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xcii American Oriental Society : 



Proceedings at New York, Oct. 28th and 29th, 1874. 



The Semi-annual meeting was held in New York City, commenc- 
ing at 3 o'clock p. m. of Wednesday, October 28th, at the rooms 
of the Bible-revision Committee in the Bible House, the President 
in the chair. 

The Recording Secretary being absent, Mr. A. Van Name, of 
New Haven, was appointed Secretary pro tempore. 

The Committee of Arrangements communicated an invitation 
from Prof. Short to meet socially at his house in the evening. The 
invitation was accepted, with thanks. 

The Directors announced that the Annual meeting for 1 875 
would be held in Boston on Wednesday, May 19th ; and that Rev. 
N. G. Clark, D.D., with the Recording and Corresponding Secre- 
taries, had been designated to act as a Committee of Arrange- 
ments for it. 

The following persons, on recommendation of the Directors, 
were elected Corporate Members of the Society : 

Mr. Thomas Hitchcock, of New York, 

Mr. Julius Sachs, of New York, 

Mr. A. W. Tyler, of New York, 

Miss Susan H. Ward, of New York, 

Dr. T. T. Van der Hoeven, of San Antonio, Texas, 

Rev. T. O. Paine, of Elmwood, Mass., 

Prof. J. H. Thayer, of Andover, Mass., 

Rev. John Wright, of Boston. 

The Corresponding Secretary reviewed the correspondence of 
the past year. Among other things, he called attention to com- 
munications touching the library of the late Prof. E. Rodiger, of 
Berlin, an Honorary Member of the Society, now offered for sale.* 
Communications were then presented as follows : 
1. On the Cypriote Inscriptions, bv Mr. Isaac H. Hall, of New 
York. 

The valuable collection of Cypriote antiquities discovered by Gen. Luigi PMma 
di Cesnola on the sites of ancient Citium, Idalium, and Golgos, and elsewhere, and 
now deposited in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, contains between 
twenty and thirty inscriptions in the Cypriote character. These inscriptions have 
never been either completely read, or well and fully published. Copies were taken 
for the British Museum, before the collection came to America, and from them an 
incomplete set of photographs were published by Mansell in London, in 1872-3 ; 
but these, to judge from citations, cannot be entirely reliable. A catalogue of the 
collection, by Johannes Doell, entitled Die Sammlung Cesnola, and containing a 
few very inaccurately figured inscriptions, was published by the St. Petersburg 
Academy in its Memoires, in 1873. A few, more or less perfect, copies of some of 
the inscriptions have also been given in the various works of those engaged in 
deciphering. 

* And purchased a little later by the Syracuse University, Syracuse, N. Y. 



Proceedings at New York, October, 1874. xciii 

The Cypriote writing is not yet entirely deciphered, though the foundation is 
well laid. The known inscriptions are about a hundred, of very various length ; the 
bronze tablet of Dali containing 31 lines and 270 to 300 words, while others are 
fragments, with only one or two characters. The bronze tablet was obtained in 
1850, by the Due de Luynes; and he was the first to collect the various legends 
in similar characters from all quarters, and to prove that they represented a hith- 
erto unknown system of writing, if not a new language. R. H. Lang, in 1870 or 
1871, discovered at Dali a marble tablet, with a bilingual inscription, in Phoenician 
and Cypriote, which furnished the first real clue to the decipherment. 

The first attempt at reading the character was made by de Luynes, in his Numis- 
matique et Inscriptions Cypriotes (Paris, 1852), but failed entirely, because of his 
taking a word to mean ' Salamis ' which really means 'king.' He saw that the 
writing usually reads from right to left, and one of his guesses as to the consonant 
power of a character has proved correct. His splendid work, as a collection of 
Cypriote monuments (all then known), beautifully and accurately figured, has not 
been superseded. 

The first attempt that gave promise of any success was that by Mr. Lang, in the 
Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archaeology, vol. i., p. 116 ff. But sim- 
ultaneously with Mr. Lang, Mr. George Smith, of the British Museum, applied 
himself to the bilingual tablet of Dali, with signal success. His article was read 
the same day with Mr. Lang's, and published along with it. In a supplementary 
paper he gave a list of 54 characters, with values, and the authorities for each ; 
of these, about 30 have proved to be approximately correct. 

Next in order, and of indispensable importance, is the work of Dr. Samuel 
Birch, in a later number of the same publication. It is difficult to give a proper 
idea of the profound study and scholarship and of the brilliant genius displayed 
in Birch's article, without a long detail. He showed that the date of the bronze 
tablet could not be later than 353 B. C, and that the language written was sub- 
stantially Greek. A single mistake, apparently — the non-recognition of has (=znai, 
' and '), taking its k for a t — was all that prevented him from anticipating Brandis, 
if not Schmidt. 

Then comes J. Brandis's Versuch zur Enizifferung der kyprischen Schrift, a post- 
humous work, edited by Ernst Curtius, and published in the Monatsbericht of the 
Berlin Academy for February, 1873. The main key to his discoveries was the 
word has, which he read, correcting Birch's misapprehension. His work is not 
so brilliant as that of either of his predecessors, but the item referred to was won- 
derfully fruitful in new words read, and in leading to the decipherment of additional 
characters. He made many mistakes, some of them quite amusing: e. g. interpret- 
ing the Phoenician equivalent of the Cypriote \\ito'A?mv to mean ' fiery Mical ' or 
' fiery Typhon.' Brandis's work, like those of Lang, Smith, and Birch, is illustrated 
with type cut for the purpose, and Brandis's type, though not perfect, is rather 
better than those of the others. It confounds some characters that are entirely 
distinct, and represents others by inferior forms. The types in the body of 
de Luynes's work are the most faithful of all. 

The most complete and thorough treatise on the subject, thus far, is Moritz 
Schmidt's Die Inschrift von Idalion und das kyprische Syllabar (Jena, 1874). It 
is in autograph-lithograph, and contains a brief account of the labors of his pred- 
ecessors, the author's own attempts at deciphering, and a short dissertation on 
the grammatical and dialectic peculiarities of Cypriote Greek. Schmidt has had 
access to all the material, except to trustworthy copies of the Cesnola inscriptions : 
thus, the inscription referred to by him on p. 8 is clearly not in hexameters, and 
it ends, as well as begins, with x a ' l P"£ ; two others are wrongly figured by him 
and not perfectly transliterated, and so on ; but his few errors are mainly clerical. 
He has made very thorough work, and has hit upon some brilliant discoveries. 
He has established the uniformly syllabic character of the writing, and corrected 
many mistakes of Brandis, Birch, and Smith, though confirming most of the conso- 
nant powers assigned by them to the characters. 

The language of the inscriptions is Greek, but not very easy to read. As to 
the characters, there is a separate one for each of the vowels a, e, i, o, u ; an addi- 
tional one for a, seemingly used only after i; and another for o, of undefined use. 
There is no distinction between short and long vowels. The other characters 
seem to represent open syllables, and to begin always with a consonant; and 



xciv American Oriental Society : 

the whole theoretic syllabary appears to be tolerably complete ; the number of 
syllables that may be said to be wanting (eight or nine, mostly ending in u) being 
about equal to that of the characters yet undetermined. There are two digamma 
syllables, we and wo ; but the digamma must have been disappearing ; as, for ex- 
ample, the genitive of /faa:/leuf is written indifferently ftao&eog or flaotleToc. 

No distinction is made between smooth, middle, and rough mutes of the same 
organ: e. g. the same character stands for ra in rag, 6a in 'ISaXiov and 6a in 
'Atiava; the same character may stand for ne, k?/, ye, y>/, %e, or x'li an( i s0 on - 
This fact constitutes the greatest difficulty in reading Cypriote. To this there 
appears to be only one exception, if indeed it is an exception. The consonants, 
are apparently never doubled : thus, for 'AiroXAuvi. we have A. po. lo. ni. Double 
consonants are resolved into their constituent elements : thus, for £7 we have ki. si. 

