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BARTON AND SPOER : SYRIAC LECTIONARIES 179 



Traces of the Diatessaron of Tatian in 
Harclean Syriac Lectionaries 

GEORGE A. BARTON 

BBYN MAWR COLLEGE 

Director of the American School in Palestine, 1902-1903 

AND 

HANS H. SPOER 

MEADVILLE THEOLOGICAL SCHOOL 

Thayer Fellow at Jerusalem, 1903-1904 
I. 

DURING the early months of the academic year 1902- 
1903, when Jerusalem, compassed with cholera, was 
nearly shut off from the outside world, and many activi- 
ties were denied to us, the members of the American School 
were so fortunate as to make the acquaintance of the Syrian 
(Jacobite) Bishop of Jerusalem, who permitted us to examine 
the manuscripts in the monastery over which he presides. 
Among these were two Syriac lectionaries, dating one from 
the year 1221 and the other from 1262. 

Lectionary A is written in estrangelo characters on vel- 
lum, and consists of 161 leaves, 55 cm. high and 40 cm. 
wide, with two columns to the page and 30 lines to the 
column. Of these leaves three are new, one of the new 
leaves (f. 97) being still blank, while the other two (f. 106 
and f. 108) are written in modern characters. F. 123 has 
been patched, about one third being new. The rest, includ- 
ing four leaves at the beginning devoted to the index, is 
all of the same age, and a colophon dates it in the year 1574 
of the Greek era, i.e. 1262 A.D. The general order is : 
(1) evening lesson, (2) morning lesson, (3) lesson for the 
Mass. The title of each of these is in red or gilt letters. 

Lectionary B contains 187 vellum leaves, 26 cm. high and 



180 JOURNAL OP BIBLICAL LITERATURE 

20J cm. wide, with two columns to the page, each 5J cm. 
wide, and with 27 lines to the column. These are written 
in fine estrangelo characters with headings in gilt or red. 
Occasionally the margin contains a note in Greek. A colo- 
phon dates this portion of the ms. in the year 1533 of the 
Greeks, i.e. 1221 a.d. The ms. also includes 14 leaves, of 
paper, written in a later hand ; of these leaves seven, at the 
beginning, are occupied by the index. The text is illustrated 
by seven pictures. The upper cover is of silver, and is 
ornamented with a figure in each corner, and in the centre 
with a crucifix in relief between two standing female figures. 
The lessons in these books were found to consist for the 
most part of continuous extracts from the different Gospels, 
but those for the various services of Passion Week are made 
up of a harmony, or compilation, of brief extracts from the 
four Gospels, pieced together so as to make a continuous story 
after the manner of Tatian. In the further investigation of 
the matter we were greatly handicapped by the lack of books, 
but the fourth edition of Scrivener's Plain Introduction to 
the Criticism of the New Testament was in our library, and by 
comparing the lectionaries with the extracts from the Syriac 
versions contained in that work we determined provisionally 
that the text was substantially the same as White's Harclean 
version. 1 No means were at hand, however, for ascertaining 

1 The lectionary has, however, a large number of independent readings, 
but agrees in the main with the Peshitta, both differing at times from White's 
text. There are some 300 variants, about one third of which are scribal, 
especially in the case of names and foreign words, in which the lectionary 
usually follows the Peshitta, often also words are in different order from 
White's text, the Peshitta differing from 1both. The lectionary has the true 
Syriac form 'espeira, Jn. 18 s , and 'estratiga, Lk, 22 52 . The following readings 
in the lectionary may be noted : Lk. 22 61 + to Peter, with the verb in the 
singular ; Matt. 26 30 he gave thanks ; Matt. 26 s1 + his [flock'] ; Mk. 15 8 he 
began to ask, Pilate being obviously the questioner, as " multitude" has the 
verb in the plural ; Matt. 26 42 + he fell upon his face and ; + cup ; Jn. 19" 
they went out ; Matt. 27 40 + oh! Matt. 27 42 + so that we may see Jn. 19" + 
his [new tomb] + hewn in the rock, as in the Arabic Diatessaron ; Lk. 23 15 
/ sent him to him, as in the Arabic. Instead of using the possessive pronoun 
to refer to the genitive in a stat. const, of which both parts are determined, 
the pronoun is often omitted in passages where it is found in White's text, 
e.g. Matt. 26»-« 27«>, Jn. 19*>. [H. H. S.] 



BABTON AND SPOER: SYEIAC LECTIONAEIES 181 

whether the composite sections were derived from Tatian. 
No copy of the Arabic Diatessaron could be found in Jeru- 
salem, although the Dominicans and Franciscans kindly 
gave us access to all their books. Accordingly I wrote to 
Dr. Rendel Harris about the matter. He had himself worked 
in the library many years ago, and was fondly remembered 
by one of the older monks (Brother Abdullah, who has since 
died) as "Yakob Harris." Dr. Harris replied: "The passion 
harmony of which you speak is common in Harclean codices; 
but I do not think the order is Tatian's, and I have several 
times looked at it, having had many copies through my 
hands." 2 It appeared that the question of the origin of the 
harmony contained in these sections had received little at- 
tention, and accordingly Dr. Spoer and I photographed the 
harmonic sections of Lectionary A and collated with them 
those of Lectionary B. 

