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Friedrich Delitzsch showed in his Hebrew Language 
viewed in the Light of Assyrian Research (London, 1883) p. 40 
that dagul in Cant. 5 : 10 and nidgol in Ps. 20 : 6 were connected 
with the Assyr. dagalu, to see. For the second hemistich of Ps. 
20 : 6 he proposed the rendering We shall keep our eyes directed 
upon the name of our God. In his Prolegomena (Leipzig, 1886) 
pp. 59-61 he explained dagalu more accurately as to look at or 
on, especially to gaze with admiration or to look with confidence. 

Assyr. dagalu means to watch. This may signify to ie atten- 
tive, give heed; look forward, wait; keep an eye upon (HW 
210''). Assyr. diglu, which corresponds to Heb. ddgl, tavern- 
sign (BL 124, ad 67) or ensign, standard, banner, has the con- 
notation of our cynosure in the sense of something that strongly 
attracts attention. Also dagul, Cant. 5 : 10, means attracting 
attention, catching the eye, conspicuous (lit. gazed at). Nidgalot 
(Cant. 6: 4) denotes bannered hosts; the banner is the rallying 
point in battle (c/. ZA 25, 324; Florilegium Melchior de Vogiie, 
p. 280, n. 16; contrast OLZ 18, 189, n. 4). 

The primary meaning of the stem is to be intent; it is a 
transposed doublet (JBL 36, 140) of gaddlu. Syr. geddl means 
to twist, to plait, interweave; Arab, jadala signifies to twist a 
cord. A cord or string is composed of several strands twisted or 
woven together, and a tertiary gloss in Eccl. 4 : 12 says : A three- 
fold cord (or a three-stranded rope) is not quickly broken. 
Assyr. gidlu denotes a rope of onions (BA 1, 511, n. *). Heb. 
gadol, great, means originally strong (cf. migdal, tower, origin- 
ally stronghold) and must be explained in the same way as Arab. 
qauii strong (see the paper The Harmony of the Spheres in JBL 
38, parts 1 and 2). Strong is related to string, and German 
streng is connected with Strang. 

The emendation negaddel instead of nidgol in Ps. 20 : 6 is 
gratuitous, but nidgol should stand after be-{sem)-Iahue 


(elohenu) in v. 8, and nazkir should be inserted after be-sem 
eloMnu in v. 6; the two hemistichs of vv. 6 and 8 must be 
transposed. Andhnu he-Iahue nidgol means we look to Jahveh, 
i. e. depend upon Him with confidence (c/. the line from the 
oracles to Esarhaddon, quoted in Mic. 45, n. 10).^ Be-sem 
elohenu nazkir does not mean we praise the name of our God, 
but we invoke the name of our God (cf. Josh. 23 : 7 ; Is. 48 : 1). 
Hizkir he-sem is synonymous with qard be-sem (Gen. 4:26). 
Bfethgen's reading nagbir instead of nazkir is untenable (con- 
trast Mic. 47, n. *). In Assyrian the verb zakaru means not 
only to call, to speak, but also to invoke; the phrase sum Hani 
rabuti izkur should be translated he invoked the name of the 
great gods, not he swore by the great gods (HW 510''). For 
the spelling isqur instead of izkur see JBL 19, 68, n. 40; and 
for nisu (= nis'u) as a synonym of sumu (HW 482'') cf. GB" 
sub nes. Also mas, forced service, compulsory labor, is derived 
from nasd; it is a shortened form of massd, impost, levy; cf. 
ma'l=ma'le, &c. (AJSL 22, 253, n. 14; Noldeke, Syr. Gr. § 50; 
Margolis, § 5, s). 

Ps. 20 consists of two quatrains with 3 + 2 beats in each 
line. We find the same meter in Ps. 110 which was written at 
the same time. Both poems refer to the rebellion of Zerubbabel 
in the beginning of the year 519 b. c. (cf. above, p. 209) . 

It is possible that in elohe la'qob, the god of Jacob, la'qob was 
originally an appositional genitive {Mic. 19, n. 17). — The verb 
iedassenennd (cf. above, p. 216) means lit. He will surely incin- 
erate it (Lev. 9:24; 1 K 18:38). It is a denominative verb 
derived from ddsn = Arab, samdd (JBL 35, 322, below). For 
the suffix cf. ettenennd, Gen. 13:15; 35:12; ieqalle' ennd, 1 S 
25 : 291 ; see also GK § 143, c. — For kilbabeka, according to thy 
heart, we had better read kol-lebabeka, all of thy heart = Assyr. 
mdl libbi or ammar libbi (HW 91^.410''). For the stem of 
ammaru see ZDMG 63, 519, 1. 35 ; cf. JAOS 38, 336 ; JHUC, No. 
306, p. 22). Heb. kol-lebaiekd is equivalent to kol ds'dr bi-lba- 
bekd. Zerubbabel's purpose, referred to in v. 5, is the restora- 
tion of the Davidic kingdom. The noun 'egd is used also of a 
political program {Mic. 33, n. 15; cf. the paper on Heb. mo' eg, 

