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500 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCH^OLOGV. 

tain the ashes of her brother, Polos took in his hands the urn that con- 
tained the remains of his own son who had recently died, and acted 
the scene non simulacris neque incitcvmentis, sed luctu atque lamenlis ueris 
el spirantihus. It is unnecessary to say that he could not have had hi.* 
face enveloped in the rigid mask of later times 

M. Girard's article is deserving of careful study by all who are 
interested in ancient art and the classical drama. It is full of interest- 
ing observations and discussions which space does not permit to report 
severally. I may mention, however, as especially interesting to stu- 
dents of the drama, the classification of the ty|;>es of masks in Aischy- 
los, the remarks on the close relationship between Aischylos and the 
stage-drama, on the chevelure of the characters of Aischylos, and his 
explanation of the origin and purpose of the oyKos, which he thinks 
was devised to counteract the flattening effect of the strong light falling 
upon the heads of the actors, especially from the point of view of 
the spectators who occupied the upper rows. It may be remarked 
that this is another argument against an elevated stage ; for there 
would have been much less need of the oy/cos for this purpose if the 
actors occupied the top of the proscenium than if they moved on the 
level of the orchestra. Edw.\rd Capps. 

F. L. Van Cleef. Itidex Antiphonteus. (No. v of Cornell Studies 
in Classical Philology.) 8vo., pp. vi-173. Published for the 
University by Ginn & Co., Boston, 1895. 

Indexes of the classical writers, complete and trustworthy, which 
shall present every word in its every occurrence, are invaluable to clas- 
sical scholars. Studies in syntax, diction, and style are th us greatly facili- 
tated. The investigator is at once spared m uch labor, and his inductions 
are based on a complete survey of the facts. Indexes of this thorough- 
going order are comparatively recent, — von Essen's Thucydides 1887 ; 
Paulsen, Hesiod 1890 ; Gehring, Homer 1891 ; Preuss, Demosthenes 
1892. 

This Index to Antiphon has several admirable features. It is 
absolutely complete, where Preuss leaves a dozen words untouched 
and other articles imperfect, and it goes much further than its pre- 
decessors in classifying uses and constructions. More noteworthy 
still, the work is practically a concordance — enough of the context is 
quoted to show at a glance meaning and construction without turning 
to the text. Numerals at the end of each article and subdivision give 
the statistical summation. In many cases (pronouns, conjunctions, 
particles) a second and third tabulation is added to show position of 
the word in the sentence, or its relation to other words in set phrases. 
Nothing so thorough has yet been attempted. The text is that of 



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF BOOKS. 501 

Blass in the easily accessible Teubner series. Freedom from errors 
has been secured by the doubled labor of verifying every reference 
from the printed proofs. 

The author announces his intention of proceeding with the other 
unindexed orators of the Canon. Praise is due the University, which 
makes possible the publication of works like this, in which no pub- 
lisher can expect to find profit. Every fresh addition in this line 
advances the study of the development of syntax and style and pre- 
pares the way for the final Greek lexicon. The author will have no 
mean reward for his patient toil (no tyro can do this work, mechan- 
ical as it might seem) in its immediate appreciation by scholars every- 
where, as well as in the realization that few works in the classical 
sphere are so sure of abiding a permanent treasure. S. R. W. 

W. M. Ramsay. The Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia ; being an 
essay of the local history of Phrygia from the earliest times to 
the Turkish Conquest. Vol. i. The Lycos Valley and South- 
western Plirygia. 8vo., pp. .XXI1-.352. $6.00. Oxford, Claren- 
don Press. New York, Macmillan & Co. 1895. 

Prof. Rariisay has again laid students of antiquity under obligation 
to him by the researches into the geography and history of Asia Minor 
which are contained in this work. The present volume, the first of a 
series on the Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia, is confined to the valley 
of the Lycos and South-western Phrygia; but the material collected, 
even from this limited area, is so large and of such varied interest that 
it was well to publish it by itself. Phrygian history moreover is not 
a unit. At different periods the territory was differently divided. Its 
parts were often politically separated. Its chief cities were quite dis- 
tinct in origin and often in their customs. Hence the historian of 
Phrygia must necessarily present us with a series of studies, largely 
independent of one another; so that this volume does not suffer from 
being issued alone but has value entirely apart from that of the rest of 
the series. 

There are but few scholars competent to criticise in detail the results 
at which Prof Ramsay has arrived in the field which he has made 
peculiarly his own. His book is rather one out of which other his- 
tories will be made. Some of his minor statements will no doubt 
be contested by other experts. Some of them indeed are put forward 
tentatively by the author. But his main facts and inferences are in- 
contestable and every scholar, who is interested in the history of 
Western Asia, will be grateful for the exact descriptions, the large