Since our return to America we have pursued the investi- 
gation with the aid of the necessary books, and Dr. Spoer 
has discovered that five of the harmonic sections bear a close 
relationship to the Arabic Diatessaron, as published by 
Ciasca (1888). Of these sections he will treat below. With 
the exception of these five sections the passion harmony of 

a The same judgment is expressed by Zahn, "Tatian's Diatessaron," in 
Forschungen zur Geschichte des neutestamentlichen Kanons, i, 1881, p. 294. 
J. P. P. Martin has elaborately and interestingly discussed the Syriac passion 
harmonies in the following publications: Pitra's Analecta sacra, iv, 1883, 
pp. 483-486 ; " Le Aid T«r<rdpwi> de Tatien," in Revue des questions histo- 
riques, vol. xxxiii, 1883, pp. 349-394 ; Introduction a la critique textuelle du 
Nouveau Testament; Partie theorique, 1883, pp. 707-710, XXI-XXIV; 
Partie pratique, vol. Hi, 1885, pp. 121-144, 420-426 ; cf. also his article 
" Le Aid Teo-trdpov de Tatien" in Revue des questions historiques, vol. xliv, 
1888, pp. 5-50. The Abbe 1 Martin's work seems to have been somewhat 
neglected by Protestant scholars, partly, no doubt, because of the practical 
joke which he once perpetrated on his fellow-critics (Introduction ; Partie 
thiorique, pp. 234-236). He held that the habitual use of passion harmo- 
nies in the various branches of the Syrian church was due to the influence 
of the Diatessaron of Tatian, and observes (Introduction ; Partie pratique, 
vol. iii. p. 130) that the harmony used by the Monophysites shows "some 
points of contact " with the Arabic Diatessaron. See, further, at the end 
of the present article, p. 195. Martin was not acquainted with any 
form of the passion harmony which exactly corresponded with the Arabic 
Diatessaron. 



182 



JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE 



the lectionaries bears no relation to the Diatessaron, so far as 
we can recover it from Ciasca's Arabic text, from the Ar- 
menian version of Ephraem's Commentary, and from the form 
in which Victor of Capua left it in the Codex Fuldensis of 
the Latin Vulgate. Not only does the order of topics vary, 
but in treating the same topics, except in the five sections 
mentioned, the extracts from the Gospels differ from those 
of Tatian. To exhibit in detail something of the difference, 
I subjoin lists of the passages which make up the sections 
treating of the Last Supper : — 



Lectionaries 
Matt. 26 2 °« 
*Lk. 22 14W « 
Matt. 26 2 i 
Lk. 22 28 
Jn. 132 
Mk. 14 1 *- 20 * 
Jn. IB 1 *™ 
Lk. 2221 
Jn. 1321- 22 
Matt. 2622 
Jn. 13 2 *- 28 " 
Mk. 142* 
Matt. 26 2 3- 2 4» 
Mk. 142W 
Matt. 2625-28 
Lk. 221" 
Matt. 2629 
Lk. 2228-so 
Jn. 13 2<M0 

j n . !3316.32 

Matt. 2630-32 
Lk. 2231-32 

*Jn. 1336 
Lk. 22 8 » 

*Jn. 13 3 '»-88 
Matt. 26 38 
Mk. 1430* 
Matt. 26» J 
Lk. 22»» 
Matt. 2635 
Jn. 1631-32 
Lk. 2235-38 



Arabic Diatessarow 
Lk. 22M-' 6 
Jn. 13-'i« 
Mk. 1413^-20 
Lk. 2221 
Mk. 1421 
Jn. 1322 
Lk. 2223 
Jn. 1323-29 
Matt. 2625 
Jn. 1330-32 
Mk. 1422« 
Matt. 26 2 » 
Mk. 1423« 
Matt. 262" 

Mk. 14 2 3»-24« 

Matt. 26 28 - 2 9 
Lk. 22i» 
Lk. 2231-32 
Jn. 1333-36 
Matt. 2631-33 
Lk. 223% 

Jn. 1337»-38« 

Mk. 1430& 
Lk. 223» 
Mk. 1431 
Jn. 141-31- 

Lk. 2235-38 
Jn. 143i» 
Lk. 2239 
Jn. 151-2? 
Jn. 161-33 
Jn. 171-26 



* Passages marked with an asterisk are omitted by Lectionary B. 



BABTON AND SPOEE : SYRIAC LECTIONAKIES 



183 



It is evident from this comparison that the Syriac is an 
independent compilation. The same result is obtained if 
one compares the composition of any other part of the nar- 
rative of the passion in the two works. 

The following comparison of the order of the leading 
topics in the narrative of the passion yields a similar proof 
of independence. 

Arabic Diatessaron 

Paschal feast begun. 

The traitor announced; he goes out. 

The supper. 

Peter's denial foretold. 

Withdrawal to Mouut of Olives. 



