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Proceedings at Boston, May, 1878. cxli 



Proceedings at Boston, May 39th, 1878. 



The Society came together at the usual time and place, the chair 
being occupied by the President. 

After the reading of minutes of the last meeting, reports of the 
officers were called for. 

The summary of the Treasurer's report is as follows : 

EEOEIPTS. 
Balance on hand, May 30th, 1877, .... $1,562.30 

Annual assessments paid in, - - - - $40.00 

Sale of the Journal, ..... 13.50 

Interest on deposit in Savings Bank, - - - 81.93 



Total receipts of the year, .... 135.43 

$1,697.73 
EXPENDITURES. 
Printing and engraving for Journal, - - - $ 65.27 

Book-binding, - - - - - - 104.15 

Current expenses of Library and Correspondence, - 26.12 



Total expenditures, ..... 195.54 

Balance on hand, May 29th, 1878, .... 1,502.19 

$1,697.73 

The Librarian reported the receipt during the year of a hundred 
volumes and parts of volumes, twenty-three pamphlets, and two 
manuscripts. The number of titles of printed works is now 3319 ; 
of manuscripts, 138. 

The Committee of Publication reported that the second half of 
the tenth volume of the Journal, long detained in the press, was 
now rapidly approaching completion, and would be ready for 
distribution in a few weeks. To it would be appended the full 
list of additions to the library, and the list of present members. 

The Directors gave notice that the next meeting would be held 
in New Haven, and on the 23d of October next, unless, for 
sufficient reason, the time should be changed by the appointed 
Committee of Arrangements (composed of the President, Record- 
ing Secretary, and Treasurer). 

They further recommend the election as Honorary Members of 

Prof. Theodor Benfey, of Gottingen ; 
Mr. Arthur C. Burnell, of Madras ; 
Prof. Berthold Delbriick, of Jena ; 
Prof. Theodor Nb'ldeke, of Strassburg ; 
Prof. William Wright, of Cambridge. 

Ballot being had, the gentlemen were declared unanimously 
elected. 

vol. x. 8* 



clxii American Oriental Society : 

On the nomination of a committee appointed for the purpose, 
the following persons were elected officers for the ensuing year. 

President — Prof. E. E. Salisbury, LL.D., of New Haven. 

I Rev. N. G. Clark, D.D., " Boston. 
Vice-Presidents •] Hon. Peter Parker, M.D., " Washington. 
( Rev. T. D. Woolsey, LL.D., " New Haven. 
Recording Secretary — Prof. Ezra Abbot, LL.D, " Cambridge. 
Cor. Secretary — Prof. W. D. Whitney, Ph.D., " New Haven. 
Seer. Class. Sect.— Prof. W. W. Goodwin, Ph.D., " Cambridge. 
Treas. and Librarian — Mr. Addison VanName, " New Haven. 
Mr. J. W. Barrow, " New York. 

Mr. A. I. Cotheal; " New York. 

Prof. W. H. Green, D.D., " Princeton. 

Directors ■{ Prof. A. P. Peabody, D.D., " Cambridge. 

I Prof. Charles Short, LL.D., " New York. 

Prof. J. H. Thayer, D.D., " Andover. 

[ Rev. W. H. Ward, D.D., " New York. 

The Corresponding Secretary read the names of the members 
known to have deceased during the last year : namely, of the 
Corporate Members, 

Prof. Wm. R. Dimmock, of Quincy, Mass. ; 

Prof. J. B. Feuling, of Chicago, 111.; 

Dr. Charles Pickering, of Boston ; 

of the Corresponding Members, 

Rev. William Tracv, of South India: 
Rev. H. A. Wilder," of South Africa; 

and of the Honorary Member, 

Prof. Hermann Grassmann, of Stettin. 

He added to 'the announcement some account of the character 
and services of each. He sketched especially the remarkable 
career of Grassmann, who had first distinguished himself as a 
mathematical philosopher among the foremost in Europe in that 
department, had begun in middle life his valuable contributions to 
philological science, and had finally laid students of India under 
deep and lasting obligation by his admirable Vocabulary-Index to 
the Rig -Veda and his complete metrical version of the same 
Veda — a work of a high order of merit. His devotion to these 
labors had doubtless shortened his life ; for though he was full of 
years (nearly seventy), a period of useful activity might still have 
been expected from him. 

Messrs. Tracy and Wilder were missionaries of long standing 
under the American Board, Mr. Tracy considerably the older; 
both had left an honorable record in their mission-work ; and both 
would be remembered by the Society as having contributed to 
the interest of its meetings while in this country on vacation 
visits. 

