled, with the feminine marustu, 
distress, grief, which corresponds to the Syr. rdmsd, Arab, sdmar, 
dusk, evening (JHUC, No. 306, p. 7). Arab, qddira, to be soiled, 
is a transposed doublet (cf. AJSL 32, 64; JBL 35, 158). It 
may be an Aramean loanword. We have a similar transposition 
in Assyr. diqaru, pot = Syr. qidrd, which means originally 
black; cf. The pot calls the kettle black and our crock which 
denotes not only pot, but also the black matter collected from 
combustion on pots or kettles, and then smut in general (contrast 
BA 1, 69; JHUC, No. 306, p. 25). We can hardly assume that 
Qidron means dirty place (dumping-ground) or place of mourn- 
ing; cf. Lagarde, Onomastica Sacra (1887) p. 85, 1. 23 : Cedron 
tristis moeror sive dolor. 

Hinnom is the infinitive Nif ' al of num, to sleep, which is used 
of the sleep of death (Arab, sinatu-'l-fand'i) in Ps. 76:6 and 
Nah. 3 : 18 {cf. ZDMG 61, 287 and 281, 1. 15 ; JBL 26, 12). For 
the reflexive hinnom cf. French se coucher, Greek /coi^ao-flai, 

evvd£e<T$a.i, KaraKXivto-OaL, KOiTa.£ta6ai and Assyr. utulu = nutahhulu, 

from na'dlu = Heb. nahdl, a synonym of rabdgu, caldlu (cf. 
GB 16 684 a ) and sakdpu 3 = Heb. sakdb, to lie down (AJSL 22, 
195). In Syriac both the active and the passive participles sdkib 
and sehibf laid to rest, signify buried, dead, and the Ittaf'al 
(ZDMG 69, 565) ittenih, he rested, is used especially of sleep 
and death: ittenih 'aldu(hi) seldma means he is dead, peace be 
on him; cf. also the passive participle of the causative, mendh 
nafseh, whose soul is at rest, i. e. dead. Bene hinnom (2 K 
23:10, Ketlb; cf. $ v ye pavi Ew 0j a in 2 Chron. 33:6 and 31 
vallis filiorum Ennom in Josh. 18 : 16 a ) is a phrase like bene 
nekdr, strangers, lit. sons of foreignness, and corresponds to 
oi KoinTjOtvTes or oi KeKoiiMrj/xlvoi. in the NT. If Hinnom were a proper 
name, the variants bene-hinnom or ben-hinnom would be strange. 
The fact that both Ge-hinnom and Qidron mean resting-place 
explains why the two valleys are often confounded; e. g. Ibn 

8 This stem appears in Arabic as hakasa (cf. JBL 36, 141, n. 4) — 
qahara, g&laba, Assyr. sakap za'eri, to lay an enemy to the ground, over- 
throw him. 

* Also in Prov. 23 : 34 we may read sdkub (= meiussdn, Arab, munduuam 
or murrdqqad) instead of sSkeb (JBL 36, 78). In modern Arabic, xdddar 
means to put to sleep with opium. 


Batutah (vol. 1, p. 124 of the Paris edition) says that the Valley 
of Gehenna was east of Jerusalem (cf. JHUC, No. 306, p. 12). 

Paul Haupt 

Johns Hopkins University 


I pointed out in JBL 35, 289 (cf. ibid. 291) that we must read 
in the Maccabean passage Zech. 9:5: ue-dbad melk me-'Akkd, 
counsel will perish from Accho, i. e. Accho will be at her wits' 
end (cf. German ratios). Similarly we must read in the illus- 
trative quotation Mic. 4 : 9 (Mic. 4) : Ha-melk, en-bdk, im-md'agek 
abdd, Hast thou no counsel, art thou at thy wits' end? i. e. Art 
thou in despair? For mo' eg, plur. mo'egdt cf. GK § 87, p. 
The reading m'dlk, king, instead of melk, counsel, is due to Jer. 
8:19. 4H has id' eg instead of mo' eg. The omission of the initial 
m of mo' eg after the preceding im may be due to haplography, 
and the initial i may be dittography of the following u (cf. 
Mic. 74, u>). Instead of ffl im-id'agek abdd, Is thy counselor 
gone? §> has the plural: au mdldkdik(i) ibdd(u). But (S 
renders: j) -fj povXr) aov airuXero. We find j3ov\r] = id' eg for 
mo' eg also in Prov. 11 : 14 and Is. 9 : 5. hovXrj, of course, may 
mean both counsel and council. For id' eg = mo' eg we must 
bear in mind that in the old Hebrew script the resemblance 
between i and m is greater than it is in the square character. 

Prov. 11 : 14 should be translated : Without policy a people 
will fall (i. e. come to ruin and destruction) but victory (cf. 
24: 6) lies in much counsel. For in the multitude of counselors 
we would expect be-rob io'agim (cf. 15:22). Moreover, many 
counselors do not bring success : too many cooks spoil the broth. 
In 24:6 <g (fiera KapSias /3ovX.evriK^) read leb id' eg instead of 

rob id' eg, but in 11: 14 05 has a-iarrjpLa 81 v-rrapx^ & voXXfj |8ouA.jj, 

3f salus autem ubi multa consilia, and 24 : 6 : et erit solus ubi 
multa consilia sunt. has be-sug'd de-milkdnutd (milkatnutd 
is a scribal error) in 11:14 (& be-milkd saggi'd) and be-sug'd 
de-mulkdnd (g> be-sug'd de-milkd) in 24:6. Grrncus Venetus, 
on the other hand, renders in 11 : 14 : lv -n-XijOei povktvrov. 

Tahbuldt (cf. tahbuldt lebab, Sir. 37:17) means originally