Lectionakies 
At the passover supper. 
The traitor announced. 
Supper eaten. 
Judas withdraws. 
Withdrawal to Mount of Olives. 
Denial of Peter announced. 
Withdrawal to Gethsemane across 

the Kidron. 
In Gethsemane. 
Betrayal and arrest. 
Before Annas; Peter's first denial. 
Before Caiaphas. 

Before the Sanhedrim ; second and 

third denials. 
Before Pilate ; " what is truth ? " 

People choose Barabbas. 

Jesus scourged, Barabbas released. 

Repentance of Judas. 

Before the Sanhedrim again. 

Before Pilate again. 

Before Herod. 

Before Pilate again. 

Barabbas again chosen. 

Jesus again condemned and 

scourged. 
Jesus mocked and crowned with 

thorns. 
Pilate exhibits Jesus to excite pity. 
Jesus delivered to be crucified. 
March to Calvary. 
Crucifixion and attendant events. 
Entombment. 
Tomb sealed. 



Gethsemane. 



Before Annas ; Peter's first denial. 
Before Caiaphas ; second and third 

denials. 
Before the Sanhedrim. 



Before Pilate ; 
Before Herod. 
Before Pilate 
chosen. 



what is truth?" 



again ; Barabbas 



Judas returns the silver. 



March to Calvary. 
Crucifixion. 
Entombment. 
Tomb sealed. 



184 JOURNAL OP BIBLICAL LITERATURE 

From this comparison it is clear that the Diatessaron is 
a much abler piece of work. It conducts the reader by 
means of a connected and intelligent narrative through the 
events of the last hours of the life of Jesus. The lectionary 
sections reach the same goal, but by a much more devious 
way. Thus in the midst of the events after the Last Supper 
had been eaten, we are told that "when they had offered 
praise they went out to the Mount of Olives," and the pre- 
diction of Peter's denial apparently takes place there, but 
after this Jesus passes with the disciples over the Brook 
Kidron, as though he had not gone out before. The narra- 
tive is also so selected from the different Gospels that Jesus 
is condemned by the Sanhedrim twice, is before Pilate three 
times, and condemned by him twice, while Barabbas is twice 
chosen by the people. Likewise in the minor details of the 
narrative throughout, the text is conflate and repetitious. 
It is a striking fact, too, that the discourses of John 11-16 
are omitted by the Syriac lectionaries, although included in 
the Diatessaron. In constructing the harmony, with the 
exception of those sections of which Dr. Spoer treats below, 
the use of Tatian's work appears to have been deliberately 

avoided. 

G. A. B. 
II. 

The five sections referred to above, which show a con- 
nection with the Arabic Diatessaron, include more than 
one fourth of the whole passion harmony contained in the 
lectionary. The surrounding sections, as Professor Barton 
has shown, exhibit only such incidental agreement with the 
corresponding sections of the Diatessaron as must inevitably 
occur in parallel passages from any two Gospel harmonies. 
The following exhibition of the passages which make up 
these five sections and of those composing the corresponding 
chapters of the Diatessaron will show the agreements and 
differences. 

(1) The lesson, " Of the first watch of the night of Good 
Friday," title-number 201. It stands in a footnote to column 
ix of Lectionary A, and corresponds to chapter 48 7 " 13 of the 
Arabic Diatessaron. 



BARTON AND SPOEK : SYEIAC LECTIONAKIES 



185 



Lectionaby B 


Arabic Diatessaron 


Lk. 22" 


Lk. 22" 




Mk. H3» 




Same 


Same 


Same 


Same 


Same 


Same 


Same 


Same 


Same 


Same 


Same 


Same 


Same 


Same 



Lectiohaby A 

Lk. 22«« 

Mk. 14» 

Lk. 22™ 

Mk. 143«« 

Lk. 22*» 
8 Mk. 14»» 

Matt. 26 40 " 

Mk. IV™ 

Matt. 26«»-«« 
*Mk. 1438* 

Matt. 26« 

Translation: 6 

Lk. 22 41 " And he was parted from them <a little) about a stone's 
throw, <vs. 414 and he kneeled down and fell forward on his face), 
[Mk. 14 35 " and he went forward a little and fell upon the ground] 
vs. 356 and prayed that if it be possible that hour might pass 
away from him. [Lk. 22 u * And he kneeled down, he prayed 
saying] Mk. 14 s6 " Abba [Father] all things are possible to thee; 
Lk. 22 421 if thou be willing let this cup pass away from me. 
Nevertheless not my will but thy (will) be done. [Mk. 14 36 * 
Not as I wish but as thou.] Matt. 26 40 " And he came to 
the (his) disciples, and he found them sleeping, and he said to 
Peter (Cephas), Mk. 14 37 ' Simon, sleepest thou? Matt. 26*» Lo, 
could ye not watch with me one hour? vs. 41 " Watch and pray, 
so that ye enter not into temptation; vs. 416 = Mk. 14 386 the spirit 
is willing <and ready) but the flesh (body) is weak, vs. 42 He went 
away again a second time [he fell upon his face] <and) prayed 
saying, My Father, if this cup cannot pass away [from me] 
except I drink it, thy will be done. 