Dr. Pickering had inherited an interest in the Society from his 
uncle, its first President, and had been one of its Directors, and 
almost invariably present at its Boston meetings, during nearly 



Proceedings at Boston, May, 1878. clxiii 

the whole of its history. His special scientific studies in the 
distribution of animals and plants had led him over to anthro- 
pology and ethnology, his contributions to which branches of 
knowledge had won wide recognition. 

Prof. Dimmock had greatly distinguished himself as a teacher, 
endearing himself to a large circle of pupils and friends by his 
accomplishments as a scholar and his character as a man, and his 
premature loss in the prime of life was profoundly felt through 
the whole community. 

Prof. Peuling also had won an honorable name through the 
West, and through the country, as a scholar and teacher of more 
than usual ability and success. 

At the invitation of the Secretary, Dr. Anderson spoke further 
briefly of Messrs. Tracy and Wilder; and Prof. Goodwin set forth 
more, fully the merits of Prof. Dimmock, to whom Mr. H. F. Jenks 
also paid the affectionate tribute of a pupil. 

The Corresponding Secretary read a letter from Prof. F. P. 
Brewer, of Grinnell, Iowa, suggesting certain emendations in the 
readings of the Noumenios inscription communicated by Prof. Hall 
at the meeting of the Society a year ago, and published in the 
Proceedings of that meeting, and notes upon the inscription. 

Prof. Brewer proposes Siarilsae (for SiareXet <fe) in line 3 ; edoi-ev (for ea&t^ev) in 
line 6 ; tov HoaeiSavo^ tov Aapvaidov in line 7 ; and uvelelv (?) (for ajra/le, which 
is only Ionic) in line 9 ; and he would translate : ' Whereas Noumenios, son of 
Noumenios, being a benefactor of the city, continued to take the whole care of the 
high-priest and of the priests in both word and deed, it seemed good to 
Praxidemos the high-priest and to the priests of Poseidon of Larnax to grant to 
Noumenios and his descendants that they may take the first choice of the reserved 
pieces for all time of whatever they may sacrifice. With good luck 1' The phrase 
£m uv dvuow in line 8, he says, " seems to refer to the yepav of line 9. The yipa, 
I suppose, are the choice bits of the animals sacrificed, which were the perquisites, 
according to established rule, of certain persons attached to the temple. The first 
choice of these forever was relinquished to the family of Noumenios, in the 
sacrifices they might have occasion to offer at that temple 

"The name of the high-priest, Praxidemos, occurs in another inscription 
formerly found in this village— a bilingual inscription, of which the Greek part 
was published as follows by Prof. Sakellarios, Athens, 1855: 

'ktirivq, Zureipa Nk); Kai /3a(Ti/l«Jc U-ToXefiaiov. Upa^iStj/ioc Zea/iaoc tov pufiov 
uvEdTjKev. 'Ayadrj rvxy. 

" It is possible that the Praxidemos mentioned in the two inscriptions is the 
same." 

Prof. Ball explained that some of the suggested emendations were of obvious 
plausibility ; they had been in his own mind, but rejected as unsupported by the 
monument itself ; they also appeared in part in the version given by di Cesuola's 
assistant scholars in his " Cyprus," emended from an original copy coincident with 
his (Prof. Hall's) own. So, for example, the II of the inscription has a very long 
horizontal bar, and it and the N cannot possibly be mistaken for one another. 
The exchange of A and N is more possible. 

The Society now proceeded to listen to communications. 
1 . On the Cypriote Inscriptions of the new Cesnola Collection, 
by Prof. Isaac H. Hall, of Philadelphia, Pa. 

This paper was accompanied with squeezes and drawings of the new inscrip- 
tions, so far as unpacked, with translations where possible. Most of these in- 
scriptions are short, but all are valuable, nearly every one contributing its share 
in advancing the knowledge of the Cypriote writing.' Several variant characters 



olxiv American Oriental Society : 

are explained, with some new grammatical forms, such as fu for i/ie . Two of the 
inscriptions were especially interesting as having helped to identify the temple of 
Apollo Hylates at Curium. Several more occur on tall jars of red polished ware, 
hitherto thought by the best authorities to be exclusively Egyptian. Of all these 
matters the details are necessary for a proper comprehension of the subject, which 
cannot be well shown without plates. The squeezes and drawings showed also 
the inadequacy of the figures hitherto published in Europe of a few of the new 
inscriptions, especially of the gold armlets of king Ethevander, found at Curium. 

Those inscriptions of the old collection which could not be found at the time of 
the former paper on the subject, presented in 1874, have since been recovered. 
They were presented also with this paper, with squeezes and drawings. Here 
also appeared the great faultiness of European publications of some of them. 
For instance, No. 256 in the old collection reads as follows : 

(1.) e.te.iAU a.ne.te.ke. 

