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48 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE 

Batutah (vol. 1, p. 124 of the Paris edition) says that the Valley 
of Gehenna was east of Jerusalem (cf. JHUC, No. 306, p. 12). 

Paul Haupt 

Johns Hopkins University 



HEB. MO'tiQ, COUNSEL 

I pointed out in JBL 35, 289 (cf. ibid. 291) that we must read 
in the Maccabean passage Zech. 9:5: ue-dbad melk me-'Akkd, 
counsel will perish from Accho, i. e. Accho will be at her wits' 
end (cf. German ratios). Similarly we must read in the illus- 
trative quotation Mic. 4 : 9 (Mic. 4) : Ha-melk, en-bdk, im-md'agek 
abdd, Hast thou no counsel, art thou at thy wits' end? i. e. Art 
thou in despair? For mo' eg, plur. mo'egdt cf. GK § 87, p. 
The reading m'dlk, king, instead of melk, counsel, is due to Jer. 
8:19. 4H has id' eg instead of mo' eg. The omission of the initial 
m of mo' eg after the preceding im may be due to haplography, 
and the initial i may be dittography of the following u (cf. 
Mic. 74, u>). Instead of ffl im-id'agek abdd, Is thy counselor 
gone? §> has the plural: au mdldkdik(i) ibdd(u). But (S 
renders: j) -fj povXr) aov airuXero. We find j3ov\r] = id' eg for 
mo' eg also in Prov. 11 : 14 and Is. 9 : 5. hovXrj, of course, may 
mean both counsel and council. For id' eg = mo' eg we must 
bear in mind that in the old Hebrew script the resemblance 
between i and m is greater than it is in the square character. 

Prov. 11 : 14 should be translated : Without policy a people 
will fall (i. e. come to ruin and destruction) but victory (cf. 
24: 6) lies in much counsel. For in the multitude of counselors 
we would expect be-rob io'agim (cf. 15:22). Moreover, many 
counselors do not bring success : too many cooks spoil the broth. 
In 24:6 <g (fiera KapSias /3ovX.evriK^) read leb id' eg instead of 

rob id' eg, but in 11: 14 05 has a-iarrjpLa 81 v-rrapx^ & voXXfj |8ouA.jj, 

3f salus autem ubi multa consilia, and 24 : 6 : et erit solus ubi 
multa consilia sunt. has be-sug'd de-milkdnutd (milkatnutd 
is a scribal error) in 11:14 (& be-milkd saggi'd) and be-sug'd 
de-mulkdnd (g> be-sug'd de-milkd) in 24:6. Grrncus Venetus, 
on the other hand, renders in 11 : 14 : lv -n-XijOei povktvrov. 

Tahbuldt (cf. tahbuldt lebab, Sir. 37:17) means originally 



BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS 49 

complications, intrigues, plots (cf. Prov. 12 : 5) or schemes; then 
also regularly formulated plan, system of measures, policy, so 
that it is synonymous with 'egd, political program or platform 
(Mic. 31, n. 15). Politik was given as one of the meanings of 
tahbulot by Ziegler (1791) p. 66, below, and Michaelis (1778) 
rendered in Prov. 11 : 14 : Begierungskunst. It is not a nautical 
term derived from hobel, mariner, which means originally long- 
shoreman, coastlander, being the participle of a denominative 
verb derived from habl, coast-line (cf. Syr. hebil idmmd, coast- 
land, maritime district). S mend's rendering St euer signal 
(Sir. 35:16) is unwarranted ; contrast S track's edition (1903) 
p. 73. The primary connotation of the stem habal is to hvist, to 
weave, interwine. Our strand means both shore and a number 
of yarns twisted together (German Strahn). For hobel in Prov. 
23 : 24 see JBL 36, 80. 

We find fiovXr] = jo' eg for mo' eg also in Is. 9:5 (538 b. c.) 
(g /xtyaXrj<; /JouAjjs ayyeAos did not read mal'dk 'egd geclold, as 
Duhm supposes, but combined el of the phrase el-gibbor with 
the preceding pel'-io'eg. We must read el-gibborim, abi-id'd, 
leader (cf. Ezek. 31:11) of warriors, father of the people, lit. 
assembly, congregation (ia'd = ua'd = ' edd; cf. Mic. 51, n. §). 
Vogel added in his edition of Grotius' Annotationes (1775) : 
pater patriae, and Michaelis (1779) rendered: Vater des 
Volks auf ewig. The plural gibbonm was written gibbori' (JBL 
34, 81 ; AJSL 32, 74) and the i after the r dropped out through 
haplography (Mic. 74, <o; JBL 34, 59, 1. 13). Pel'-io'eg is a 
corruption of mufld-mo' eg, wonderful in counsel (cf. the post- 
Biblical mufld bet-din). ® has mafli 'egd, giving wonderful 
counsel (cf. Is. 28:29; JHUC, No. 163, p. 89). The omission 
of the initial mu (written plene) after the preceding semo is due 
to haplography. The new-born Davidic scion, Zerubbabel ( OLZ 
12, 67; Mic. 48, below; JBL 35, 283, below) will be not only 
wonderful in counsel, i. e. a great statesman, but also a leader of 
warriors, i. e. a great general, or, as Tennyson said of the Duke 
of Wellington : 

Great in council and great in war, 
Foremost captain of his time. 

Cf . AJP 40, 70 ; JBL 37, 230, below ; The Monist, vol. 29, p. 301. 

Paul Haupt 

Johns Hopkins University