» Mk. 14S6& _ Lk. 22*» in substance. 

4 The Peshitta and the Arabic version in Mk. 14 384 read "willing and 
ready," in Matt. 26 414 , "ready"; in the Harclean (White, our lectionary) 
Mk. and Matt, coincide in having the shorter form. 

6 The following signs are used in the translations : 

( ) indicate that the enclosed passage or word is additional in the Arabic 
Diatessaron. 

[ ] indicate that the enclosed passage or word is additional in the lec- 
tionary. 

( ) preceded by italics indicate that the word or phrase enclosed is found 
in the Arabic Diatessaron in place of the italicized word or phrase of the 
lectionary. 



186 



JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE 



(2) The lesson " Of the second watch of the night of 
Good Friday " and part of the lesson " Of the third watch 
of the night of Good Friday," title-numbers 202 and 203. 
These stand in columns xi-xiv of Lectionary A and corre- 
spond to chapter 48 25 " 61 of the Arabic Diatessaron. 



Lectionary A 

Matt. 26«-«°» 
Lk. 22** 
Matt. 26 601 



Jn. 18 6 - 9 
Matt. 20 5 °« 
Lk. 22« 
Jn. IS 10 -"- 
Lk. 22si« 
Jn. 18™ 
Matt. 2652»-5< 
Lk. 22 51 * 
Matt. 26 55a 



Aeabic Diatessaron 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Lk. 2262- 

Jn. 18«- 5 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Same 



Same 
Same 
Same 
Same 
Matt. 26*» 



Lk. 2252»» 

Lk. 22«» 
Matt. 26 6 8 



Mk. 1461-52 
' Jn. 1812-15* 

Matt. 26 s8 * 
Jn. 18 ls »- 1« 
Matt. 26<*> 
Jn. 18" 



Same 

Same 

'Jn. 18" 

Same 

Same 



Same 



Same 



Translation: 

Matt. 26 49 And immediately he (the traitor Judas) went near 

6 There is obviously a lacuna in the lectionary between Matt. 26 504 and 
Jn. 18 6 . This is supplied in the Arabic Diatessaron by Jn. 18 4 *- 5 , which, 
however, in the lectionary precedes this section, together with vs. 3 . 

Lk. 22 5 -«, as is pointed out by Hill, The Earliest Life of Christ, p. 235, is 
more appropriately placed lower down, at the point where it is found in the 
lectionary. 

7 In the Diatessaron, the verse Jn. 18 12 occurs twice, once in full, following 
upon Matt. 26 s6 , and again in a condensed form just below, as in the lection- 
ary. In the place where it first occurs it may be a later insertion. It has 
there been altered so as to read " and they went their way," instead of "and 
they bound him." 



BARTON AND SPOER : SYRIAC LECTIONARIBS 187 

to Jesus and said, Hail, Master! and kissed him. vs. 400 Then 
said Jesus to him, Lk. 22 486 Judas, dost thou betray the Son of 
Man with a kiss ? Matt. 26 501 My friend, art thou come for this? 
<Lk. 22 52 " Jn. 18 4 *- 5 And Jesus said unto them which were come 
unto him, Whom seek ye ? They said unto him, Jesus of Nazareth. 
Jesus said unto them, I am he. And Judas also, the betrayer, 
was standing with them.) Jn. 18 6 When he (Jesus) therefore said 
to them, I am he, they went backwards and fell upon the earth. 
vs. 7 Then again he (Jesus) asked them, Whom are you seeking ? 
They [then] said, Jesus, the Nazarene. vs. 8 Jesus answered <to 
them), I said to you that I am he. If therefore ye are seeking 
me, let these go. vs. 9 So that the word be fulfilled which he 
spoke, Of those whom thou hast given me I have not lost one. 
Matt. 26 50 " Then they <that were with Judas) drew near <and) 
laid hands on Jesus and took him. Lk. 22 4 ' But when those who 
were with him (his disciples) saw that which took place, they said 
[to him], Master, shall we smite them with the swords? Jn. 18 10 
Simon Peter (Cephas), therefore, who had a sword, drew it and 
struck a servant of the high priest, and cut off his right ear. 
But the name of the servant was Malchus. vs. 11 " [Then] Jesus 
[answered] saying to Peter (Cephas), [Lk. 22 51 " Permit them unto 
this] Jn. 18"* [Put the sword into its sheath]. The cup which the 
(my) Father has given me, shall I not drink it? Matt. 26 52 > <Put 
the sword into its sheath) for all those who take (attack with) 
the sword shall perish with the sword, vs. 53 Or thinkest thou 
that I cannot [now] beseech my Father and he shall furnish to 
me now more than twelve legions of angels? vs. M How then 
shall the scriptures be fulfilled? <which say) that thus it is 
right to be. Lk. 22 51s and (after this) he <gently) touched his 
(the) ear <which he had struck and) he healed it. Matt. 26 550 
<and> In that hour said Jesus to the multitudes (vs. 556 Are ye come 
out against me as an attack is made on a robber, with swords and 
staves to take me? I sat daily with you in the temple, teaching, 
and ye took me not.) [Lk. 22 52 who had come out against him, 
the chief priests and the soldiers of the temple and the elders, 
Ye have come out as against a robber with swords and staves that 
ye might take me. I was daily with you in the temple, ye have 
not stretched out hands against me.] Lk. 22 531 But this is your 
hour and the power of darkness. Matt. 26 s6 But [all] this came 
to pass, that the scriptures of the prophets might be fulfilled. 
Then all the disciples left him <and) they fled. <Jn. 18 12 So the 