(2) ta.we.i.Jco.na.ta.te? net a.po., the seventh and eighth characters in the 
second line being a little doubtful. In Greek, probably, 

(1) hru III ave&r/KE 

(2) ra(v) yeimva ra(v) 1 'A7ro[/W<] The blank I do not yet venture 

to fill, on account of the doubtful characters. 

By comparing this plain reading with the two different ones in Schmidt's 
Sammlung and Inschrift von Idalion,- it will be seen how defective material 
Schmidt must have had to work with. The stone is broken off at one end, and 
with it the name of the person who offered the statuette to Apollo. 

No. 270 of the old collection is on a piece of a large vase, found with the stone 
bearing a figure of a serpent with an inscription nearly obliterated. In Roman 
it reads : 

ti.mo.to.re.te.se.to.ma.ki.ri-o.se. 
This difficult inscription is interesting on account of its evident connection with 
others, more or less difficult. I am unable to say whether any attempt has been 
made to publish it. Schmidt appears to have it in view in his 3 b, Plate XII of the 
Sammlung, which he confounds with his 3« on the same plate. The latter is quite 
a different inscription, however, and was never known, even by Gen. di Cesnola, 
until I found it in the collection. 

It is not possible, however, always to tell to what inscriptions Schmidt refers, 
so far astray are some of his copies. In his No. 7, Plate XIX (not numbered in 
the Cesnola Collection), at least seven characters are wrong. 

No. 248 according to the old numbering is another that is difficult to identify 
in Schmidt. It may be la and lb of Plate XVIII of his Sammlung. It is frag- 
mentary, but the following is legible : 

mi.ta.si.ta.mo.se.e.mi. \ se. . 

Before the division mark there is doubtless a proper name before e/u. 

Squeezes were also exhibited of the " Naked Archer " inscription in the British 
Museum, of the bi-lingual and other inscriptions discovered by D. Pierides of 
Cyprus, of the Pyla inscription, and others, which showed the great inaccuracy 
and deficiency of all the published representations in attempted facsimile. 

2. History and Life Illustrated by the Inscriptions from East- 
ern Palestine, by Rev. Selah Merrill, of Andover, Mass. 

The discovery of the Moabite stone has within recent years awakened a special 
interest in the subject of inscriptions in the country east of the Jordan. Those 
already brought to light exist in the Moabitic, Hebrew, Nabathean, Palmyrene, 
Cufic, Greek, and Latin languages, with perhaps two additional ones, if we are 
allowed to include in this group the so-called Hamath inscriptions, and those from 
the Safa-region, or the district south-east of Damascus and east of the Druze or 
Hauran Mountains. These inscriptions cover a wide period, or from 900 B. C. to 
about the time of the Moslem conquest in A. D. 635, and are of very great value 
for historical and linguistic purposes. The most recent and valuable publications 
containing these inscriptions are those of Wetzstein, a small volume published in 
1864 containing about 200 inscriptions with notes — of Waddington, whose work, 
published in 1870, is by far the most complete now existing upon the subject — 
and of De Vogue, whose first volume, published in 1868, is devoted chiefly to the 



Proceedings at Boston, May, 1878. clxv 

Palmyrene inscriptions, with a few Nabathean inscriptions from the Hauran, and 
whose second volume, published in 1877, contains the so-called " Sabean inscrip- 
tions " from Safa. 

In this paper attention was directed mainly to the contents of the Greek and 
Latin inscriptions from Eastern Palestine, of which something upwards of 2000 
have been collected. Mr. Merrill presented to the Society seventy odd inscriptions 
which he had collected in the country east of the Jordan, all of which, with one 
or two exceptions, were new. They touch upon a great variety of topics, and are 
of the utmost importance in illustrating the religion, language, occupations, busi- 
ness affairs, and social and private life of the people who once made these Bast- 
Jordan deserts a land of enterprise and prosperity. Such facts ought to stimulate 
investigation in this department, which is certainly one of unusual interest in 
connection with researches in Bible lands. Among the particular subjects which 
were treated at length in this paper were military affairs, the legions, stations of 
the troops, officers, recruiting, etc. ; the building of castles, forts, temples, tombs, 
churches, reservoirs, theatres, and still other public and private buildings of vari- 
ous kinds ; the denominations and coining of money ; the methods of raising 
money for public purposes by taxing, general contribution, or private subscription ; 
the interest of the people in the water supply for their cities and towns ; hints 
with regard to the ancient cave-dwellers in those regions ; details as to the 
mythology which prevailed there, and the subsequent wide-spread Christian influ- 
ence ; evidence of extensive vine-culture ; interesting facts with regard to archi- 
tecture, trades, occupations, and professions, among which were hotel keepers, 
engravers, and interpreters ; in the very late periods the worship of saints and 
angels ; evidence bearing upon the question of the culture of the inhabitants and 
the languages which they spoke ; and a list was also given of the Roman Emper- 
ors, together with the Jewish, Arabian, and Palmyrene rulers that are mentioned 
in the inscriptions. 