Iota subscript (adscript) is regularly written ; but where it can be supplied from 
one of a number of words in the same case, it is frequently omitted from the rest : 
e. g. to. i. te. o. represents ™. 6eo>. 

In certain cases, n is systemtically omitted: thus, ttuvtuv is written pa.to.; for 
avOpuiTL) is written a. to. ro.po. i. When two syllables having the same vowels 
aud compatible consonants come together, they join and form one syllable, as is 
seen in the last example, and in ko.lo.ki.a. for To/yi,a, po.to.li.se. for tttoXi.( 
(jtoA(c), a.po.ro.ti.te. for ' Atjtpofi/rti, etc. 

Final s, and final n when written, are the syllables for se and ne respectively — 
like Hebrew shewa with final consonant, or the silent final e in French and English. 

For ?/, and frequently for f, the i-vowel is written, making it possible that the 
Cypriotes pronounced rj like English "long e," as the modern Greeks do. Indeed, 
y, i, and e often change places : ' Hdafaov is the regular Cypriote spelling of Idalium ; 
few is either te. o. i. or ti. o. i. ; the preposition ev is commonly written i. ; and so on. 

Among the peculiarities of the syntax, en or «f is regularly followed by the da- 
tive, and i. (ev) by the accusative. 

An example or two of the inscriptions, in Roman equivalents and Greek trans- 
literation, will further explain the principles of the writing better than it can be 
done by words. In the romanizing, for the sake of uniformity, only the smooth 
mutes are used. 

The following is inscribed between the feet of a broken-off statuette in the Ces- 
nola collection, not numbered : 

(1.) e. ko.to.se' ka.te.sa.ta.se- to.i. (2.)ti.o.v ta. pi. te. ki. si. o. i- (3.) i.tu.ka.i. 
a. ka. ta. i. — 'Eywroc Karearaae ra 8iu ramo'egiu 2[v] rvxa ayada. Here 6iu is for 
few. The contraction ram- for rw em-, though strange, is not unlike other Cypri- 
ote examples. The i. is for ev. 

Again we have, on a sculptured stone, numbered 249 in the collection : 

(I .) ti. a. i. te. mi- to. i. te. o. (2. ( to. a. po. lo. ni- o. ne. te. ke. (3.) n. tu. ka. Or, in 
Greek : Aiaifie/u tu 8ea> ra ' Atto'a[X]uvi bvedriKe v rvxa. Here 0eu is written with e. 
Its iota adscript is omitted on account of that of the preceding word, as that of 
tu on account of the following. '0ve6r/ne, for avetiqxe, appears to be the regular 
Cypriote form. The first character in the third line is a little doubtful. 

The following is given by Schmidt as one of the Cesnola inscriptions, but is 
not found by me in the collection : 

(1.) e. te. i- III. a . . . . (2.) ta. we. i. ko. na. ta. te. ne. a. Or, in Greek, 'Erei 
III 'A . . . . Ta[y] veiKova ra[v]8e vea[y f\. 

The most important of the Cesnola inscriptions, and third in importance of all 
the Cypriote inscriptions discovered, is this : 

(1.) ka.i.re.te- ka.ra.si.tv a.na.x- ka.po.ti- we.po.me.ka- me. po. te. we. i. se.se. 

(2.) te. o. i. se- po. ro. (?) . . na. to. i. se. e. re. ra. me. na- pa. ta. ko. ra. i. to. se- 

(3.) o. wo. (or ti. ?) ka.re.ti- e. pi. si. ta.te.se- a.to.ro.po- te.o.i- a.le.tu.ka.ke\f)re. 

(4.) te. o. i- ku. me. re. na. i. pa. ta- ta. a. to. ro. po. i- po. ro. po- o. i. ka. i. re. te. 

Or, in Greek characters, in part : 

Xaipere ava£ /j.7)nore Feiai/c. 

(jeoic npo (?) . varotc ipepa/xeva ira[v]TaxupaiToc. 

'0 F o (oti f) x a P eTl 'eTTinTaTTjc aMBpuiru Oeu 

9ew KV/j-epevai wa[v]ra Ta a\y^punu ....(,' x al pere. 

I am not satisfied with any version yet given of the words here omitted, though 
many plausible conjectures can be made. Some of those given in Greek may need 
a little modification : thus, -u may be -oi, and so on. 



Proceedings at New York, October, 1874. xcv 

After the reading of this communication, Prof. Haldeman exhib- 
ited to the Society some beads found in Indian mounds during the 
digging of the Pennsylvania Canal, and remarked upon them. 

2. On a Collection of Readings of the Thebaic New Testament 
Version hitherto Uncited, by Mr. Arthur W. Tyler, Astor Library, 
New York. 

In the winter of 1871-72, Mr. Tyler said, I was engaged in making a thorough 
search into all the available sources of evidence for the revision of the Greek text 
of the thirteenth chapter of I Corinthians. Having been informed, by Prof. 
Abbot of Cambridge, that the Memphitic had been wrongly cited, in the important 
reading in the third verse, by Tischendorf, Tregelles, Scrivener, and other recent 
editors, I determined to be able to speak from personal knowledge in the article 
which I was preparing for the Bibliotheca Sacra. While, for that purpose, looking 
over the Coptic grammars and lexicons to be found in the linguistic department 
of the Astor Library, I happily came upon the Eudimenta Linguae Coptae sive 
Aegyptiacae (4°, Romae, 1778), which was prepared by Rafaelle Tuki, Koman 
Catholic Bishop of Arsinoe in Egypt, and published by the College of the Propa- 
ganda. Seeing that this work was very largely made up of citations from both 
the Old and New Testaments, and in the two Coptic dialects, I pursued my search 
through its pages, until it was rewarded by finding the full text, in both the Mem- 
phitic and also in the Thebaic, of the only two verses in the chapter in which impor- 
tant variations from the common text occur. This discovery was especially valua- 
ble for the reason that no portion of this chapter in Thebaic had been previously 
known to textual critics. This version of the New Testament is one of the oldest 
in existence, being both older and ruder than the Memphitic, and it is now assigned 
to the latter part of the second century by Professor J. B. Lightfoot, D.D., Hulsean 
Professor of Divinity at Cambridge, England, a competent scholar, who has re- 
cently paid considerable attention to the matter. My own pleasure was greatly 
enhanced upon finding, after a thorough investigation, that this priceless version 
concurred with the Memphitic in supporting the Iva navxf/au/mi, which is read, in 
the third verse, by the three most ancient Greek uncials (K. A, B), and the most 
valuable cursive (17); and which I had adopted in my Greek text in 1868. 

Further examination of Tuki's book has since shown that it contains a large 
number of Thebaic citations, in passages where its readings have been wholly 
unknown to editors of the Greek text of the New Testament, and that even its 
Memphitic portions are well worthy of examination, as they are evidently taken 
from manuscripts not consulted by David "Wilkins. The Thebaic text, however, 
is especially deserving of a thorough and complete investigation and collation, 
from the fact that so few fragments of that interesting relic of the early Christian 
ages are known to exist ; and therefore, every line, or every syllable, of it which 
we can recover is of the highest importance. 

This book of Tuki's was employed by Tregelles (and possibly by Tischendorf) 
in the Apocalypse, though neither of them seem to have known of its existence 
in time to use it in the other books of the New Testament. It is quite likely 
that Tischendorf obtained all his citations in the Apocalypse from the concluding 
"part " of Tregelles's Greek Testament, which was issued some months in advance 
of his own. 

I know of the existence of but few copies of Tuki's work in America : one is in 
the Astor Library, and another in mj r own possession. The latter contains a 
note showing that it was used by Rev. Henry Tattam, of Bedford, England, in the 
preparation of his Compendious Grammar of the Egyptian Language (8°, London 
1830), and his Lexicon Aegyptiaco-Latinum (8°, Oxonii, 1835); but he does not 
seem to have made as thorough use of it as he should, for in his lexicon he repeats 
the blunder of Wilkins's Novum Testamentum Aegyptium (4\ Oxonii, 1716), and 
gives incendere as the rendering of shoushou in the one passage above referred to 
although in both his works he gives the correct translation in numerous other 
passages. 