188 JOTJRKAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE 

band and the captains and the soldiers of the Jews took Jesus, 
and went their way.) Mk. 14 51 And one young man followed him, 
who had wrapped a linen cloth over his nakedness (naked, wrapped 
in a linen cloth) and the young men (they) laid hold on him, vs. 52 but 
he let go the linen cloth <and> he fled [from them] naked, 

8 Jn. 18 12 Then [the band and the leaders and the officers of 
the Jews] took Jesus and bound him vs. B and led him first to 
Hannan, for he was father-in-law to Caiaphas who was high priest 
that year, vs. 14 But it was Caiaphas who had counseled the 
Jews, It is expedient that one man should perish instead of the 
people, vs. 15 " But Simon Peter (Cephas) followed Jesus, and 
another disciple, [Matt. 26 s8 " afar off, unto the court of the high 
priest] Jn. 18 1M But that disciple was known to the high priest, 
and entered with Jesus the court [of the high priest] vs. 16 But 
Peter (Simon) was standing outside at the door. Then went out 
that other disciple who was known to the high priest and he 
spoke to the portress and he (she) brought Peter (Simon) in. 
[Matt. 26 s8 * And when he had entered within he sat down with 
the officers to see the end] Jn. 18" Then said the maid, the por- 
tress, to Peter (And when the maid, the portress, saw Simon, she 
looked at him and said to him), Art thou not also one of the 
disciples of this man <that is to say of Jesus of Nazareth)? 

(3) The earlier portion of the lesson " Of the noon hour 
of Good Friday," title-number 205. It is contained in 
columns xxviii-xxxi of Lectionary A, and corresponds to 
chapters SO^-Sl 3 of the Arabic Diatessaron. 

Lectionary A Arabic Diatessaron 

Matt. 27 27 "1 

Mk.l5« I Matt27OT 

Matt. 27 28 Same 

Jn. 192» Same 

9 Matt. 27 s9 Same 

„, lrl „ /M Matt. 27®> 

Mk. 15 18 < „ 

I Mk. 15 18 

8 The lesson for the third watch begins at this point. 

9 The clauses in Matt. 27 2% are given in the lectionary in the reverse 
order to that found in the Diatessaron. The passage Jn. 19 26 and Matt. 27 29 
may also be divided, as in the margin of the Arabic Diatessaron, between 
Jn. 19 2 and Matt. 21 m . 

10 In the Diatessaron Mk. 15 18a is incorporated into Matt. 27 296 in the 
phrase "and did obeisance." 



BAKTON AND SPOBK : SYRIAC LECTIONAKIES 189 

Lectionaey A Arabic Diatebsabon 

Jn. 19 3 

Matt. 2730 

11 Jn. 19* 



Jn. 19 4-15 Same 

Translation : 

Matt. 27 27 , Mk. 15 16 Then the soldiers 12 of the governor removed 
Jesus <and> took him inside of [the court which is] the Praeto- 
rium, and they gathered unto him the entire band, Matt. 27 s8 and 
stripped him, <and> put upon him (clothed him in) Matt. 27 29 a 
scarlet robe, Jn. 19 2i and dressed him in a purple garment, and 
plaited a chaplet of thorns, <and> they put it upon his head, 
and a reed in his right, and they bowed their knees before him 
(and mocking and) deriding him. Mk. 15 18 And they began to salute 
him (and they did obeisance to him) [Jn. 19 s " And they came to 
him] and said, Hail king of the Jews. [Jn. 19 36 and they gave 
him blows (struck his cheeks) Matt. 27 30 And they spat at 
him (in his face) (and) they took the reed away (from his 
hand) and beat him upon his head. (Jn. 19 3 *) Jn. 19 4 (And) 
Pilate went out again and said to them, (the Jews) [Behold] 
I bring him out to you that you may know that I find against 
him (for his condemnation) not any cause, vs. 6 Jesus therefore 
went outside wearing (upon him) the chaplet of thorns and 
the purple garment. [And] he (Pilate) said to them: Behold, 
the man! vs. 6 (And) when the chief priests and the officers 
saw him, they cried out and said: Crucify him, crucify him ! 
Pilate said to them, Take ye him and crucify (him), for I find 
against him no cause, vs. 7 The Jews answered him, We have 
a law and according to our law he deserves to die (death), be- 
cause he made himself the Son of God. vs. 8 (And) when Pilate 
heard this saying he feared greatly (his fear increased) vs. 9 and 
entered again into the Praetorium, and said to Jesus, Whence art 
thou ? But Jesus did not give him an answer, vs. 10 [Therefore] 
Pilate said to him, Dost thou not answer me? Dost thou not 
know that I have the power to crucify thee, and have power to 
release thee? "vs. 11 Jesus answered (to him) Thou hast not 

n In the leetionary Matt. 27 30 Is preceded, while in the Arabic Diatessaron 
it is followed, by Jn. 19». 