The work of copying inscriptions is difficult, and deserves to be called a special 
art. Permission has first to be gained, and next, the inscriptions themselves have 
to be found. Frequently it is not possible to take a paper impression, although 
this is desirable where it can be done. The inscription should be visited more 
than once, and the previous work scrutinized at each subsequent visit. Advan- 
tage also must be taken of the light. There are besides several devices which 
help to insure accurate copies, but the work requires constant and special care. 
Owing to various causes, new inscriptions are constantly being brought to light, 
and it is a matter of increasing surprise that, after the multiplied forms in which 
ruin and desolation have visited that once beautiful region, so many ancient and 
valuable monuments should be preserved. 

3. On the Verbal Roots of the Sanskrit Language and of the 
Sanskrit Grammarians, by Mr. A. H. Edgren, of New Haven. 

The object of Dr. Edgren's paper was to distinguish the authenticated roots and 
root-forms in Sanskrit from the unauthenticated, to make a general classification 
of the former, and to attempt a determination of the character and value of the 
latter. 

The author referred first to the familiar fact that a majority of the roots given 
by the Hindu grammarians had never been met with in use, and to the suggestions 
made in explanation of it. The importance of the matter to Indo-European 
etymology makes desirable a more systematic inquiry. 

Of the more than two thousand roots catalogued by the grammarians, 974 have 
been authenticated by being found in use in the literature ; and there are besides 
over 30 Vedic roots which the catalogues do not contain. A considerable 
number of the former, however, are only duplicates, of slightly different form : if 
these are subtracted, the number is reduced to 879. Taking from this number, 
again, evident denominatives, there are left 832 ; and by further deduction of 
essentially duplicate and derivative forms, we arrive at the number of 788 rad- 
icals, which are either entirely distinct roots, or secondary formations by accretion, 
or vowel-change and transposition, outside the ordinary grammatical processes— 
and even this number may be further considerably reduced, if we are strict in 
detecting and casting out such secondary formations. 



clxvi American Oriental Society : 

Of the 832 which remain after taking away graphical variations and denomi- 
natives only, 549 occur in both the Eig-Veda and the later literature ; 62 are 
found in the Rig- Veda alone (1] having later derivatives); of the remaining 221, 
about 30 have derivatives in that Veda, and a considerable part of the rest occur 
in the other Vedas or in the Brahmanas — not a few, only there. Of course, the 
absence of any root in a single work is no proof of its absence from the language 
of the period. Tet there are sufficient reasons for believing that a considerable 
part of the roots here in question are of later origin. 

An important characteristic of the authenticated roots is their productiveness, 
by combination with prepositional prefixes and by formation of derivatives ; very 
few of them remain barren and isolated in the dictionary. 

Of the other great class of radical forms, the unauthenticated, there are 1119. 
Allowing, as before, -for slight variations of form in roots of identical meaning, 
the number will be reduced to rather less than 1000. It is to be noted, however, 
that meanings wholly diverse and incompatible are freely attributed to these roots, 
just as to the authenticated roots similar unauthenticated senses are assigned. 
Of these meanings, as virtually increasing the number of roots, no account is 
here made. The character of the class was discussed under the following heads : 

1. The disproportion between the two classes. While Westergaard and other 
early scholars might hope that the unauthenticated roots would yet be found in 
parts of the literature then unexplored, all hope of such a result is now long past. 

2. The different relation which the classes sustain to the material of the vocabu- 
lary. Only a small proportion of the unauthenticated (less than 150) even seem 
to have any connection with derivative nominal bases. 3. The different relation 
between authenticated radicals of kindred form and meaning on the one hand, 
and unauthenticated ones of the same kind on the other ; and the artificial aspect 
of the latter. Nearly four-fifths of the second class can be arranged in groups, 
numbering from two to twenty and more, of identical meaning and of analogous 
but obviously not historically related form. For example : kev, khev, gev, glee, pev, 
plev, inev, ralei), fev ; meb, peb; mep, kp, are all defined by sevane, ' serve, honor ' ; 
and there are groups of identical final with almost every consonant in the alphabet 
as initial. Under this head were considered at some length the causes which 
may be conjectured to have led to the fabrication of such groups. 4. The dis- 
crepancy between the number of the two classes represented in cognate languages. 
Fick finds evidem* for regarding about 450 of the authenticated radicals as belong- 
ing to the Indo-European period ; of the others, only 80, and many of these on 
very unsatisfactory grounds. 

While the general conclusion from the facts and arguments presented is that 
the vast majority of the unauthenticated roots are pure figments of the gramma- 
rians, the probability still remains that a certain percentage of them are real, and 
either stowed away in some unexplored part of the literature or, for one or 
another reason, never recorded there. 