It almost seems, indeed, that Wilkins's mistranslation should be styled some- 
thing worse than a blunder ; for, judging from p. 34 of his Prolegomena (where he 
says ' shoushou emmoi,' ' ut comburar', lege, uti et Graecus Iva Kavdr/aafiai), it appears 



xcvi American Oriental Society : 

to have been willful. In any event, it has misled some of the best scholars in 
Europe, although Wetstein, in his Greek Testament (vol. ii.. p. 156), protested 
against it, as long ago as 1752, in the note upon this verse. 

3. On some points of Latin Syntax, with special reference to 
Mr. Koby's Grammar, by Prof. Charles Short, of New York. 

The first part of Mr. Eoby's Latin Grammar was published in 1871. During 
the present year the Second Part has appeared, treating of Syntax, in 666 pages. 

Admirable as is this Second Part also, containing a treasure of examples far 
more numerous than any we had before, and from a third to a fourth part of 
which, Mr. Roby tells us, is from his own reading, yet in the development of the 
various usages he is less philosophical than we had hoped, and on some points he 
is still very meagre. But we ought rather to admire him for what he has done 
than blame him for his defects, which he may be expected largely to remedy in 
future editions of this part of his book. I offer a few remarks on two or three 
points out of several that I had noted for criticism. 

In §1348 Mr. Boby says: " The infinitive is used as object of the thing" — that 
is, as indirect object — "to a verb which has also a direct personal object; as 
docebo Bullum tacere ;" that is, ' I will teach Rullus about silence,' which is here 
equivalent to ' I will teach Rullus to be silent.' This is so far undoubtedly correct. 
But he should have added that this objective form, which is thus capable of logical 
analysis, might also by extension of usage be employed subjectively, though in- 
capable of logical analysis if we start from this latter form. Thus we may say 
Hullum tacere me juvat, just as if it had been tacilurnitas Itulli me juvat. Instead 
of this, Mr. Roby simply says that the infinitive may be the subject of a sentence, 
with its own subject in the accusative ; and, put in this way, the puzzle of the 
construction remains unsolved. In §1351 he says: "A neuter pronoun (id, illud; 
Eng. 'that') is sometimes found in apposition to the infinitive clause and corres- 
ponding to the article (originally demonstrative pronoun) in Greek." Mr. Roby 
seems here to have confounded the " substantivizing " office of the Greek article 
with the anticipatory use, as it may be called, of the demonstrative with the infin- 
itive clause, which is in Greek tovto, rotfc, snelvo ; in Latin, illud, hoc, id ; and in 
English, it or this. This anticipatory id, which Mr. Roby has in mind, is really- 
very rare, as Ca?sar B. G., i. 7, Caesari cum id nunciatum esset, eos conari; 

instead of the simple verb, as B. G., i. 38, nunciatum est ei Ariovistum . . . conten- 
dere. Under the same head Mr. Roby should have introduced a more subtle 
usage, the infinitive clause following an anticipatory ita or sic, which his favorite 
Madvig might have given him. This use is comparatively uncommon; but 
instances besides those adduced by Madvig are : cum esset ita responsum, caedes 
.... comparari, Cic. Cat., iii. 21 ; de Off., i. 13 ; Caesar B. G., i. 50 ; cetera sic obser- 
ventur .... amicorum esse communia omnia, Cic. de Off., i. 16: Tac. Germ., 18. 
Relative words also perform this anticipatory function, as quod in Cic. de Off., iii. 
31 — quod cum. audisset filius, negotium exhiberi patri, ' when the son had heard 
this, that the business,' etc. ; and ut in de Off., i. 19 — ut enim apud Plakmem est, 
omnem morem Lacedaemoniorum inflammatum esse, etc. 

In §1019 Mr. Roby says: "Adverbs are used to qualify substantives attribu- 
tively, adjectives, and sometimes adverbs." Mr. Papillon, Fellow of New College, 
Oxford, and editor of Terence in the Catena Olassicorum, now in course of publi- 
cation by the Messrs. Rivington, says: "A purely adjectival use of the adverb 
cannot be shown in Latin, which has not the article necessary for such a construe 
tion." Mr. Roby subjoins but one instance of this usage denied by Mr. Papillon, 
namely, omnes circa civitates ; and he adds nothing about the position of the adverb 
when it is so employed. 

But there are many clear cases of the adjectival use of the adverb in Latin — 
some in which the adverb is interposed between the substantive and its adjunct, 
which is practically equivalent to the adverb adjectival interposed between the 
article and its substantive in Greek; some in which the adverb stands outside 
such combination ; and others in which the adverb qualifies the noun absolute. 

I. The adverb interposed — haec inter nos nuper notitia, Ter. Heaut, 53 ; erit semper 
lenitas, Ter. Andr., 175 ; his . . .jam noctibus, Cic. Cat., ii. 23 ; multarum circa civ- 
itatium,, Liv., i. 1 7 ; in quadraginta deinde annos, Liv., i. 15 ; duo deinceps reges, Liv., 



Proceedings at New York, October, 1874. 

i. 21 ; nullo publice emolumento, Liv., vi. 39 ; inpentis publice privatimque 
Liv., i. 39 ; sola mei super Astyanactis imago, Virg. JEn., iii. 489. 

2. The adverb standing outside — pacatos circa omnes populos, Liv., i. 19; quon- 
dam hi comicines . . . munera nunc edunt, Juv., iii. 34, where the metre would not 
allow the adverb to be interposed. 

3. The adverb qualifying the substantive absolute — as ante malorum, Virg. Mn., 
i. 198. "Who can doubt that this copies, as well as the Latin can, the Sophoclean 
to>v ndpoc Kanuv, (Ed. Tyr., 1423 ? 

The matter of the order of words in Latin is very briefly treated by Mr. Roby, 
who gives only six pages to this subject ; while Madvig devotes to it fifteen, Zumpt 
twenty-three, and Kriiger forty-four. 

I will examine one or two particulars of this portion of the work. 

In §1047 the author says: " Words belonging to one or more coordinate words 
or expressions should strictly be put either before them all or after them all. But 
it is very usual, partly for rhythm's sake, for the common word to be put after the 
first of the coordinated words." 

The order referred to in the latter part of this paragraph is very common in 
Cicero ; but very rare in Caesar and in Livy, so far as I have observed. 

The following are instances of it : 

1. Nouns with coordinate adjectives — as, fortis animus et magnus, Cic. de Off., 
i. 20; de Or., i. 112; Cass. B. G., i. 5. 2. A genitive with coordinate nouns — as, 
varietate rerum atque copia, Cic. de Or., i. 19. 3. A verb with coordinate objects 
— as, non cognomen solum deportasse, sed humanitotem ct prudentiam, Cic. C. M., 1 ; 
Caes. B. G., i. 49; Hor. Sat., i. 1, 83. 4. A verb with coordinate ablatives — as, 
mens discendo alitur et cogitando, Cic. de Off., i. 30. 5. A single object with co- 
ordinate infinitives — as, deprecari aliquid et conqueri, Cic. de Or., i. 20. 6. A single 
agent with coordinate verbs — as, dicendum sibi et cognoscendum, Cass. B. G-., i. 35. 
7. A finite verb with coordinate predicate adjectives — as, nee melior vir fuit nee 
clarior, Cic. Lael., 2 ; and an infinitive with the same — as, dubia esse et incerta, Cic. 
de Or., i. 20. 8. A finite verb with coordinate infinitives — as, augere posset atque 
ornare, Cic. de Or., i. 21: Hor. Sat., i. 1, 89. 9. A verb with coordinate adverbs — 
as, collide versari et perite, Cic. de Or., i. 11 ; Hor. Sat., i. 3, 115. This same order 
often occurs in Greek, and with all classes of words, and the usage seems to have 
been transferred to the Latin chiefly by Cicero. That this particular order should 
happen, as a common thing, to be rhythmical, rather than the other arrangements 
here mentioned by Mr. Roby, is inconceivable. Some other explanation must be 
sought ; and it is submitted whether the order is not employed mainly to give the 
hearer or reader, as early as possible, the construction of the clause, by presenting 
first one of the coordinate words, and then the single word, which is often the 
principal word, and leaving the other coordinate words to follow to any extent, as 
the case may be. 

