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232 JOURNAL OP BIBLICAL LITERATURE 

This may be translated into Assyrian (c/. above, p. 217) as 
follows : 

2 ap-yll-Iaqubi ina-um-nandurf Tcdsa indgardJcaS 

4 Kal-igiseka ixdsas-ma etbeka ana-maqtHiV iqtdla 

5 Ammar libhiha usamgATca-ma egwrnmereUTca'' usaksadTca^ 

6 NU ilini nisakar-ma ana-Utika? ni/rasa. — SuMnu" 

7 nldt sae-dna-epsetiK sa-imittisu paStssu irAg' 

8 Annuti narTcabatiX ti-antni lilamav niddgal 

9 Sunn uktammas'A-'ma imaqutu-ma antni ^ana-asrini-nitar 
10 Jama Sarra ruga-ma ina-oqiCbtni apulann&si 



(a) 1 ana dulli ia Hi. samaru. sa Damidi ('|8) 2 lama ippalaka (7) sum 

(5) 3 Istu-asirti nerarMa iidpar-ma iStu-Qi'ilni ixatandha 

(c) 5 Teal {^) 6b lama Tcal-erseWka" usalcsad (rt) 7 eninna (e) Jama 

(1) 7 iHu-sameSu quddusuti ippaUu (k) rSguti (X) 8 u-anwHU murnisqe' 

(fi) 8 sum (v) ilini (0 9 nittaeiz-ma (o) 10 ftm 

Paul Haupt. 

Johns Hopkins University. 



THE TOPHET GATE 

J. D. Miehaelis (1786) pointed out that aspot, the Hebrew 
form of Tophet, i. e. Aram. *tefdt with the vowels of iost, shame 
(JBL 35, 157) corresponds to Arab, utfiiah (contrast Gese- 
nius' Tkes. 1471''). For t instead of s in Hebrew cf. Proverhs 
(SBOT) 51, 14; JBL 34, 62, 1. 9; AJSL 32, 64; contrast 

' See ZDMG 64, 706, 1. 12. 

= This is the stem from which alhali (Arab, qilan = qilaiun) is derived; 
it denoted originally the ashes of saltwort and glasswort. 

* Cf. Arab, dam&'ir. For the synonym Mpdu see JAOS 25, 73. Arab. 
ddmara := istdqga appears in Syriac as 'emdr, to be immersed in an 
occupation. 

» Cf. JAOS 82, 17. 

" Cf. above, p. 217, n. 9. 

'We might also say utahTcal. Assyr. tuTcultu, which means originally 
strength, is used also for protection, favor, help (Arab, mdxdah). Syr. 
tukland signifies trust, confidence. In Arabic we have tuhlan and tuTclah, 
trust in God. Cf. ZDMG 63, 519, 1. 1; JBL 38, 299. 

« Cf. above, p. 214. 

» See AJSL 83, 45. 



BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS 233 

JAOS 35, 378. The initial vowel in Heb. aspot and Arab. 
utfiiah is prosthetic. In Neh. 3 : 13 we find sefot without the 
prefixed a. The name sa'r ha-sfot or sa'r ha-asp6t does not 
mean Dung Gate (DB 2, 593t'; BB 2423; GB^" 855^, No. 15) 
but Tophet Gate; it led to the Tophet in the Valley of Hinnom 
south of Jerusalem. It was known also as the Harsith Gate 
(i. e. IIvA^ TS.epati.iKri) . The Harsith of Jerusalem corresponds to 
the Mons Testaceus (EB" 23, 606, n. 9) in the southwestern 
corner of ancient Kome, but it was situated, not within the city, 
but south of the Harsith Gate at the southeastern corner of 
Jerusalem. The location of the Harsith Gate corresponds to 
the location of the Roman Porta Appia, and the Valley Gate 
(Neh. 3 : 13) to the Porta Ardeatina (EB" 23, 586 ,- cf. 15, 332) . 
Heb. harsit is a feminine collective like Ethiop. xalldftt, travelers ; 
gabM'tt, soldiers, army (Barth, § 251). Fiirst rendered cor- 
rectly: Tonscherhenplatz. The Outer Ceramicus of Athens 
(EB" 2, 837^) was something different. SF qilqilta, Jer. 19 : 2 
(= Syr. qtqalta) does not mean dung, but refuse, rubbish (lit. 
worthlessness; cf. Heb. qeloqel, worthless. Num. 21:5). 
Another name for Harsith was potter's field (Matt. 27 : 7) . The 
designation field of Uood (Acts 1: 19) suggests that it was used 
also as a place for the execution of malefactors. Aspot or sefot 
= Aram. *tefdt does not mean dung, but fire-place, cremator, 
incinerator. It is a synonym of serefa; for seremot, Jer. 31 : 40 
we must read ierefot — mjpai, irvpKamL, Lat. ustrinae, iusta. 
Nor does Aram, neudlu (Ezr. 6:11; Dan. 2:5; 3:29) mean 
dunghill: it is the Assyr. namdlu, ruin, rubbish; cf. Arab. 
manal, bent, inclined, and Heb. qir natui, Ps. 62 : 4, from natd 
= Ethiop. mattdua; cf. Heb. nasd = Assyr. mam, to forget. 
For the u in Aram, neudlu = Assyr. m see ZA 2, 265. 

Paul Haupt. 
Jokns Hopkins University. 



234 JOURNAL OP BIBLICAL LITERATURE 



ACTS 2:47. 

Should not the translation of Acts 2 : 47, demanded by Pro- 
fessor Torrey, run as follows : 

"And the Lord was bringing more of the Elect day by day 
together." The mo^o/xevoL (see Lk. 13: 23) are surely those who 
in the interval between the proclamation of the Gospel and the 
expected Coming of Jesus were being converted, and so were 
being saved from the Wrath to come. Their number therefore 
is known to God ; it is not being increased. But more and more 
may be brought together, em to avro, therefore, is necessary to 
Acts 2 : 47, as indeed Mr. Vazakas points out on p. 108 from 
another point of view, and the argument that it must be a mis- 
translation from a hypothetical Aramaic source is thereby 
weakened. 



F. 0. BUEKITT. 



With the British Expeditionary Force, 
Eouen, January, 1919.