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180 



THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY [Vol. XV, No. 23, Whole No. 419 



ence in his notes to the song of Constance, Brome's 
Northern Lass: 

A bonny bonny Bird I had, 

A Bird that was my Marrow: 
A Bird whose pastime made me glad, 

And Philip 'twas my Sparrow, 
A pretty Play-fere. Chirp it would, 

And hop, and fly to fist, 
Keep cut, as 'twere a Usurers Gold, 

And bill me when I list. 
Philip, Philip, Philip it cryes, 
But he is fled, and my joy dyes. 

With this compare Cartwright, Lesbia on her Spar- 
row: 

Tell me not of joy! There's none, 
Now my little Sparrow's gone! 

He, just as you, 

Would toy and woo! 
He would chirp and flatter me! 

He would hang the wing a while 

Till, at length, he saw me smile. 
Lord! how sullen he would be! 

Matthew Prior, also, recalls the famous bird, in 
his Turtle and Sparrow. The Sparrow is doing his 
best to cheer the widow-dove, Turturella, inconsolable 
for the loss of her mate, Colombo: 

Whate'er Pythagoras may say 
(For each, you know, will have his way), 
With great submission I pronounce, 
That people die no more than once. 
But once is sure; and death is common 
To bird and man, including woman; 
From the spread eagle to the wren, 
Alas! no mortal fowl knows when; 
All that wear feathers first or last 
Must one day perch on Charon's mast; 
Must lie beneath the cypress shade, 
Where Strada's nightingale was laid; 
Those fowl who seem alive to sit, 
Assembled by Dan Chaucer's wit, 
In prose have slept three hundred years, 
Exempt from worldly hopes and fears, 
And, laid in state upon their hearse, 
Are truly but embalmed in verse. 
As sure as Lesbia's sparrow I, 
Thou sure as Prior's dove, must die. . . . 

In one of the less well known poems of this seven- 
teenth century, published in Grosart's edition, Pas- 
quil's Night-cap or Antidote for the Head-Ache, 
the sparrow is roughly handled: 

But as for Skelton with his Laurel Crowne, 
Whose ruffling rimes are emptie quite of marrow: 
Or fond Catullus, which set grossely downe 
The commendation of a sillie Sparrow; 
Because their lines are void of estimation, 
I passe them over without confutation. 
Much would the Cuckoe thinke herselfe impared 
If shee with Philip Sparrow were compared. 

The author, of course, is thinking of an English 
sparrow! I end with Cowley's Acme and Septimius: 

Whilst on Septimius' panting Breast 
(Meaning nothing less than Rest) 
Acme lean'd her loving Head, 
Thus the pleas'd Septimius said: 
"My dearest Acme, if I be 
Once alive, and love not thee, 
With a Passion far above 
All that e'er was called Love, 



In a Lybian Desert may 

I became some Lion's Prey; 

Let him, Acme, let him tear 

My Breast — when Acme is not there". 

The God of Love, who stood to hear him, 

(The God of Love was always near him), 

Pleas'd and tickl'd with the Sound, 

Sneez'd aloud; and all around 

The little Loves, that waited by, 

Bow'd, and bless'd the Augury. 

Acme, enflam'd with what he said, 

Rear'd her gently-bending Head, 

And her purple Mouth with Joy, 

Stretching to the delicious Boy, 

Twice (and twice could scarce suffice) 

She kiss'd his drunken, rolling Eyes, 

"My little Life, my All" (said she), 

"So may we ever Servants be 

To this best God, and ne'er retain 

Our hated Liberty again; 

So may thy Passion last for me, 

As I a Passion have for thee, 

Greater and fiercer much than can 

Be conceiv'd by thee, a Man. 

Into my Marrow is it gone, 

Fix'd and settled in the Bone, 

It reigns not only in my Heart, 

But runs, like life, through ev'ry Part". 

She spoke; the God of Love aloud 

Sneez'd again, and all the Crowd 

Of little Loves, that waited by, 

Bow'd, and bless'd the Augury. 

This good Omen, thus from Heav'n, 

Like a happy Signal giv'n, 

Their Loves and Lives (all four) embrace, 

And Hand in Hand run all the Race. 

To poor Septimius (who did now 

Nothing else but Acme grow) 

Acme's Bosom was alone 

The whole World's Imperial Throne, 

And to faithful Acme's Mind 

Septimius was all Human Kind. 

If the Gods would please to be 

But advis'd for once by me, 

I'd advise 'em, when they spy 

Any illustrious Piety, 

To reward her, if it be she, 

To reward him, if it be he, 

With such a Husband, such a Wife, 

With Acme's and Septimius' Life. 

Smith College, ELEANOR S. DuCKETT 

Northampton, Mass. 



REVIEWS 



The Political Aspects of Saint Augustine's 'City of 
God'. By John Neville Figgis. London: Long- 
mans, Green and Company (1921). Pp. 132. 

This volume contains the Pringle-Stewart lectures 
delivered by the author at Oxford in 1918. Mr. 
Figgis has essentially retained the form of lectures 
throughout the book, but, although he was able to 
prepare them for the press, death prevented his making 
a final revision. To this may be due the poor arrange- 
ment of the notes in the back of the book, which 
renders them almost worthless, as well as the absence 
of an index of any sort. We should also have welcomed 
a full treatment of the literature on the De Civitate 
Dei, systematically and accurately handled, instead 



April 24, 1922] 



THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY 



181 



of the haphazard running comments that appear under 
the name of "Bibliography". For example, the work 
of S. Angus, The Sources of the First Ten Books of 
Augustine's De Civitate Dei (Princeton, 1906), is 
passed over thus: "An American, Dr. Anson (sict), 
wrote on the sources of the first ten books". 