In §1050 Mr. Roby says: ''Contrasted words are put next to one another — as, 
ego Q. Fabium, senem adulescens, Cic. Sen., 4 ; ego ejus, Cic. Verr., v. 49 ; tu te 
ipse, Cat., i. 8." 

But related words and ideas in general are put side by side : 1. the same word 
or parts of the same word — as, suadeam, suadeam, Plaut. Capt., ii. 1, 40 ; alienus, 
alienus, ib., i. 2, 45 ; scito scire, ib., ii. 2, 47 : de te tu, Cic. Phil., ii. 46 ; senem senex. 
Cic. Lael., I ; omnes omnium, Cic. de Or., i. 21 ; die dies, Cass. B. G., i. 48 ; /acinus 
facinorisque, Liv., i. 7; jungit junctos, Hor. Sat., i. 3, 54; deos dis, Juv., iii. 146. 
So the familiar case of certain pronominal words — as, alius alium, Plaut. Stich., ii 
2, 46 ; Terent. Andr., iv. 5. 39 ; Cic. de Off., i. 7 ; Caes. B. G., i. 39 ; alter altera de 
causa, Cic. Somn. Scip., 2; Sail. Jugurtha, 79; Liv., v. 11; uter utri, Cic. Mil., 9, 
23 ; Cass. B. G., v. 44 ; Hor. Ep., ii. 1, 55. 2. Contrasted ideas. This class is given 
by Mr. Roby. 3. Similar or closely connected ideas — as, turn ibi, Cic. de Or.' i. 
118; undique uno tempore, Cass. B. G., i. 22; semper omnibus, Cic. de Or., i. 18- 
nulla unquam, Liv. Praef. ; multo saepe, Cic. Cat, iii. 23 ; aliquem aliquando, Cic. de 
Or., i. 21 ; tot ubique, Juv., i. 17; parco paucis, Hor. Sat., i. 3, 16; tristes misero ib. 
87. 4. Pronouns having the same reference — as, sibi quisque, Plaut. Cure, i. 3 24- 
Cic. de Or., i. 18; Caes. B. G, i. 5; Liv., i. 9; suam quisque, Plaut. Merc, iv. 5. 51- 
Cic. de Or., i. 4 ; Caes. B. G., i. 52. And the order in this latter case is so fixed 
that there is hardly any deviation from it in prose — as, Tac. Germ., 13, in sua gente 
cuique; or in poetry, except where the metre requires it — as, Virg. ^En., vi. 743, 



xcviii American Oriental Society : 

quisque suos patimur Manes; so Juv., iii. 143. 5. Cause and effect — as, decipiunt 
caecum, Hor. Sat., i. 3, 39 ; Mies rauci, Juv., i. 2 ; tacita sudant . . . culpa, ib., 161. 
Thus this juxtaposition of words in Latin is not only not restricted to cases of 
contrast, which alone Mr. Roby gives, but embraces generally the relations of 
associated forms and ideas, and almost strictly follows all the known laws of mem- 
ory ; and this juxtaposition, we may add, prevails still more extensively in Greek 
than in Latin. 

4. On the Modern Japanese Literature, and its Influence in 
bringing about the Recent Revolutions in Japan, by Mr. William 
E. Griffis, of New York, lately of the Kai Sei Gakko (Imperial 
College) of Tokio (Yedo), Japan. 

The object of the paper was to explain the recent social and political revolution 
in Japan, and to show the true causes which operated effectually to overthrow the 
Shogun's (Tycoon's) government, to reinstate the Mikado in full power, to destroy 
the feudal system, and then to impel the Japanese nation into the path of modern 
civilization. The causes of these four distinct results are to be found in the revival 
of the study of the ancient national literature, the study of the classic historical 
compositions of Japanese scholars, the movement for the revival of pure Shinto 
(the indigenous religion of Japan), and the publication and general reading of books 
written by native authors who had seen or studied western civilization. The 
three first causes were efficient in overthrowing the hereditary usurpation of the 
Shogun's government, destroying the feudal system, and establishing the national 
government on its ancient foundation, and according to its ancient constitution. 
The last, acting upon the national mind at the instant of intensest momentum pro- 
duced by the political revolution, impelled the nation into that course of innova- 
tion, reform, and systematic attempts at social regeneration which now challenges 
the attention of the world, and compels the admiration of all who can sympathize 
with an Asiatic nation that is bravely struggling into the light and knowledge of 
the nineteenth century. 

In Japan, the impulse to enter the comity of nations, and to follow the course 
of their civilization, came from within, and not from without. It is the general 
impression among foreigners that the abolition of the dual form of government, 
and the sweeping away of the feudal system, were the direct result of the presence 
of foreigners on the soil of Japan. This, however, is a great mistake. From 
causes already at work before the arrival of Commodore Perry and the foreigners 
in Japan, the Shogun's government would certainly have fallen. The presence of 
foreigners in Japan served merely to hasten the slow inevitable. Among the 
many classes into which Japanese society was formerly divided, there were two- 
that comprised the readers and thinkers. One, the Buddhist priesthood, brought 
into existence that vast mass of Buddhistic literature, and originated and developed 
those phases of Japanese Buddhism, which have made it a distinct product of 
thought and life among the manifold phases of this, the most widely -professed 
religion on earth. This ecclesiastical literary activity and growth culminated in 
the sixteenth century. Since that time Japanese thought has been led by the 
Samurai, or military literati, the secularly educated and armed classes. The crea- 
tive era of Japanese literature was between the eighth and twelfth centuries. The 
scholastic era of Japanese learning and literature embraced the latter half of the 
last and the first quarter of the present century. The province of Mito was 
especially the resort of learned men and authors, and the effect of their writings 
was to point out the historical fact that the Shogun was a usurper, and that the 
Mikado was the only true source of authority. It was the study of these works, 
and others of similar purport, that led the Samurai from one end of the country to 
the other to raise the cry, " Honor the Mikado and expel the barbarian." Another 
element that tended to overthrow the usurping Shogun and to restore the Mikado 
was the revival of the study of pure Shinto, the ancient religion of Japan, accord- 
ing to which the Mikado is the divine representative of the gods on earth, and as 
such is to be loved and obeyed by all Japanese. The study of Shinto created a 
powerful party, whose constant aim was to overthrow the Shogun's government, 
and thus end the usurpation of six and a half centuries. All these currents of 
thought united to swell the stream of opinion and action which, in 1868, swept 



Proceedings at New York, October, 1 8'74. xeix 

the Shogun from his seat of power into poverty and obscurity, and which raised 
the Mikado to his rightful place as de facto sovereign of Japan. 

Yet the very men who formed the Mikado's party were the most bitter haters 
of foreigners. The primary object that united and impelled them was to restore 
the Mikado ; their secondary bond of union and object was to drive out the for- 
eigners, close the ports of foreign commerce, and repudiate the treaties. Mr. 
Iwakura and his colleagues were the arch-haters of foreigners, their ways and 
works. Now, they are the leaders of the new ideas and the forward movement 
in Western civilization. How was this marvelous change wrought ? Why did 
the foreigner-haters become the leaders of progress, the defenders and executors 
of Western civilization ? Why did they preach the faith they once destroyed ? 

"It was the lessons taught them by the bombardment of Shimonoseki," say some. 
" It was the benefits arising from foreign commerce," say others. " It was because 
foreigners in Japan persuaded them," say not a few. 