12 The Arabic Diatessaron uses rigale for " soldiers" and "band," while 
the leetionary distinguishes stratiote and speira. 

18 The order is reversed in the Diatessaron. 



190 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE 

any power against me except it were given [to thee] from above. 
Because of this, he who has delivered me to thee, to him is the 
greater mi (his sin is greater than thy sin), vs. 12 From this (be- 
cause of this word) Pilate sought that he release him. Then the 
Jews cried out [saying], If thou release this one (him) thou art 
not a friend of Caesar, <for> every one who makes himself a 
king speaks against (opposes) Caesar. 

vs. ,s <And> Pilate [therefore] when he heard tliese words (this 
saying) brought Jesus out and sat down on the judgment-seat at the 
place which is called " smoothed with stones," but <in> Hebrew 
<it is called) Gabbatha (Kabitha). vs. 14 Now it (that day) was 
the preparation (assembly) of the passover, but <it was) about 
the sixth hour. And he said to the Jews, Behold your king! 
vs. 15 They then cried out, Take <him) away, take (him) away, 
(crucify him) crucify him ! Pilate said to them, Shall I crucify 
your king ? The chief priests answered <to him), We have no 
king except Csesar. 

(4) A later portion of the lesson "After his scourging 
with lashes, he is crucified ; of the noon hour of Good 
Friday," title-number 205. It is contained in columns 
xxxiv-xxxviii of Lectionary A, and corresponds to chapter 
5185-48 f tjjg Arabic Diatessaron. The part beginning with 
the words " by him," Matt. 27 s9 , column xxxvi, and running 
to the end of column xxxvii, Lk. 23 d8 , is written on paper in 
modern characters, and the source of the passages is not, as 
elsewhere in the ms., indicated in the margin. 

Leotiohabt A Arabic Diatbssabon 

Lk. 23 34 « Same 

Matt. 2739- «• Same 

Mk. l^ 4 Same 

Matt. 27 401 - 42 * Same 

Lk. 23»» 

Matt. 27 4a - 43 Same 

Lk. 23 s8 OT Same 

Matt. 27" 

Lk. 23 39 -* 1 Same 

Translation: 

Lk. 23 35s Also (and) the people stood beholding Matt. 27 s9 but 
(and) those (they) who passed by [him] reviled him shaking their 
heads and said, vs. 40 [Ah !] Oh ! thou that destroyed the temple 



BARTON AND SPOER : SYRIAC LECTIONABIES 191 

and buildest it in three days (Matt. 27*» = Mk. IS 29 *) Save thy- 
self, if thou art the son of God, and come down from the cross ! 
vs. 41 In like manner also the chief priests mocked <him> with the 
elders and the scribes (and the scribes and elders) and the Phari- 
sees <and laughed to each other) saying, vs. 42 Others he saved (the 
saviour of others) himself he is not able to save. <Lk. 23 356 If he 
is the Messiah, the chosen of God and king of Israel) Matt. 27 42 * 
[if he is the king of Israel], let him now descend from the cross, 
that we may see, and believe on him. vs. 43 Having trusted in 
God, let him deliver him now, if he has pleasure in him, for he 
said, I am the Son of God. Lk. 23 s6 But the soldiers also mocked 
him, drawing near (coming) (to him) and offering him vinegar, 
and said <to him) vs. 37 if thou art the king of the Jews, save 
thyself. <Matt. 21** In like manner the robbers also that were 
crucified with him reproached him.) vs. 39 But one of the <two) 
evildoers who were crucified <with him) railed on him <and) he 
said, If thou art the Messiah <then) save thyself, also us (and 
save us also), vs. 40 But the other (his companion) [answered 
him] rebuked him (and) he said (to him) Dost thou not fear 
God, (and) thou art (also) in the same condemnation? vs. 41 And 
we justly, for we are equally rewarded for those things which we 
did (and as we have deserved and according as we have done 
are we rewarded). But this one has done nothing which is 
evil, vs. 42 And he said to Jesus, Eemember us (me) Lord, 
when thou comest into thy kingdom, vs. 43 [And] Jesus said to 
him, Verily I say to thee, to-day thou shalt be with me in Paradise. 

(5) A part of the lesson " Of the worship of the cross," to 
be read daily, title-number 207. It stands in columns xliii— 
xliv, which are written on a new paper leaf, and corresponds 
to chapter 52 !& - as of the Arabic Diatessaron. 

