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50 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE 

THE ETYMOLOGY OF 'OR, SKIN 

Heb. 'or, skin, is identical with Arab, ' aurah, pudendum, 
which we have in Hebrew in the transposed form 'ania. The 
stem 'ur appears in Heb. ' erom, naked, more correctly 'irdm 
for 'orom (cf. Mic. 76; JAOS 34, 416). In me'drehem (Hab. 
2 : 15) the 6 is due to dittography of the r ( JBL 35, 288, below) : 
the correct form is ma'rehem (cf. Nah. 3 : 5 and Arab, ma' ran, 
plur. ma'drin). This reading was suggested by Wellhausen. 
In Assyrian we find both uru (from a stem mediae u) and urn 
(from a stem tertiae u or i). Also the form uru may be derived 
from a stem tertise infirmas: uru may stand for urru, uruu or 
uriu (cf. Arab, 'uridn, naked, ' Uriah, nakedness) just as we 
have bunu, child = bunnu = buniu; or gumu, thirst = gummu, 
gum'u; xitu, sin = xittu, xit'u; gilu, rib = gillu, gil'u, gila'u; 
zeru, seed = zdru, zarru, zar'u (SFG 11; BAL 90.92; AG 2 
50, e). The primary connotation of both 'or, skin, and 'drud, 
pudendum, is nakedness, bareness. AV renders gallot 'drud 
(e. g. Lev. 18:6) : to uncover the nakedness (Assyr. petu sa 
uri). For the semantic development we may compare Heb. 
basdr which denotes both flesh, body, and pudendum, while the 
corresponding Arab, bdsar means skin (AJSL 26, 1). This 
etymology is preferable to the explanation cited in GB 16 574. 
The primary connotation of 'air, young ass, is alert; it must be 
connected with the stem 'ur, to be awake, which does not corre- 
spond to Arab, gairdn, jealous (cf. gdriia = uli'a). Heb. 'or 
does not mean body or flesh in Job 18 : 13 ; 19 : 20, as Fiirst and 
Konig think; contrast Budde's commentary. I have sub- 
sequently noticed that Gesenius' Thesaurus states sub 'or: 
Fortasse cutis a nuditate dicta est. Fiirst gives this explana- 
tion as an alternative. 

Bissdr, to bring tidings, is a denominative verb derived from 
bdsar, skin; the original meaning is to affect the skin, produce 
a change of countenance, paling or flushing it (cf. Lagarde, 
Mitteilungen, 1, 217). In Syriac we have this stem in the trans- 
posed form sabbdr; Syr. sebdrtd, gospel, is the Heb. besord, 
Arab, bisdrah, glad tidings. The original meaning of basar, 
skin, is covering, integument (cf. German Decke, skin). In 
Arabic we have beside dbsarati 'l-drdu, the earth was covered 



BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS 51 

with plants, the forms barsd'u and ramsd'u. Arab, dbsara, to 
adorn, corresponds to our to deck, and the primary connotation 
of dbsara, to conceive (dbsarati 'n-ndqatu) is to be covered (cf. 
German Deckhengst) . See my paper Was David an Aryan? in 
The Open Court, vol. 33, p. 87. 

Paul Haupt 

Johns Hopkins University 



THE ALDINA AS A SOUECE OP THE SIXTINA 

It is not known to me at the present writing whether the view 
advanced in the heading to this brief Note has been given utter- 
ance to by any Septuagint student. What I mean, of course, is 
that the editors of the Sixtina may have placed before the type- 
setters as 'copy' the Aldina into which they had entered the 
variants from the Vaticanus. In this way only, it seems to me, 
is it to be accounted for that an error of the Aldina in Joshua 
22 : 25 was carried into the Sixtina : Km aTraWoTpiuo-ovmv oi vioi 
vixwTovs viutv t^w. From the Sixtina (I have before me the 
Paris edition 1628) the error was carried into the editions based 
on the Sixtina (Bos, Walton, Holmes-Parsons; these I have on 
hand). Holmes-Parsons notes in the apparatus that 16. 18. 55. 
75. 106. 131. 134. 144. 209. Alex. Cat. Nic. have ™, s mow W w and 
30 t(oi> vimv -qixutv. How careless this note is may immediately be 
recognized from the fact that the Compl. is not added as a witness 
for the correct reading. But as a matter of fact the wrong read- 
ing is found in none of the Greek manuscripts collated by the 
editors of the larger Cambridge Septuagint nor in some 17 addi- 
tional codices of which I possess photographs. In other words, 
the Aldine reading stands for the present as a singular reading 
which may have been copied from some Greek manuscript, but 
most likely in a misprint. Mill prints the correct reading and 
puts the wrong reading in the Apparatus ; and so does Breitinger. 
Walton conversely puts the correct reading at the bottom, and in 
the sixth volume records as witnesses for it (i. e. cod. Oxoniensis, 
75 Holmes-Parson, g Brooke-McLean) and C (= Complutensis). 
It remains to be added that Masius (Additamenta in Critici 
Sacri, Amsterdam 1698) remarks: In Graeeis codicibus per