The body of the work is divided into six lectures. 
The first, entitled General Scope of the 'De Civitate 
Dei', gives the necessary introduction to the succeed- 
ing chapters. The De Civitate Dei is analyzed with 
emphasis on those portions which contain the political 
aspects. Accordingly, the last twelve books are 
handled at greater length, since here Augustine treats 
directly of the two great kingdoms (civitates) in and 
through which proceeds the development of life and 
humanity: the kingdom of God and the kingdom of 
this world. Then follow successive lectures on The 
Philosophy of History, The State, and The Church. 

The author is distinctly of the opinion that St. 
Augustine had a philosophy of history. Furthermore, 
two presuppositions of any philosophy of history are 
in the mind of St. Augustine throughout, (1) the unity 
of the human race, involving, as its corollary, the 
doctrine of (2) the essential sociability of man. The 
Civitas Dei, says Mr. Figgis, can mean nothing less 
than the social life of the children of God. That one 
principle alone is a contribution of high value to world- 
history. Even better than Aristotle did St. Augustine 
understand that true history begins only with a form 
of society. Also he emphasises the unity of the human 
race which is derived by its descent from Adam. This 
idea lies behind his doctrine of original sin. 

St. Augustine did not set out to produce a theory of 
the State. There is no discussion about the merits of 
the various forms of government, though there is the 
classical passage known as the 'Mirror of Princes', 
describing the attributes of a good king. The one 
purely political passage contains the argument for a 
family of small States, living in amity, with its corol- 
lary, the condemnation of imperialism. 

St. Augustine has the greatest variance among the 
interpreters of his idea of the Church. Each finds 
arguments for himself in the same passage. The 
following elements — (a) the doctrine of a religion using 
the force of a compelle intrare, which must give to the 
Church some claim to dictate what shall be perse- 
cuted as heresy; (b) the doctrine of justice as neces- 
sary to a State, together with Augustine's glosses, 
leading to a control of all law for spiritual ends; (c) 
the doctrine of the Church as a polity, as the millenial 
Kingdom of Christ, implying a reigning authority — 
will tend to develop a state of mind which will picture 
the Civitas Dei as a christianized Church-State, from 
which unbelievers are excluded, and which would 
claim, directly or indirectly, the supreme power in 
that State for the leaders of the hierarchy. 

The final two chapters, on The 'De Civitate Dei' in 
the Middle Ages, and The 'De Civitate Dei' in Later 
Days, consider what later ages have made of St. 
Augustine. Vast indeed has been the influence of 
the De Civitate Dei. Of especial interest, however, 



at the present moment is the influence exerted by it 
on the growth of international law. 

In spite of the minor defects mentioned above, the 
present volume makes an excellent introduction to a 
study of the De Civitate Dei. Wherever that work is 
read in the class-room, Mr. Figgis's volume will be 
found very useful for outside reading. 
The Catholic University of America Roy J. DeFERRARI 



Hellenistic Influence on the Aeneid. By Eleanor 
Shipley Duckett. Smith College Classical Studies, 
No. I. Northampton, Mass. (June, 1920). Pp. 
xi + 68. 75 cents. 

Professor Hadzsits's interesting and extremely 
valuable survey of recent Vergilian literature, published 
in The Classical Weekly 15. 106-110, 114-118, 
makes it unnecessary to give a detailed review of this 
discussion, which displays perhaps less originality than 
the same author's dissertation, Studies in Ennius (for 
Professor Hadzsits's comments on the present work 
see The Classical Weekly 15. 116). It is a useful 
assemblage of the material, and Professor Duckett 
sets forth her conclusions in ah interesting way. It 
may be noted that Rostagni's Poeti Alessandrini, 
though published in 1916, and reviewed in the Classical 
Review 32 (1918), 75-77, by Adela Marion Adam, 
does not appear in Professor Duckett's bibliography. 

In view of what Professor Hadzsits calls "the present 
disturbed condition of the book-trade" Smith College 
deserves the highest praise for bringing out useful 
monographs on classical subjects at a price which puts 
them within reach of every scholar and teacher (No. 
II, A Study in the Commerce of Latium, by Pro- 
fessor Louise Adams, appeared in April, 192 1). Simi- 
larly, Miss Jane E. Harrison insisted that her Epi- 
legomena to the Study of Greek Religion should be 
brought out by the Cambridge University Press in 
pamphlet form, at the modest price of three shillings 
and sixpence. A writer who wishes to have readers 
must perforce put up with this style of publication; 
and the readers receive it gladly, inasmuch as the 
present prices for new classical books are prohibitive 
for all but the well-to-do. 

Barnard College, r'cT.TT. r.c n„ c » 

Columbia University LfERTRUDE xlIRST 



MISCELLANEOUS TRANSLATIONS 

The Egoist Press (London) has been issuing a series 
of booklets which it calls The Poets' Translation Series. 
The Second Set of these booklets includes (1) Greek 
Songs in the Manner of Anacreon, (2) The Poems of 
Anyte of Tegea, both translated by Richard Aldington; 
(3) Poems and Fragments of Sappho, translated by 
Edward Storer (2 and 3 are in one volume) ; (4) Cho- 
ruses from the Iphigeneia in Aulis and the Hippolytus 
of Euripides, translated by H. D; (5) The Latin Poets 
of the Renaissance, translated by Richard Aldington; 
(6) The Windflowers of Asklepiades and the Poems of