Lectionary A Ababio Diatessaeon 
Jn. 19 386 Same 

IJc. 23 61 Same 

Mk. l5*»-«<» Same 

Matt. 27 ! 8* Same 

Matt. 27» 



Mk. 15** 
Jn. 19 3 " 



Jn - 193SM n Same 

Mk. 15*« J 

Matt. 27 a » Same 



192 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE 

Translation: 

Jn. 19 38 * He was [also] a disciple of Jesus, but he concealed 
himself from fear (being afraid) of the Jews. Lk. 23 5W This 
one (he) had not consented to the (their) counsel and their deeds, 
(of the accusers) <and> he was [also] looking for the kingdom 
of God. Mk. 15 435 <And this one came) and he went boldly to 
(entered unto) Pilate and demanded <of him) the body of Jesus. 
vs. 44 But Pilate was surprised, */ he was already dead (how he had 
already died), and calling the centurion he asked him if he had 
died (about his death) before the time, vs. 45 * And when he had 
learned [from the centurion], Matt. 27 s86 [then] Pilate (he) com- 
manded (him) to deliver up the body (that his body be delivered 
up) (to Joseph) [vs. 59 And Joseph took the body. He wrapped it 
in linen] (Mk. 15 46 ° And Joseph bought clean cotton cloth. He 
took the body of Jesus and wrapped it in it. Jn. 19 m And 
they came and took it.) Jn. 19 39 Then came (unto him) also 
Nicodemus, who had come before to Jesus by night, (and) bring- 
ing (with him) a mixture of myrrh and aloe about a hundred 
pounds, vs. 40 They then took the body of Jesus and wrapped it 
in the cotton with (and) the aromatics, as the custom of the Jews 
is to bury, vs. 41 But there was in the place where he (Jesus) 
was crucified a garden, and in the garden [his] new tomb, hewn 
out in the rock ; in it had never been placed any man. vs. 42 There 
then, because of the preparation of the Jews (the sabbath had 
entered in) and because the tomb was near, they placed (left) 
Jesus. Matt. 27 606 And he (they) rolled a great stone (and thrust 
it) into the door of the tomb and he (they) departed. 

The comparison shows that these five sections are unques- 
tionably derived from the same source as the Arabic Diates- 
saron. Not only are there numerous instances in which the 
same passages have been taken, although the parallel from 
another Gospel would have answered equally well, but such 
a complicated case as Matt. 26 50 , distributed by both lection- 
ary and Diatessaron among three places standing in the same 
order and connection, is in itself conclusive. Other interest- 
ing agreements are the omission of Lk. 23 s8 from the passage 
Lk. 23 36 " 43 , and the insertion in Jn. 19 41 of the words "hewn 
out of the rock," derived from Mk. 15 46 . 

This discovery seems to open the way to a line of inves- 



BARTON AND SPOER : SYRIAC LECTIONARIES 193 

tigation in the history of the Diatessaron of Tatian for which 
large materials are easily accessible in the libraries of Europe 
and America as well as in the Orient. Such an investiga- 
tion would throw light at the same time on the history and 
relations of the Harclean Syriac version, a subject which has 
long been known to have a direct bearing on the criticism 
of the Greek text of the New Testament. 

H. H. S. 



[Note. — Some idea of the available material can be gained from the fol- 
lowing imperfect lists of mss. known to contain a passion harmony. It may 
be deemed certain that in addition many others of the lectionaries mentioned 
by Gregory and in the catalogues of libraries contain a harmony of one or 
another type. 

I. Jacobite mss. with Harclean passion harmony 

Cambridge, England. 

University Library, add. 1700, 1170 a.d. (Wright, p. 6 ; Gregory, 1; for- 
merly cod. Mohl) ; 

add. 1903 (Wright, p. 1130). 

Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

The Semitic Museum of Harvard University has possessed for some years 
a Harclean lectionary (somewhat mutilated) with harmonic lessons, and has 
lately come into possession of several Harclean lectionaries among the Syriac 
mss. collected by Professor J. Rendel Harris. 

Florence. 

Bibl. Laur. I. 40, 757 a.d. (Assemani, 3 ; Adler, 1 ; Gregory, 22). 

Jerusalem. 

Jacobite Monastery, Lectionary A, 1262 a.d. 
Lectionary B, 1221 a.d. 

London. 

British Museum, add. 7163, saec. ix or x (Forshall, 19 ; Gregory, 2) ; 
add. 7165, saec. xiii (Forshall, 21 ; Gregory, 4); 
add. 7166, saec. xiv (?) (Forshall, 22 ; Gregory, 5); 
add. 7169, saec. xii (Forshall, 25 ; Gregory, p. 851); 
add. 7170, 1216-1220 a.d. (Forshall, 26 ; Gregory, p. 851); 
add. 7171, 1173 a.d. (Forshall, 27 ; Gregory, p. 851). 

Oxford. 

Bodleian Library, Dawk. 50 (Payne Smith, 43) . 



194 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE 

Paris. 

Bibl. Nat., Syr. 14, 1203 a.d. (Zotenberg, 31 ; Gregory, p. 837, 73; fac- 
simile in Martin, Introduction ; Partie theorique, p. iv) ; 

Syr. 22, 1138 a.d. (Zotenberg, 51 ; Gregory, p. 852) ; 
Syr. 26, saec. xii (Zotenberg, 38 ; Gregory, p. 838, 80) ; 
Syr. 37 (Zotenberg, 59 ; Gregory, p. 852) ; 
suppl. Syr. 87, 1166 a.d. (Zotenberg, 62 ; Gregory, 12). 
Rome. 

