Early Journal Content on JSTOR, Free to Anyone in the World
This article is one of nearly 500,000 scholarly works digitized and made freely available to everyone in
the world by JSTOR.
Known as the Early Journal Content, this set of works include research articles, news, letters, and other
writings published in more than 200 of the oldest leading academic journals. The works date from the
mid-seventeenth to the early twentieth centuries.
We encourage people to read and share the Early Journal Content openly and to tell others that this
resource exists. People may post this content online or redistribute in any way for non-commercial
Read more about Early Journal Content at http://about.jstor.org/participate-jstor/individuals/early-
JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary source objects. JSTOR helps people
discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content through a powerful research and teaching
platform, and preserves this content for future generations. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit
organization that also includes Ithaka S+R and Portico. For more information about JSTOR, please
50 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE
THE ETYMOLOGY OF 'OR, SKIN
Heb. 'or, skin, is identical with Arab, ' aurah, pudendum,
which we have in Hebrew in the transposed form 'ania. The
stem 'ur appears in Heb. ' erom, naked, more correctly 'irdm
for 'orom (cf. Mic. 76; JAOS 34, 416). In me'drehem (Hab.
2 : 15) the 6 is due to dittography of the r ( JBL 35, 288, below) :
the correct form is ma'rehem (cf. Nah. 3 : 5 and Arab, ma' ran,
plur. ma'drin). This reading was suggested by Wellhausen.
In Assyrian we find both uru (from a stem mediae u) and urn
(from a stem tertiae u or i). Also the form uru may be derived
from a stem tertise infirmas: uru may stand for urru, uruu or
uriu (cf. Arab, 'uridn, naked, ' Uriah, nakedness) just as we
have bunu, child = bunnu = buniu; or gumu, thirst = gummu,
gum'u; xitu, sin = xittu, xit'u; gilu, rib = gillu, gil'u, gila'u;
zeru, seed = zdru, zarru, zar'u (SFG 11; BAL 90.92; AG 2
50, e). The primary connotation of both 'or, skin, and 'drud,
pudendum, is nakedness, bareness. AV renders gallot 'drud
(e. g. Lev. 18:6) : to uncover the nakedness (Assyr. petu sa
uri). For the semantic development we may compare Heb.
basdr which denotes both flesh, body, and pudendum, while the
corresponding Arab, bdsar means skin (AJSL 26, 1). This
etymology is preferable to the explanation cited in GB 16 574.
The primary connotation of 'air, young ass, is alert; it must be
connected with the stem 'ur, to be awake, which does not corre-
spond to Arab, gairdn, jealous (cf. gdriia = uli'a). Heb. 'or
does not mean body or flesh in Job 18 : 13 ; 19 : 20, as Fiirst and
Konig think; contrast Budde's commentary. I have sub-
sequently noticed that Gesenius' Thesaurus states sub 'or:
Fortasse cutis a nuditate dicta est. Fiirst gives this explana-
tion as an alternative.
Bissdr, to bring tidings, is a denominative verb derived from
bdsar, skin; the original meaning is to affect the skin, produce
a change of countenance, paling or flushing it (cf. Lagarde,
Mitteilungen, 1, 217). In Syriac we have this stem in the trans-
posed form sabbdr; Syr. sebdrtd, gospel, is the Heb. besord,
Arab, bisdrah, glad tidings. The original meaning of basar,
skin, is covering, integument (cf. German Decke, skin). In
Arabic we have beside dbsarati 'l-drdu, the earth was covered
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS 51
with plants, the forms barsd'u and ramsd'u. Arab, dbsara, to
adorn, corresponds to our to deck, and the primary connotation
of dbsara, to conceive (dbsarati 'n-ndqatu) is to be covered (cf.
German Deckhengst) . See my paper Was David an Aryan? in
The Open Court, vol. 33, p. 87.
Johns Hopkins University
THE ALDINA AS A SOUECE OP THE SIXTINA
It is not known to me at the present writing whether the view
advanced in the heading to this brief Note has been given utter-
ance to by any Septuagint student. What I mean, of course, is
that the editors of the Sixtina may have placed before the type-
setters as 'copy' the Aldina into which they had entered the
variants from the Vaticanus. In this way only, it seems to me,
is it to be accounted for that an error of the Aldina in Joshua
22 : 25 was carried into the Sixtina : Km aTraWoTpiuo-ovmv oi vioi
vixwTovs viutv t^w. From the Sixtina (I have before me the
Paris edition 1628) the error was carried into the editions based
on the Sixtina (Bos, Walton, Holmes-Parsons; these I have on
hand). Holmes-Parsons notes in the apparatus that 16. 18. 55.
75. 106. 131. 134. 144. 209. Alex. Cat. Nic. have ™, s mow W w and
30 t(oi> vimv -qixutv. How careless this note is may immediately be
recognized from the fact that the Compl. is not added as a witness
for the correct reading. But as a matter of fact the wrong read-
ing is found in none of the Greek manuscripts collated by the
editors of the larger Cambridge Septuagint nor in some 17 addi-
tional codices of which I possess photographs. In other words,
the Aldine reading stands for the present as a singular reading
which may have been copied from some Greek manuscript, but
most likely in a misprint. Mill prints the correct reading and
puts the wrong reading in the Apparatus ; and so does Breitinger.
Walton conversely puts the correct reading at the bottom, and in
the sixth volume records as witnesses for it (i. e. cod. Oxoniensis,
75 Holmes-Parson, g Brooke-McLean) and C (= Complutensis).
It remains to be added that Masius (Additamenta in Critici
Sacri, Amsterdam 1698) remarks: In Graeeis codicibus per