In none of these do we find the true explanation. War, commerce, and contact with 
foreigners for a half century, did not move China ; neither would they have moved 
Japan. In the latter country the movement was by impulse from within, not by 
pressure from without. The real cause of the recent "reformation" in Japan was 
an intellectual one. It was brought about by the reading and study of the recent 
native literature produced by earnest men who had studied the foreign languages, 
notably the English and Dutch, years before, or who had visited Europe and 
America during the times of the Shogun's power, and who returned to Japan 
shortly before the Mikado was reinstated, and began the composition and publi- 
cation of those original works and translations which were eagerly read and 
studied by the new rulers and rising men in Japan. In these books the history of 
Western nations was faithfully told ; their customs and beliefs were explained and 
defended ; their resources, methods of thought, education, morals, laws, systems of 
government, etc., were described and elucidated. With Western ideas for texts, 
Fukuzawa, Nakamura, Uchida, Uriu, Kato, and a host of scholarly writers, ex- 
pounded the true principles which a nation that would become great must follow 
out. They one and all showed how Japan had retrograded in isolation, and the 
adoption of Western civilization was both a virtue and a necessity. Prof. Griffls 
said: "It was his firm belief, after nearly four years of life in Japan, mingling 
with the progressive men of the empire, that the reading and study of books 
written by Japanese authors, and printed in the Japanese language, did more to 
transform the minds of Japanese rulers and thinking people than any other cause. 
During the past decade the production of purely native literature has ceased, and 
the translation of foreign books, largely scientific, and the composition of works 
inspired by the reading of Western literature, have busied scholars and writers in 
Japan." 

The speaker then entered into many details of Japanese book -making, the subject 
matter of the books relating to the United States and other countries, what the 
Japanese thought of us, etc. He closed by remarking that "should Western civil- 
ization take sure root and flourish in Japan and the people become occidentalized, 
it is not too much to hope that the peculiar genius of the Japanese will produce a 
literary work that will take its place among the imperishable classics of the world." 

After this paper had been read and discussed, the business 
meeting of the Society was adjourned until Thursday morning at 
9 o'clock, at which time the remaining communications were of- 
fered. 

5. On the Assyrian and Babylonian Monuments in America, by 
Rev. Selah Merrill, of Andover, Mass. : read by the Corresponding 
Secretary. * 

Mr. Merrill's paper begins with referring to the general ignorance among Amer- 
ican scholars as to the number and character of the specimens of Mesopotamian 
art scattered among the libraries and museums of the country ; it was in view of 
this that he has been led to put together as full information respecting them as 
he had found attainable. We have sculptured slabs enough (besides bricks and 
other smaller relics) to panel or wainscot a wall 270 feet in continuous length, to 



c American Oriental Society : 

a height of about 8 feet. They were brought at intervals between the years 1850 
and 1 860, and are distributed as follows : Yale College, New Haven, Conn., has 
two large slabs, two small ones (with four small broken slabs in boxes, never yet 
mounted), two bricks, and sundry seals and minor relics. Union College, Schen- 
ectady, N. Y., has two large slabs, one small one, and six bricks. Amherst Col- 
lege, Amherst, Mass., has five large slabs and one small one, and six bricks, one of 
them Babylonian (the only Babylonian brick in America), with a parcel of lesser 
articles. Williams College, Williamstown, Mass., has three slabs and two bricks. 
The Andover Theological Seminary has one large and one small slab. Dartmouth 
College, Hanover, N. H., has six large slabs and one small one, and two bricks. 
Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vt, has one large slab. Bowdoin College, Bruns- 
wick, Me., has four large slabs and one small one. The Theological Seminary at 
Auburn, N. Y., has one large slab. The Connecticut Historical Society at Hart- 
ford, Conn., has one large slab, one small one, and two bricks. At Meriden, Conn., 
is one small slab, in private hands. The Theological Seminary of Virginia has 
three large slabs. The New York Historical Society has twelve large slabs, but 
they are not set up. The Mercantile Library Association of St. Louis, Missouri 
has one large slab. Thus, in thirteen museums and private cabinets, there are in 
all forty-two large slabs and thirteen small ones, and twenty-two bricks, all but 
three of which have inscriptions. Two or three of the bricks came from Koyunjik ; 
all the rest (except the Babylonian one) from Nimrud. From Nimrud came also 
all the slabs. They belong to the reign of Assurnazirpal, B. C. 883-859, and all 
bear the same inscription, the standard inscription of this monarch, of which a 
tentative version was given by Dr. Ward in the Proceedings of the Society for 
October, 1871 (Journal, vol. x., pp. xxxvi.): a new and improved translation forms 
a part of this paper. Except the collection belonging to the New York Historical 
Society, the monuments were given by the British explorers Layard and Rawlinson 
(all but two by the latter) to American missionaries (Mr. Marsh, Dr. Lobdell, Mr. 
W. P. Williams, and others), expressly for transmission to this country. The 
bricks are slightly burnt, and their inscriptions seem to have been cut rather than 
stamped upon them. They belong either to Assurnazirpal or to his son Shalman- 
eser II. (B. C. 858-823), mostly to the latter. The regular inscription on the latter 
reads : ' Shalmaneser, great king, mighty king, king of nations, king of the coun- 
try of Assyria, son of Assurnazirpal, great king, mighty king, king of nations, king 
of the country of Assyria, son of Tuklat-Adar, king of nations, king of the country 
of Assyria also, builder of the tower of the city of Calah.' Assurnazirpal's in 
seription reads : ' Palace of Assurnazirpal, king of the country of Assyria, son of 
Tuklat-Adar, king of the country of Assyria, son of Bin-nirari, king of the country 
of Assyria.' The bricks are of varying size, from 13 to 23 inches square, and 3 
to 5| inches thick. One has the inscription on the edge; another, partly on the 
edge. The single Babylonian brick is so indistinctly inscribed as to be almost 
unintelligible ; it belongs to Nebuchadnezzar. 

Mr. Merrill indicates the character of the stone used for these monuments, and 
enters into considerable detail as to the figures represented upon them, with their 
dress, decorations, surroundings, occupations, etc. He doubts whether the eagle- 
headed figures, of which there are several, are intended to represent divinities. 

The paper concluded with a brief account of the recent progress of Assyriologi- 
eal study. 

6. On the Talmud, considered in its relation to the Early His- 
tory of Christianity, by Prof. Felix Adler, of Ithaca, N. Y. 

The connection between the primitive Church and the great Jewish sects of the 
same period is imperfectly understood. Concerning these sects themselves a false 
impression still prevails in many circles. The Sadducees are held to be libertines, 
the Pharisees hypocrites. In general it is considered to be the part of wisdom, 
and even of common honesty, to study the writings of a party before pronouncing 
upon its character. The Pharisees are condemned in the strongest language by 
those who cannot read a line of their voluminous works as contained in the 
Talmud. Geiger's investigations have opened a new insight into the condition of 
parties in Judea at the time of the coming of Jesus. The Sadducees may be 
called the High-churchmen, the Pharisees the Independents, of the Jewish State. 



Proceedings at New York, October, 1874. ci 

The Sadducees were conservative in principle, a kind of priestly aristocracy, as 
Geiger holds; the Pharisees were democrats. The distinctions appertaining to 
the priesthood rested on scriptural authority, by which the Pharisaic leaders 
considered themselves bound. In order to accomplish their purpose, of elevating 
the whole people to the dignity of God's priesthood, they mimicked the forms and 
ceremonies prescribed for the hierarchy, and enjoined their observance on every 
member of the community. It is impossible to understand the New Testament 
without an intimate acquaintance with the contemporary writings of the Talmud. 
Jesus in many respects adopted the principles of the Pharisaic school of Hillel ; 
his method of arguing, sometimes the very phrases he employs, are to be met 
with in the current Hebrew literature of the day. Soon after the appearance of 
Geiger's Urschrift, in which the main results of these researches were laid down, 
their importance was recognized by Hausrath in the Protestantische Kirchenzeitung 
(No. 44, 1863). Other eminent scholars followed with their approval. Geiger 
offers an ingenious argument to show that the first Book of Maccabees was 
written by a Sadducee, the second by a Pharisee. 