The paper closed with an alphabetical list of the authenticated roots, stating 
under each whether it occurs in the Rig- Veda alone, in the later literature alone, 
or in both, also whether it is combined with prepositions, and whether derivatives 
are made from it. To this list was added an index of the same roots arranged 
alphabetically according to their finals. 

4. On some of the Religious Notions of the Gath&s, by Mr. J. 
Luquiens, of Boston. 

Dr. Luquiens began with describing the peculiarities, external and internal, 
which distinguish the' Gathas from the rest of the Avesta, marking them as far 
more ancient and original ; and he sketched the character of the Zoroastrian reli - 
gion as represented in them. The tradition is especially untrustworthy in their 
interpretation, but they are still full of difficulties also for European scholars. An 
illustration of this is furnished by the discordant versions of the Ahuna- Vairya 
prayer, the paternoster of the Zoroastrians. It reads : 
yathd aku vairyd athd ratus ashdtcit hacd 
vanheus dazdd mano/hho skyaothnandm ariheus mazddi 
khshathrerncd ahurdi d yim dregubyo dadat vdfldrem. 



Proceedings at Boston, May, 1878. clxvii 

Justi renders : ' As he is the lord by his own (unrestricted) will, so he is the 
master out of purity. The gifts of Vohu-mano are for the good works (accom- 
plished) in the world for Mazda, and to Ahura belongs the reign, which he gives 
to the poor for a protection.' This has no acceptableness of meaning to recom- 
mend it, and its treatment of vairyd, ashdt, and yim are especially to be questioned. 

Both is especially independent of the native interpreters, relying more on ety- 
mology, and amending the text freely, from metrical and other considerations. In 
treating the passage, he leaves out ashdtcit hacd as a superfluous insertion, and 
with a little transposition and other alteration changes the verse from a regular 
ahunavaiti stanza to another metre, of four lines, and reads : 'As there is a better 
world, there is also a ruler thereof, the lawgiver of righteous ways of life : In 
this world also Ahura Mazda has the sovereignty, and has placed in it a shepherd 
for the poor.' Besides other objections of detail, the main thought is too unlike 
the usual manner of the Gathas to be adopted on the authority of a reconstructed 
text. Dr. Haug, finally, who after his stay in India changed his method of inter- 
pretation, and become a favorer of the native tradition, translates as follows : 
' As an invisible ruler is to be selected, so is also a visible spiritual ruler, for the 
sake of purity : Namely, the giver of the good spirit, of life's works for Mazda ; 
The reign belongs to the living ruler, whom he (Mazd&) has given to the poor.' 
The peculiar point here is the rendering of ahu by 'invisible ruler,' and its con- 
trast with ratu, founded on the modern Parsi usage ; though the G-athds know no 
patron saints, no Izeds. The word has such a sense only in the later texts, in 
combination with ratu — a combination of a kind not infrequent in that period. 
Neither tradition nor etymology suffice to settle such questions, but only a study 
of the word in its whole office and use in the religious system, by the method 
sketched in its main outlines by Spiegel. 

The word vairyd cannot well be rendered otherwise than as Haug renders it, 
' [is] to be selected ' ; and it is the needed predicate of the first sentence. Choice, 
selection, is a prominent and interesting idea in the Zoroastrian faith. This was 
shown and illustrated at some length : for example, Ahura-Mazda and Ahriman 
are represented as having ' selected ' respectively righteousness and evil deeds ; 
the division of the righteous and wicked depends on their will. 

In asha is represented the embodiment of the moral and religious order of the 
Mazdayacnian world, the antithesis to the powers of darkness. 

Khshathrem has often a religious import associated with it, as the ' realm ' of 
Ahura-Mazda etc. ; it and cii, 'nation,' are used with vairya. 

The meaning ' life ' is not to be approved for ahhus ; it means rather the estab- 
lished order of the world, the sphere of order and religion, the reign of Asha ; 
and ahhus dregvanto is its opposite, the hostile reign, the domains of the druj. 
In the plural it assumes a more personal value, as the dwellers or participants of 
the reign. It is divided into a corporal or human sphere (ahhus aftvo, etc.) and a 
spiritual or invisible one (ahhus manahho). By the latter is hardly to be under- 
stood a future world ; this makes but a doubtful and shadowy appearance in the 
Gathas, in the form either of a heaven or of a hell. 

The phrase ashdt hacd, if these conclusions are correct, seems an essential com- 
plement to both ahA and ratus, its ablative value being nearly equivalent to a 
genitive one. 