'^ Am he-Iahue adgdl is synonymous with an% ie-Iahue agappe (see Mic. 



counsel, in JBL 38, parts 1 and 2). — For hosi' (v. 7) and kare'u 
(v. 9) we must read the future (iosi' , ikre'u). — The chariots in 
V. 8 are the scythed chariots of the Persians. — Nit'oddd means 
lit. we shall make ourselves come back (cf. OLZ 12, 66) i. e. 
regain our former condition. The verb kara' is used of a man 
who is stunned and settles on his knees before he sinks to the 
ground; cf. Jud. 5 : 27 (JAOS 34, 423 ; WF 211, n. 78). 
The two quatrains may be translated as follows : 

Psalm 20 

2 aThe ^God of Jacob will guard thee 

4 He'll remember all thy gifts 

5 He'U grant all thou hast at heart,S 
etJ.aWe shall ( ) [invoke] the name of our God 

in time of stress 57 

and consume thy burnt-offering; {} 

and fulfil cthy purpose; 

and exult o'er thy ■vi<itorj.{Selah} 

7 fl know TjHe'U help His anointedi? 
Sb.aWe (look to) [] kJhvhx for help, 
9 They will be brought down and fall, 
10 O Jhvh, help the king. 

with featSt of His right hand, 
but they to chariots.^n 
but ■wen shall be restored, 
and respond^ when we call! 

(a) 2 Jhvh will respond to thee (^) name of 

(7) 3 He'll send thee help from the fane and support thee from Zion. 

(§) en Jhvh will fulfil all thy petitions (c) 5 all (f) 7 now (,;) Jhvh 
(e) 7 He will respond from His holy heaven (1) of help (k) 8 the name of 
(\) 8 our God (/i) and they to horses (y) 9 have risen and (^) 10 at the time 

The Hebrew text should be read as follows : 

i'7f)ji 'i^iy no?^ 9 

nin' (,,) nn^ i'{^ ' ^3 5 (e) 

lynSx (X) Dty (k) s ;rty^ (i) 

or 10 ({) 1 unp 9 ('y) 

Dty (,3) niH' IJ;?' 2 (a) 

wip 'Dtyn injj;' 7 (#) 

D'D1D3 nSxi 8 (^) 


This may be translated into Assyrian (c/. above, p. 217) as 
follows : 

2 ap-yll-Iaqubi ina-um-nandurf Tcdsa indgardJcaS 

4 Kal-igiseka ixdsas-ma etbeka ana-maqtHiV iqtdla 

5 Ammar libhiha usamgATca-ma egwrnmereUTca'' usaksadTca^ 

6 NU ilini nisakar-ma ana-Utika? ni/rasa. — SuMnu" 

7 nldt sae-dna-epsetiK sa-imittisu paStssu irAg' 

8 Annuti narTcabatiX ti-antni lilamav niddgal 

9 Sunn uktammas'A-'ma imaqutu-ma antni ^ana-asrini-nitar 
10 Jama Sarra ruga-ma ina-oqiCbtni apulann&si 

(a) 1 ana dulli ia Hi. samaru. sa Damidi ('|8) 2 lama ippalaka (7) sum 

(5) 3 Istu-asirti nerarMa iidpar-ma iStu-Qi'ilni ixatandha 

(c) 5 Teal {^) 6b lama Tcal-erseWka" usalcsad (rt) 7 eninna (e) Jama 

(1) 7 iHu-sameSu quddusuti ippaUu (k) rSguti (X) 8 u-anwHU murnisqe' 

(fi) 8 sum (v) ilini (0 9 nittaeiz-ma (o) 10 ftm 

Paul Haupt. 

Johns Hopkins University. 


J. D. Miehaelis (1786) pointed out that aspot, the Hebrew 
form of Tophet, i. e. Aram. *tefdt with the vowels of iost, shame 
(JBL 35, 157) corresponds to Arab, utfiiah (contrast Gese- 
nius' Tkes. 1471''). For t instead of s in Hebrew cf. Proverhs 
(SBOT) 51, 14; JBL 34, 62, 1. 9; AJSL 32, 64; contrast 

' See ZDMG 64, 706, 1. 12. 

= This is the stem from which alhali (Arab, qilan = qilaiun) is derived; 
it denoted originally the ashes of saltwort and glasswort. 

* Cf. Arab, dam&'ir. For the synonym Mpdu see JAOS 25, 73. Arab. 
ddmara := istdqga appears in Syriac as 'emdr, to be immersed in an 

» Cf. JAOS 82, 17. 

" Cf. above, p. 217, n. 9. 

'We might also say utahTcal. Assyr. tuTcultu, which means originally 
strength, is used also for protection, favor, help (Arab, mdxdah). Syr. 
tukland signifies trust, confidence. In Arabic we have tuhlan and tuTclah, 
trust in God. Cf. ZDMG 63, 519, 1. 1; JBL 38, 299. 

« Cf. above, p. 214. 

» See AJSL 83, 45.