Prof. Adler then proceeded to say that the Talmud contains direct information 
bearing on the question of the proper time for celebrating Easter, a question 
which c 'nvulsed the Church during several centuries. The Bible commands that 
Pentecost be celebrated seven weeks after Passover. A conflict of opinions 
is reported as having occurred between Sadducees and Pharisees concerning the 
day from which these seven weeks are to be reckoned : the Sadducees beginning 
to count on a Sunday, the Pharisees on the second day of the feast.. What 
motive could have induced the conservative Sadducees to lay such stress on the 
Sunday, no one has yet satisfactorily answered. On the other hand, the early 
Christians had a very high interest at stake in this issue. For them, Pentecost 
was the close of the resurrection-period, and it was of great importance that it 
should be celebrated on the day of the resurrection — the Sunday. If, therefore, 
we read in the Talmud that false witnesses were hired by certain sectaries to 
disturb the calculations of the Rabbins and bring it about that Pentecost should 
fall on a Sunday ; if, moreover, the Pharisees enacted stringent laws to prevent 
any such thing, and pointedly and bitterly opposed those who contended for it, 
we see in this a struggle, not between Pharisees and Sadducees, but between the 
Pharisaic synagogue and the primitive Church. This view is strengthened by the 
fact that no such conflict is mentioned before the Christiah era. Prof. Adler also 
pointed to a number of other enactments which are mentioned in the " Scroll of 
Fasts," forbidding the Jews to fast about the time of passion week, as directed 
against the early Christians: contrary to the received opinion, which explains 
them as referring to Jewish sectaries. All these passages and a detailed argu- 
ment in support of his opinion he promises to bring forward in an article specially 
devoted to this subject, which he hopes soon to have ready for publication. 

Remarks bearing on the study of the Talmud were added, at some length, by 
Dr. H. Osgood. 

7. Rev. Oliver Crane, recently returned from Asia Minor, spoke 
of sites, visited by him in that country, possessing special archaeo- 
logical interest. He described the statue of Niobe on Mt. Sipylus ; 
the extensive ruins on the plain of Antioch, about twenty miles 
north of the lake of Antioch ; the ruins of ancient Hierapolis, about 
sixty miles east of Aleppo (a small head of Venus, found there, 
was exhibited) ; and of ancient Seleucia. 

Pres't YVoolsey made additional observations on the identity of 
the monument on Mt. Sipylus with that mentioned by Homer, and 
on the myth of Niobe. 

8. On the Distinction of the Noun and Verb in Japanese, by 
Mr. A. Van Name, of New Haven, Conn. 

The Japanese in respect to the separation of noun and verb holds a position 
intermediate between the Chinese and Indo-European languages. In the Chi- 
nese, theoretically and to a great extent actually, any word may be noun, ad- 



cii American Oriental Society: 

jective, adverb, or verb, becoming definite only as it enters into construction and 
its position in the sentence is fixed. The full separation of the parts of speech 
which we find in the Indo-European family is reached, according to Schleicher, 
only through the agency of case and personal endings, both of which are wholly 
wanting in Japanese. The relations of case are here expressed by prepositions, 
or rather postpositions, and particles which everywhere preserve their separate 
character. Wa, sometimes regarded as a sign of the nominative case, is in its 
origin demonstrative, and its primary force is to arrest the attention on the word 
or phrase which precedes, and to separate it from what follows. It commonly 
follows, but is by no means a necessary adjunct of, the subject, nor is it confined 
to this office. It may be added to wo, which marks the object (wo-wa uniting in 
the form woba or oba), or to a noun governed by a preposition. Wo, also, though 
more uniform in position and use, is apparently of the same demonstrative origin. 
The noun as such has no distinct method of formation ; the differentiation so far 
as it exists is on the side of the adjective and verb. Two or three derivative 
affixes, the most important of which is sa, which forms nouns of quality from 
adjective roots, are the only noticeable exceptions. The plural is formed either by 
repeating the singular, without other change than that of a surd initial, now 
brought between two vowels, to a sonant, a change which is both the result and 
the sign of the close union of the parts: thus, kuni, 'country,' plural, kuni-guni ; 
or by the addition of independent words of collective signification, such as kata, 
' side,' tomo, ' companion,' etc. 

Personal pronouns the Japanese is poorly provided with, and uses sparingly. 
In many cases where we should employ them, the person is simply left to be 
understood ; in others the rules of politeness require the substitution of various 
humble or honorific epithets, such as 'servant,' 'master,' and the like, or a general 
designation of the place which the person occupies, as anata, ' that side,' for the 
second person, kono ho, 'this side,' for the first person. Prom the pronominal 
roots, a, ka, which point to the more remote, so to the less remote, ko to the nearer 
object, and wa, reflexive, pointing back to the subject, and not unlikely identical 
with the wa which marks the subject, we have, apparently by composition with the 
substantive verb ari, the forms are, kare, sore, ' that person or thing,' kfre, ' this 
person or thing,' and ware, ' I.' The primary meaning of wa appears in the posses- 
sive waga, formed by the addition of the genitive suffix ga, which may mean, 
according to the person referred to, 'my own,' 'your own,' 'his own.' The second 
person is without any simple designation, and, of the forms for the third person, 
the weakest, are, is still decidedly demonstrative. The genitive suffix no added to 
the above-mentioned roots, except wa, forms the demonstrative adjectives, ano. 
kano, sono, 'that,' kono, 'this,' while for the possesives no must be added to the 
full pronominal form, as in are no, ' his.' Where the personal pronouns are so little 
developed, a personal inflection of the verb is hardly to be thought of. 

The adjective has an attributive form ending in ki, an adverbial or indefinite 
form in ku, and a predicative one in shi, which last includes the copula. Thus 
from the root naga, ' long,' which appears in the proper name Nagasaki, literally 
'long promontory,' we have the following forms : nagaki saki, 'a long promontory,' 
saki wa nagashi, 'the promontory is long,' and nagaku suru, 'to make long.' In 
the spoken language the attributive and predicative forms, by the dropping of the 
consonant of the ending, are reduced to one, nagai. The strict law of position by 
which the limiting and dependent always precedes the limited and governing 
word prevents any ambiguity from this source. 

If now we pass to the verb we find that while nouns may end in any of the 
vowels, the verbal roots, or what we must treat as roots, though seldom mono- 
syllabic, are restricted to two finals, i and e. Not only in compounds does this 
root appear, but also where a number of verbs in succeeding clauses are in parallel 
construction, only the last requiring the termination of tense and mood, while the 
others stand in the naked root-form. This unchanged root is also used as a noun, 
more often abstract, as omoi, ' think ' and ' thought,' sometimes concrete, as kori, 
'freeze 'and 'ice,' and in compounds even denoting the agent; thus, from ki, 
'wood,' and kori, 'cut,' ki-kori, 'woodcutter.' To this root also, as to any other 
noun, are joined prepositions to form certain parts of the verb; thus, mi, 
'see;' supine mi-ni, 'in order to see;' gerund or participle mi-te, 'seeing;' te 
having a modal or instrumental force. Among the inflected forms of the verb, 
the predicative is frequently identical with the substantive and attributive form. 



Proceedings at New York, October, 1874. ciii 

Of the two classes into which verbs in i are divided, the older and more numerous 
class, including what we should call the irregular or strong verbs, forms the present 
indicative and infinitive, the latter used both as noun and adjective, alike. In 
verbs in e the two forms are in the older language distinct, but in modern usage 
the infinitive has supplanted the indicative form, and is used indifferently for both. 
In the negative conjugation the present indicative and infinitive are alike. In the 
preterit, again, of both the affirmative and infinitive conjugations, they are dis- 
tinct ; but in the spoken language, which forms a new preterit from the gerund 
and the substantive verb art (mitari, -u for mite-ari, -u), this advantage is lost, and 
a shortened ending ta replaces both tari and tarn. The conditional and concessive 
forms of the verb are also, by Hoffmann, to whom the analysis of Japanese gram- 
matical forms owes most, reduced to substantives governed by prepositions. 