The rest of the formula would make little difficulty, but for ca, which is treated 
as of small account by most of the renderings, but which, though sometimes 
wanting where it might be expected, is perhaps never introduced without reason. 
This leads us to conjecture a parallelism between the two phrases with mazddi 
and ahurdi, which is obtainable by amending ahheus to the nominative aiihus — a 
change further supported by the kinship of aiihus and khshathrem in the religious 
ideas of the Gathas, by the excessive agglomeration otherwise of genitives in the 
second line, and by the isolation of mazddi at the end of the line, if anhms is to 
be taken with what precedes. The reading ahhus, then, may be suggested for 
trial, and the prayer thus rendered : ' As we must side with the reign of righteous- 
ness, so let us side with the ruler thereof — namely, the giver (prompter) of the 
works of the holy spirit; for the reign and the power too belong to him, to 
Ahura-Mazda, whom it makes a guardian for the poor.' 



clxviii American Oriental Society : 

5. On some Phoenician Inscriptions in the new Cesnola Collec- 
tion, by Prof. Isaac H. Hall. 

Among the articles of the new Cesnola Collection, now unpacked, but not yet 
on public exhibition, are several marble fragments and one earthenware jar, 
inscribed with Phoenician letters. All the objects are of the same general nature 
with those described by Dr. W. Hayes Ward, in the Proceedings of the Am. Or. 
Soc. for May, 1814 (Journal, vol. x., and plate accompanying i. The jar is almost 
an exact copy of the one represented in part in Fig. 4 of Dr. Ward's plate, except 
that the inscription is different. It is evidently the same as the last half of the 
first line on Dr. Ward's fig. 5 : and like that, also, the last letter is indistinct ; 
but it looks more like Samech than anything else. The first letter, however, if 
the word has three letters, is a plain caph ; and the word therefore appears to 
be D73. But I give another conjecture below. 

Another is on the fiat rim of a marble bowl, and reads as follows : ~hul \ 1 1 1 
["WVjsSo — the letters in brackets being undoubtedly to be supplied. The mean- 
ing is probably " [in the year] IIII of King Melekpiathon]." The stone there- 
fore dates from the same year as the bi-lingual tablet in the British Museum, 
which furnished the key to the Cypriote writing. 

Another, also on the flat rim of a marble bowl, has nine legible characters, and 
traces of four others. The reading is as follows, the letters in brackets being 
evidently the right ones to be supplied : ["[njObD fjD 1 ? * p * * *. All that is 
thus legible is ' Of King Melekiiathon.' 

The last one (inscription) consists only of the letters Vf. This is on the rim of 
a polished alabaster vase, much like Dr. Ward's Fig. 3, in both structure and style 
of the letters. Whether it is a piece of the same vase I am unable to tell, as I 
had no opportunity to compare the two. 

Among the inscriptions of the former collection is one which escaped Dr. 
Ward's notice. It is on a jar similar to those figured by him in the Proceedings 
for May, 1874, above, and consists of two words, or a double word, of which 
the first reads Sj?3, and the second appears to read tjBn. This is the name of a 
well-known god, the same as Apollo Amyclean ; ^BH being equivalent to iKarr/- 
/Mof or emepyog or k1vt&to$os. And I am not sure that the second word on the 
other two jars may not be read as two letters, viz : yT\ ; which is a well-known 
title of the same god. ^STt means lightning, yr\ means arrow. If this is true, 
then all three are vessels dedicated to Baal Resheph, Baal Hhets (I represent 
Sadi by ts for definiteness, though I do not otherwise approve it), or Resheph 
Hhets. or Resheph Michal, or Apollo Amyclean. This is the same god to whom 
the British Museum bi-lingual was dedicated, which furnished the key to the 
Cypriote writing. 

6. On the Derivative Conjugations of the Sanskrit Verb, by 
W. D. Whitney, of New Haven. 

Prof. Whitney began with calling attention to the often noticed contrast between 
the Semitic and Indo-European verbs in regard to their structure ; the latter tend- 
ing to develop into an affluence of tense and mode forms ; the other narrowly 
limited in this respect, but making instead a rich assortment of so-called conjuga- 
tions (causative, intensive, conative, reflexive, etc.). But this difference, striking 
and important as it may be, is yet less fundamental than it appears. On the one 
hand, the latest views of the history of Indo-European verb structure regard it 
as built up on a very narrow tense-foundation — a present and a preterit— with a 
multiplication of forms of present-base, and the assignment of the forms made 
by them to other mode and tense uses ; and, on the other hand, in at least one 
Indo-European language, the Sanskrit, a variety of derivative or secondary conju- 
gations have been wrought out which, though far inferior to the fullest Semitic 
(Arabic, for example), are yet worthy to be compared to it — namely, passive, in- 
tensive, desiderative, and causative. The main object of the author in this paper 
was (following out an intimation given by him in the Proceedings of the American 
Philological Association for 1876, p. 8) to examine the development of the second- 
ary conjugations, and to point out that they are originally present-systems only, 