Barberini Library, VI. 32 (formerly 105) (Adler, 6 ; Gregory, p. 859). 
Vatican Library, Syr. 266, saec. vii (Adler, 4 ; Gregory, 25) ; 

Syr. 268, 859 a.d. (Martin, Introduction; Partie theo- 
rique, p. 161 ; Assemani, 11 ; Gregory, 27 ; see S. E. Assemani in J. White, 
Sacrorum evangeliorum versio Syriaca Philaxeniana, 1778, pp. 641 ft.) ; 

probably also Cod. Angelicus, saec. xiii (?) (Adler, 3 ; Gregory, 23), and 
at least Vat. Syr. 36 and Vat. Syr. 36 (Gregory, pp. 851 f.). 

II. Jacobite mss., Peshitta(?) 
London. 

British Museum, add. 18714, 1214 a.d. (Wright, 226). 

[Martin's reference, in Introduction; Partie pratique, 
iv. p. 123, to B. M. add. 17190 seems to be a mistake.] 

III. Nestorian mss. 
Cambridge, England. 

University Library, Oo 1. 17, saec. xvi (Wright, p. 1063) ; 
add. 1975, 1586 a.d. (Wright, p. 68). 
London. 

British Museum, Egerton 681, 1206-1207 a.d. (Wright, 248) ; 

add. 7161, saec. x (Forshall, 17 ; Gregory, 9) ; 
add. 17923, saec. xi(Wright, 246). 

IV. Malkite(?) ms. 
St. Petersburg. 

Imperial Public Library. A tiny fragment of a passion harmony (saec. 
viii) in the Palestinian Syriac dialect is published by J. P. N. Land, Anecdota 
Syriaca, vol. iv., 1875, pp. Lat. 188 (Fol. 65), 204, Syr. 217 (Gregory, 
p. 827, 4). 

Further valuable information regarding the mss. mentioned above, includ- 
ing an exact statement of the composition of some of the harmonic lessons in 
a number of them, will be found in J. G. C. Adler, Novi Testament! ver- 
siones Syriacae, 1789, in Gregory, Prolegomena, 1894, in the writings of 
Martin cited above (p. 181, note), and in the printed catalogues of the sev- 
eral libraries by Assemani, Forshall, Payne Smith, Zotenberg, and Wright. 
In the present note a few of the mss. named have been included, and some 
have been classified, on the authority of statements by Martin which could 
not be verified. 



BARTON AND SPOEJR : SYRIAC LECTIONARIES 195 

Martin thinks he can distinguish three Jacobite and two Nestorian forms 
of the Syriac passion harmony, but his results do not appear to rest on any 
exhaustive researches. Of the Jacobite forms one (shorter than the others) 
is contained in cod. B. M. add. 18714, in which ms. a note refers to Babban 
Daniel of Beth Batln as the author of the harmony. With this seem to 
correspond the harmonies contained in the Paris cod. Syr. 22, cod. Barb. VI. 
32, cod. Vat. 268, and perhaps cod. B. M. add. 7171. A second Jacobite 
harmony, of a " more developed " type, and the most elaborate of all, is 
found in the Paris codices, Syr. 14, Syr. 20, suppl. Syr. 87. One of the 
Nestorian forms is found in the British Museum codices, Egerton 681 and 
add. 17923. The other Martin appears to find in cod. B. M. add. 7161 [and 
add. 17190]. A fifth form (Jacobite?) is of less importance than any of 
the others, and is to be found in the Paris cod. Syr. 37. It is said to follow 
the Peshitta. That the Monophysite Patriarch Michael (1126-1199) was the 
author of a harmony is affirmed by a note in the Paris cod. Syr. 289, but 
appears to be subject to some doubt. See the clear statement in Martin's 
note in Pitra, Analecta sacra, iv. p. 483, also Introduction ; Partie pratique, 
iii. p. 122 f. 

To Martin is due the suggestive observation that in the Greek lectionaries 
harmonic lessons are practically unknown, but that they are found in the 
western rituals most affected by oriental custom, namely the Mozarabic rite, 
the old Gallican rite as seen in the Lectionary of Luxeuil, and the Sacra- 
mentary of Bobbio published by Mabillon (perhaps also in the old German 
rite). St. Augustine seems to have referred to such a passion harmony in 
Latin in the interesting passage, Sermo 232, Migne vol. xxxviii. col. 1108. 

On Syriac lectionaries, see F. E. Brightman, Liturgies, Eastern and 
Western, i. 1896, pp. lix-lx ; G. Bickell, Conspectus rei Syrorum literariae, 
Minister, 1871, pp. 69 ff., 99 f. On the use of the Harclean version in the 
" divine offices," see J. S. Assemani, Bibliotheca orientalis, vol. ii, 1721, 
pp. 23, 94.