Whether the separation of the noun and verb in Japanese is more or less in 
idea, than it is in form, is a question to be decided only by a wider consideration of 
the structure of the sentence. The view held by Steinthal and Schleicher respect- 
ing languages of the same general type, that they have no proper verb, but only 
verbal nouns, certainly affords the easiest explanation of some of the phenomena 
here presented. In the sentence hi ga teru, 'the sun shines,' it is most natural to 
regard ga as the genitive sign, making the subject the possessor or the attribute 
of the verbal action; literally 'the sun's shining [is].' This use of ga, which is 
frequent, differs from wa in the same position in that the former adds emphasis to 
the subject, the latter'to the predicate, though they are frequently interchangeable 
without appreciable difference of meaning. In the compound sentence the nom- 
inal construction prevails over the verbal. Instead of dependent clauses with 
conjunctions, we have more often only verbal nouns governed by prepositions. 
Both no and ga, the genitive particles, may be used to connect clauses which stand 
in an adversative relation to each other. A consequence of this looseness of 
structure is the inordinate length to which the sentence is sometimes drawn out. 
The sense is kept suspended through a succession of loosely connected dependent 
clauses, interrupted by long quotations, until sometimes the end is reached only 
with the end of the volume. The merit of the style, measured by a Japanese 
standard, is largely in proportion to the length of the sentence. 

9. On the Occurrence of Semitic Consonants on the Western 
Continent, by Prof. S. S. Haldeman, of Philadelphia. 

In the North American examples of my Analytic Orthography (Philad., 1860), 
the close of the glottis which constitutes the Arabic hamza, and the Hebrew akph, 
is (§§ 629, 701) attributed to Wyandot as heard by myself; and to the language at 
Gape Flattery as pronounced by Dr. J. L. LeConte, who also gave me sounds 
equivalent to Hebrew B (qoph) and n (hhejth), or Arabic §a/and hha, in the Yuma 
and allied Ipai. 

I have now to add several sounds heard casually from an Eskimo brought by 
Captain Hall to Washington. Here the numeral 'four,' which was pronounced by 
Dr. Hayes as sisdmut (sittamut of Richardson. Arctic Searching Expedition, 1 852), 
appeared as ts.iSjtmlc, where Arabic sad (marked with a semicircle) occurs 
twice, with Greek e of met, and the last vowel in fat, lengthened. ' Six ' (akhvinok 
in Richardson) is aqbemac (with qoph), and its aspirate (the seventh Arabic 
letter qha, or -q'a.) occurs in the name of a fish, eq'altiarq'suac, written 
ekalhiarksoak by Dr. Richardson. 

In the same dialect, a whispered apirate of ng in sing sometimes occurs final 
after cay (k) and qoph, as in m a c o c ngh (' four '). 

These facts do not prove an identity of people or of language. The Arabs are 
not Eskimos ; nor are the Welsh to be considered Oherokees because they have 
the aspirate 11 in common. 

10. Rev. W. Hayes Ward exhibited a peculiar Assyrian Seal 
recently received in this country, and remarked briefly upon it. 

11. On the Sanskrit Accent and Dr. Haug, by Prof. W. D. 

Whitney, of New Haven. 

Prof. Whitney recalled to the recollection of the Society that, more than three 
years ago (in May, 1871), he had presented a communication in defense of the 



civ American Oriental Society : 

ordinarily accepted views of Sanskrit accentuation against an attempt to overthrow 
them made by Dr. Martin Haug, professor in the Munich University ; the commu- 
nication was fully reported in the Proceedings of that meeting (Journal, vol. x., 
pp. ix.-xi.). Dr. Haug's attack was made in a paper read before the Munich 
Academy, and reported in Triibner's Record (for Keb. 28, 1871); now, however, 
he has fully elaborated his views, and puts them forth in the Transactions of the 
Academy (01. I., vol. xiii., part 2), in an article of 105 pages quarto; and it seems 
worth while to return briefly to the subject, in order to see whether they are made 
more acceptable by this complete presentation. 

Dr. Haug's article is by no means limited to a discussion of the points as to 
which he disagrees with the rest of the Sanskritists ; it is, rather, a detailed exhi- 
bition of the subject of Sanskrit accentuation, as seen from his peculiar point of 
view : the mode of designating the accent in the various known texts ; the present 
method of recitation of the Veda by the Brahmans, who are the living links in the 
chain of its transmission ; and the teachings of the native grammarians, of various 
class and period, as to accent. There is also prefixed a statement and brief criti- 
cism of what other western scholars have written on the subject. In this elaborate 
exposition, there is necessarily a great deal of repetition of what has been fully 
presented before ; and the value of the author's arguments is less plainly esti- 
mated than if he had confined himself to stating and defending his special opinions ; 
yet there is some new material in the article ; and many will be glad to have 
within reach such a compendium of connected information as to the Sanskrit ac- 
cent, even while they refuse their assent to the author's views. 

Those views themselves seem to be no more acceptable now than when they 
were controverted before the Society three years ago. The grand and fatal objec- 
tion to them is that they leave the whole body of phenomena with which they 
deal unaccounted for, a problem and a puzzle. If this which other scholars have 
taken for accent, and which they find no difficulty in explaining as such, is not 
accent, what is it ? Dr. Haug makes the suggestion that it is a kind of artificial 
metrical modulation, a "poetic accent;" only, what poetic purpose it answers, and 
what analogies it finds anywhere else in the world, he does not show ; nor does he 
explain why it is applied also to the numerous prose passages in which it appears 
in all the Vedic texts save that of the Rig- Veda. As a counterpart, he suggests 
that the peculiar accentuation of the Qatapatha-Brdhmana marks another accentual 
system, which is the real "prose accent;" but here, again, he fails to show what 
properties it has that should possibly fit it for any such office. No one who has 
examined it before has questioned that it is a special, and a very imperfect and 
awkward, way of signifying the same real accentuation which is signified by the 
other or " poetic " method. And I do not see how any one can possibly write out 
a passage of the Brahmana with its own accent-marking, and then add the marks 
of real accent as inferred from the other method, and entertain any reasonable 
doubt that the one thing means the other. If Dr. Haug were only to make the 
attempt to give such an account of the laws of his " poetic accent " and " prose 
accent " as should convert them from loose conjectures into linguistic facts, he 
would soon find himself involved in difficulties with which the worst that he 
charges against the views of other Sanskritists would be of no account whatever. 
And till he makes the attempt, and succeeds at least measurably in it, he has no 
right to claim for his own views any status among scholars. 

And what are the difficulties attending the acceptance of the common theory of 
Sanskrit accent ? Simply these two : we have to admit that the Hindu gramma- 
rians over-refined their accentual theory, introducing finally into it certain features 
which we are unable to accept as fairly representing the facts of their language; 
and also that, in the perhaps twenty-five centuries of the oral transmission of the 
Vedic hymns, their mode of recitation has become altered from the simplicity of 
living speech, and has taken on an artificial and scholastic character, as determined 
by the phonetic theories of the schools. I do not see that these admissions are 
attended with any appreciable difficulty : they are wholly in accordance with our 
experience of Hindu theory and practice in other departments, and with what we 
might expect on general grounds. At any rate, if we are to avoid them, it must 
not be at too heavy a cost ; we must have an alternative view offered us which 
has some independent claim to acceptance. 

Tt were useless to try to go through Dr. Haug's exposition in detail ; to refute 



Proceedings at New York, October, 1874. 



cv 



him fully would require almost as much space as he has himself given to the 
exposition. To sum up the case in a word : he occupies a very peculiar point of 
view, which makes him see and estimate everything differently from others, dis- 
covering mountains where they find mole-hills, and mole-hills where they find 
mountains. He escapes difficulties of detail by setting up an infallible authority ; 
he takes whatever the Hindu systematists put before him, questioning nothing, 
testing nothing, explaining nothing. It does not appear likely that he will draw 
over other scholars to his views, even as it is not known that at present he has any 
one to stand by him. If the case should turn out otherwise, there will be reason 
for returning to the subject hereafter, and for discussing it more elaborately. 