Proceedings at Boston, May, 1878. clxix 

which have been by recent additions expanded into fuller verb-systems. In the 
classical Sanskrit, the base of the present-system is formed in a variety of ways, 
all practically equivalent with one another and with the simple root, and each 
verb forms in general only one present ; in the Veda, the occurrence is very fre- 
quent of two or more present-systems of the same verb ; and a careful examina- 
tion will perhaps show in Vedic usage signs of that difference of meaning by 
which it is generally believed that they must in all cases have been distinguished 
from one another. If the secondary conjugations be regarded as properly belong- 
ing in the same category by their origin, their retention or acquisition of a sepa- 
rate significance of their own beside that of the primary present will have given 
them in the apprehension of the language-users a degree of independence which 
led to their being filled out in some degree with the other usual parts of the 
verbal structure. 

The passive conjugation is most clearly and undeniably of this character, and 
Delbriick (Altind. Verbum) has not hesitated to treat it as a present-system only, 
standing in the same relation to the j/«-class (4th), as the a-class (6th) to the a- 
class ( 1st). All that belongs to it further is a peculiar 3d. sing, aorist ; for the 
special forms of the other tense-systems allowed by the grammarians are wholly 
unknown to the earlier language, and hardly if at all, to be found in the later. 

The other conjugations have been extended, more or less, by the addition of 
perfect, aorist, and future tense-systems, and of verbal nouns and participles. 

As for the perfect, the Rig-Veda (alone) has two cases of a real intensive per- 
fect, which it is not difficult to regard as purely sporadic analogical formations. 
Elsewhere, the secondary perfect is made by prefixing the accusative of a deriva- 
tive verbal noun in a to the perfect tense of an auxiliary — usually, the verb kar, 
' do.' But this is almost wholly unknown in the Vedic language : the four Vedas 
furnish only a single example belonging to a secondary conjugation (viz. gamaydm, 
cakdra, AV.) ; and, beside it, one from a primary conjugation (viz. vidd'm cakdra, 
TS.). For where the formation begins to appear, it is made as often to eke out the 
primary conjugation as the secondary ; and the derivative in dm is found even 
from reduplicated present bases, as juhavdm, Mbhay&m. 

The causative is the only secondary conjugation to which belongs an aorist of 
any account ; and the causative aorist has nothing to do originally with the other 
causative forms ; it is not of the same blood with the rest, but only married into 
their family. The causative conjugation itself is neither from the beginning nor 
exclusively causative ; it is, as all the best opinion holds now, a denominative 
formation, which wins in part a causative value, in much the same way as some 
of the Latin and Germanic derivative verbs ; and a certain kinship of meaning 
leads to the gradual assignment of the reduplicated aorist as adjunct to the for- 
mation ; their union is only in process, not yet accomplished, in the early Vedic 
language. 

Aorists of the other secondary conjugations are almost wholly wanting both in 
the Vedas and in the Br&hmanas. The only exceptions noticed have been an 
example or two of the isA-formation from denominative bases. 

The creation of futures, in ishydmi etc . begins a little earlier, and in the causa- 
tive, to which the adjunction of the reduplicated aorist gave soonest something 
of the aspect and value of a whole conjugation. The Rig- Veda has two exam- 
ples of causative future forms ; the Atharvan, two more ; the two branches of 
the Yajus (in personal forms), four more ; and they begin to grow somewhat more 
common in the Brahmanas. Futures of intensive and desiderative conjugation 
begin to appear in the Brahmana period, and continue always to be excessively 
rare. 

An examination of the verbal nouns and adjectives — in turn, tvd, tavya, ia, etc. 
— would not yield a different result : they begin to appear in late Vedic time, and 
become gradually more frequent. Of the infinitive in dhyai, to be sure, even the 
Rig- Veda contains a number coming from " causative " bases ; but, considering 
such cases as pibadhyai and vdvrdhadhyai, this signifies nothing. 

Of what may be called tertiary conjugations — passives, desideratives, etc., from 
causative and other secondary bases— the Vedas contain nothing; and, except the 
causative-passive, they are only sporadic even in the Brahmanas. 

Intensive and desiderative forms are so rare throughout the later literature that 
it is very difficult to lay down any laws as to their occurrence. There is hardly 

VOL. x. 9* 



clxx American Oriental Society : 

any other part of Sanskrit grammar, therefore, which stands in more pressing 
need of being put upon the basis of the actual facts of the language, instead of 
the rules, always destitute of perspective, of the Hindu grammarians. 

7. An Enumeration of certain Verb-forms from the Catapatha 
Brahmana, by Prof. John Avery, of Brunswick, Me. 

Having lately had occasion, Prof. Avery said, to look through the text of the 
Qatapatha Brahmana in order to excerpt certain verb-forms, he desired to present 
a brief summary of the results, as compared with those from other texts previously 
examined. 

