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By Johk P. Peters, Ph. D. 

Professor in the Protestant Episcopal Divinity Sehool, Philadelphia. 

The prophet Isaiah (x., 8) makes the Assyrian king say,- "Hf!' HtJ' N^Pt 

, . t : - - t -: 

D'OyD- I do not know that attention has been called to the reference which is 

" T 

here made to the difference of usage of the related Hebrew and Assyrian, in the 
words for "king" and "prince." The Hebrew TI^D has the signification of the 
Assyrian sar, and, vice versa, Assyrian m a 1 a k u corresponds in sense to Hebrew 
"l{2>. The prophet plays upon this difference of use. 

Amos i., 6— Gaza is to be punished DEfrttf Dl^il DJT) t ?Jirn , ?]f- Gesenius, 

T •■ T T : ~ 

Handworterbuch, 9th edition, would render this "because they took captive," die 
gefangenen in voller Zahl. The LXX. explain HO 1 ?^ flV?,3 by aix/MAumav tov 
Sa^u/juv. The translation of the LXX. makes no sense, but suggests a change of 
pointing for the Hebrew which makes an unintelligible passage intelligible, viz., 
nb 1 ?^ IXhi' What the prophet seems to mean is, that Gaza is to be punished 

T T 

for its breach of a professedly friendly relation, in kidnapping Hebrews to be sold 
as slaves. It means " because they carried captive them who were at peace." 
The same meaning belongs to the phrase in the 9th verse, where Tyre is guilty of 
the same crime. Perhaps it is not necessary to change the pointing of no'?^' m 
order to justify such a rendering. A glance at Dl^ty an< i D 1 ?^ * n a Hebrew 
lexicon will show any one that, at least according to our Massoretic pointing, the 
two words have been somewhat confused in use. So, in our English Bibles, at 
Gen. xxxni., 18, we read, "And Jacob came to Shalem, a city of Shechem," 
where the real sense is, "And Jacob came in peace to the city of Shechem." At 
Mie. ii., 8, it has been suggested that we should read T\J^7^ f° r T\d~}V? (°f- 
Smith, Prophets of Israel, p. 427). 

Isa. xi., 15.— The sense of this verse seems to be, "As Jehovah laid under the 
ban the tongue of the Egyptian sea ; so will he wave his hand against the Euphra- 
tes with a blast of his breath, and smite it into seven rivulets, and make a way for 
sandaled feet." The comparison throughout the passage is one of the past and 
the future. The rescue from Egypt is made the text of a promise of rescue from 
Assyrian bondage. This comparison is carried so far that, in imitation of the 
Song of the Sea, (Exod. xv.) we have here (Isa. xn.) a similar song to be sung 
after the new deliverance, Isa. xn., 2 even being quoted partly from Exod. xv., 2. 

Amos v., 25-27. — The use of tenses and conjunctions, as also the connection 
of thought, in this passage, seems to me to be the same as in the passage from 
Isaiah just quoted. " Sacrifices and meat offerings ye offered unto me in the wil- 
derness forty years, O house of Israel ; so shall ye take up Sikkuth, your king,"and 
Kiun, your star-god, your images which ye made for yourselves, and I will carry 
you captive beyond Damascus." The wandering out of captivity in the past is 
compared with the wandering into it in the future ; the worship of the true God 

Miscellaneous Notes. 243 

in the past, with that of idols in the future. In the translation of the passage I 
have transposed D^Q'pVi as suggested by Professor Schrader (KAT. 442) to a 
position after DD'Pi'jN!' He would point JTOD an d JV3> explaining the former 
as Sak-kut, a Sumerian- Akkadian name of Adar, and the latter as the Assyrian 
Ka-ai-va-nu, or Saturn, making them thus nearly identical. The former name 
reminds us involuntarily of JlU3 JTDP 0I 2 Kgs. xvm., 30, which latter Mr. 
Budge says is the god Zarpanituv. 

Isa. vii., 14. — The best commentary to this passage is, it seems to me, Mic. 
iv., 10. In the latter passage, the Daughter of Zion is in travail with the birth of 
a purified remnant. The capture of Jerusalem itself is represented as part of the 
throes of labor. " Writhe and twist, Daughter of Zion, like one that giveth birth ; 
for now shalt thou go out of the city and dwell in the field." In Isa. vin., 8, 11, 
*7N IJQ^ seems to be used to indicate the purified remnant which shall still 
remain after the Assyrian river has overflowed the land, against which no counsel 
or might of the foe shall prevail, because it is a god-with-us. In Isa. vn., 14, in 
spite of the very unusual word used, H/D^Hi I believe that the fj'X-jl3 is 
spoken of. She is pregnant with the *?$< !) JQty, the purified remnant, and in the 
distress that is at hand the prophet sees the pangs of birth. It is quite possible 
that we owe the unusual word here used, nO^l^iT *° * ne unoriginal form in which 

t : * |t 

the prophecy has been preserved to us, as a mere abstract put into shape appar- 
ently by some one other than the prophet, at some period posterior to the events 
recorded. On the other hand, it is quite possible that the LXX., i) TrapShog, may 
represent the original reading; so that we should substitute, in the Hebrew, 
(YTirOr? f° r nD'p^rT- This would be the natural word to use with reference to 
the Daughter of Zion (cf. Jer. xvm., 13; xxxi., 4, 21 ; Amos v., 2). Is it pos- 
sible that we have in the Hebrew a doctrinally modified text, the LXX. testifying 
to the true original? The Targum of Jonathan, usually so free in its use of 
NirCJD) even in Isa. liii., gives no hint, of a Messianic character, of the prophecy 
in Isa. vn., 14, nor, where ^ IjQ^ is again used, in Isa. vin., 8, 11.