Dr. Haug's examination of the Sama-Veda system of marking accent reaches no 
definite results. He offers more or less plausible conjectures as to the proper 
meaning of some of its numerous signs ; but he does not, any more than his prede- 
cessors, make it out to signify anything really different from the ordinary accen- 
tuation. 

To conclude with a word of personal explanation. In a note to page 89, Dr. Haug 
charges me with having unjustifiably rejected the exegesis given by the commen- 
tary for three rules of the Taittiriya-Praticakhya (xix. H-5), without really under- 
standing what it meant. This is hardly fair to me. How the commentator 
explains the first two of these three rules is perfectly intelligible ; but I hold that 
he brings the desired moaning out of the first in a wholly unacceptable manner, 
by a flagrant distortion of its language ; that he brings no tolerable meaning out 
of the second ; and that he knows nothing about the sense of the third, but puts 
forward two quite inconsistent conjectures concerning it, neither of which is good 
for anything. I wish that, instead of saying of the last two that "the meaning of 
the explanation appears clearly from what I have said above," Dr. Haug had 
really endeavored to expound them : I should have been very glad to congratulate 
him on his success. 

12. On Recent Discussions of the Evidence of Phoenician Occu- 
pation of America, by Mr. J. Hammond Trumbull, of Hartford, 
Conn. 

In the last issue (August, 1874) of the Archiv far Anthropologic, the organ of the 
Deutsche Gesellschaft far Anthropologic, Ethnologie, und Urgeschichte, Dr. H. Hartogh 
Heys von Zouteveen discusses the question "Haben die Phmiicier oder die Carthager 
Amerika gekanntf He maintains the affirmative on evidence derived from 1. the 
pre-Aztecan ruins of Chiapas and Central America ; 2. Greek and Roman traditions 
of a continent beyond the Atlantic known to the Phoenicians and Carthaginians ; 
3. traditions of the natives of America, of the coming in ancient times of strangers 
from the east, in ships; and 4. the presence of "Baal in Atlantis," proved by 
"unquestionable Phoenician or Old-world antiques, which have been found in 
America." Under his first head, Dr. Hartogh points to certain representations of 
heads of elephants — or what he believes to be such — found among the sculptured 
■ katuns ' on the walls of a temple at Palenque. and figured in Waldeck's Monuments 
anciens du Mexique. That Waldeck did not himself discover the resemblance, Dr. 
Hartogh regards as proof that the drawings were not, designedly or unconsciously, 
made Li mehr elephantenartig " than the originals. Of the tradition of the coming 
of bearded white men from the east, etc., it is needless to speak. The utter 
worthlessness of Indian traditions extending back for more than three or four 
generations has been so thoroughly demonstrated, that arguments based on them 
scarcely deserve consideration. Under the fourth head, Dr. Hartogh, after brief 
mention of " a Greek inscription on a stone found in Trinidad," devotes nearly 
one-third of his paper to "einvkl mchtigeres Stiick," discovered in 1869, at Lafay- 
ette, N. Y., bearing a Phoenician inscription. This monument of Phoenician an- 
tiquity is no other than the gypsum statue, popularly known in America, a few 
years ago, as the " Cardiff Giant," or " John Henry Cardiff." To those who know 
the history of this sham antique, it seems nearly incredible that European scholars 
should accept it as genuine, and that an account of it should be permitted to appear 
in the organ of a learned society. Dr. Hartogh copies his description of this 
"important monument" from an article in the Galaxy (New York, July, 1872), 
and reproduces from that article a facsimile of the " Phoenician inscription " found 



cvi American Oriental Society : 

or imagined on the arm of the statue. He states that this inscription has by him 
been submitted to Professors Ingeholt (of Delft) and Cohen. The former declared 
it to be Phoenician, and read the words "Thammuz, Lord of the Heaven;" the 
latter thought it Semitic, but could not translate it, or decide to what language it 
belonged. The Phoenician alphabet having been known to scholars hardly twenty 
years yet, if the, statue is even no more than forty years old. argues Dr. Hartogh, 
there " kann hier an keinen Humbug gedacht werden : " but that, in fact, the mon- 
ument is of much higher antiquity, he is convinced by Dr. White's microscopic 
examination of the " pin-holes " in its surface, reported by the writer in the Galaxy. 
The only possible doubt of its genuineness arises from the disposition some people 
have "to regard everything American as humbug." In a final note, Dr. Hartogh 
mentions the confirmation of his views by the account just received from America 
of the discovery of a Phoenician inscription found in Bogota, New Grenada, made 
by colonists sent thither by King Hiram of Tyre, the contemporary of Solomon. 
(See Dr. Ward, in the Proceedings for May, 1874, communication So. 5.) 

To this paper, Dr. A-. von Frantzius, favorably known to American archaeologists 
by his edition of Palacio, appends some judicious remarks. He admits that the 
discovery of a Phoenician statue in America is very remarkable — if true ; but not 
being fully satisfied of this, he is not inclined to attribute so much importance as Dr. 
Hartogh does to the monument. And he can scarcely believe the latter to be in 
earnest, in accepting as genuine the Bogota inscription dating from the 10th cen- 
tury B. C. 

A few weeks ago, the "Cardiff giant" was again brought to the notice of Euro- 
pean scholars, at the German Philological Congress, at Innsbruck. " Some interest 
was excited " (so writes Mr. D. B. Monro to the London Academy, of Oct. 10th) 
"by an account given by Professor Sehlottmann of a supposed Phoenician statue 
found near the town of Syracuse, in the United States." This statue " is regarded 
by Dr. Sehlottmann as a representation of Adonis. The circumstances of the dis- 
covery seem to exclude the supposition of imposture." Photographs of the figure 
were exhibited, but Dr. Sehlottmann " had been unable to obtain a copy of an 
inscription which is said to be legible on it " (though Dr. Hartogh's copy of it had 
appeared two months before, in the Archil) fur Anthropologie). " The speakers 
who offered remarks seemed disposed to suspend their judgment until the inscrip- 
tion should be produced." Professor Sehlottmann gave his reasons for inclining 
to the belief that Phoenician colonies reached America; and among others were 
"the alleged Phoenician inscriptions found in Brazil" and other parts of America, 
and " certain traces of Phoenician in Indian geographical names.''. 

It is rumored that the Cardiff giant, which long ago ceased to be a profitable 
speculation to American showmen, is soon to be taken to Europe for exhibition. 
It is to be hoped that Dr. Hartogh and Professor Sehlottmann have not been made 
unconscious instruments for advertising, in advance, for European markets, a stale 
imposture which no longer attracts popular attention in America. That it has 
been matter of discussionin the Versammlung DeutscJier Philologen, and in the organ 
of a European learned society, is the writer's only excuse for recalling it to the 
notice of the American Oriental Society. 

The subject was taken up and remarked on in the same strain by several of the 
members present. Hon. S. Salisbury of Worcester, especially (President of the 
Am. Antiquarian Society), detailed his acquaintance with the statue : he had seen 
it before it was lifted from the ground ; he had also visited the Chicago shops 
where the designer of it and the workmen who cut it were employed. Others had 
examined the alleged inscription; others knew personally some of the parties 
concerned in the fraud, or in the exposure of it, and could attest the truth of the 
latter, as given in the newspapers some years ago, and also (for example) in the 
American Journal of Science ("Silliman's Journal"), for July, 18? 1. A universal 
feeling of surprise was expressed at this credulous and uncritical revival of a 
long-since exploded deceit. 

At the close of this discussion, the Society passed a vote of 
thanks to the Committee of Biblical Revision for the use of their 
rooms, and adjourned, to meet again in Boston on the 19th of 
May, 1875.