Of subjunctive forms, there are over 550 in this Brahmana, against 100 in the 
Aitareya, and over 1400 in the Rig- Veda. But those of the third class (coincident 
with augmentless preterits), which in RV. were nearly half of the whole number, 
have become very rare (only 3 per cent, against 10 in AB.) : and those of the 
first class (with mode vowel and primary endings) have risen from less than a 
quarter in R V. to half and more in AB. and QB. The use of the preterits in 
indicative sense without an augment is almost extinct ; there are but two or 
three instances of it. 

The imperative ending tdt is rarer than in AB. 

The occurrences of aorist-forms number 416 (against 175 in AB. and 2,609 in 
RT.). They are almost equally divided between the simple and sibilant aorists, 
while the former predominate in AB. (56 per cent.) and still more in RV. (71 per 
cent.). The root-aorist (as agdm) has nearly half the whole number, and the 
s-aorist (as adrdksham) more than a quarter 

The sibilant future and its preterit, the ■' conditional," are very common ; the 
former has 425 occurrences (AB. 92 ; RV. 15), and the latter 53 ( AB. 3 ; RV. 1). 
An anomalous form is acnuvishydmahe. The future participle is much used along 
with as or bhu in a verbal sense. 

Desideratives and denominatives are nearly as numerous as in the Rig- Veda ; 
but of intensives only 30 were noted. 

Infinitives, with the endings am, turn, tave, tavai, and tos, occur 116 times. 

In conclusion, Prof. Avery stated it as his impression derived from the compar- 
ative statistics of the verb-forms in the Aitareya and Qatapatha Brahmanas, that 
the current opinion of the greater antiquity of the former is well-founded. 

8. On Demonstrative Roots and Case-Formation, by Prof. M. 
W. Easton, of Knoxville, Tenn.; read by the Corresponding 
Secretary. 

This discussion was suggested by Prof Sayce's work on Comparative Philology, 
and was in good part an argument against the views put forth by that author 
upon the points in question. After a general characterization of the work, and an 
explanation of the peculiar point of view of the author, as a Semitic scholar, it 
proceeded to state the latter's hypothesis. He holds that inflection could never 
have been reached through such preparatory stages as the isolating and inflective, 
and that Indo-European language must have presented flexions from the first. 
He regards the pronominal elements as far too colorless to have led to a system of 
case-inflections, and would trace these rather to meaningless elements previously 
existing in the spoken language, which were appropriated, when occasion arose, 
to designating more clearly the relations of case. He thinks a certain child's 
habit of turning such words as dog and come into dogo and como perhaps a " rever- 
sion to that primitive tendency of men to round oft their words with merely 
euphonic suffixes which appears so plainly in the case-endings of the Semitic 
tongues." Dr. Easton maintains, as against these doctrines, that the genesis of 
inflective forms from agglutinative has been established by sufficient evidence ; 
that the assumption of a native disposition to inflected speech, antedating the 
manifestation of inflection in the language, is to the last degree obscure ; and 
that to regard random and meaningless sounds as less colorless material for case- 
endings than demonstrative roots is wanting in plausibility. He then goes on to 
show what is involved in the reduction of the roots to their case-forming use — 
while also allowing that some variety of means may have been adopted, and 



Proceedings at Boston, May, 1878. clxxi 

describing the office of reduplication. The primitive demonstratives were not 
vague and indeterminate. The assumption of a great number of demonstratives 
is not necessary : it is usual in all growth that economy appears in the material 
employed — as the hair, nails, horns, and cornea are transformations of the same 
epithelial cell. Time, and the long-continued successive addition of slight modifi- 
cations, were the sufficient agents. The present function of a part is by no means 
necessarily the function of that part at its first appearance. In circumstances 
where little is to be said, and relating to a limited circle of interests, almost any 
description of verbal machinery will suffice. Mutual accord and sympathy is 
always an essential element in communication. Gestures lent their aid. The 
remotest speech may have been not unlike a series of interjections, coupled with 
explanatory signs. In such conditions, no indefiniteness of parts could prevent 
the whole from being distinct. Language, to add to its resources, simply adopts 
what happens to be the nearest material ; the process is never one that can be 
logically accurate, since the use of an older word in a new meaning is of course 
always attended by a certain degree of distortion of its proper use, and frequently 
by a violent figurative transfer. 

The pronominal hypothesis best explains the further advance of Indo-European 
language to inflection. That is the best material for such a purpose which can be 
most easily transformed, phonetically and in meaning; and the demonstratives 
possess eminently this character. Auxiliary words of more substance would have 
been much slower to cast off an agglutinative value. 

After the reading of this communication, the Society passed a 
vote of thanks to the Academy for the use of its room, and 
adjourned, to meet again in New Haven on the 23d of October, 

1878.