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Presented to the Society October 17, 1860. 

Though the kings mentioned in the memorials 1 under notice 
have already been made known to the world, yet the statements 
which have been put forth concerning their connection and suc- 
cession require to be rectified. Their names are subjoined. The 
comments which have been suggested with reference to them, as 
being by-matter, are added in the form of notes. 

Bhoja Deva. 

TJdayaditya Deva. 2 

Naravarma Deva. 

Yas'ovarma Deva. 

Ajayavarman. 3 



Arjunavarma Deva. A. D. 1211-1215. 

Devapala Deva was reigning, as I have brought to light in 
another paper, in the year 1353 of our era, at Dhara. This city 
had been the royal seat of the last Bhoja, about three hundred 
years before; and likewise that of Yas'ovarman, in 1143. Jaya- 
varman dates one edict from Vardhamanapura ; 4 and Arjuna 
publishes another at Mandapa. 5 But these two places may have 
served only for temporary residence. 6 

The copper-plates containing the following inscriptions are de- 
posited in the library of the Begum's school at Sehore in Bhopal, 
where I examined them in February of last year. 

On (he Paramdra Rulers of Mdlava, 25 

Inscription No. L 

^i<i^KH f&n$ fz^zt h^hiIh 1 spimi 

sfte 4^IHi ^ gt: ^t (UM^H: r 
ll^FftfrlrFni M 

^tii^i^iql^l^^M^t^Frrg; n o 11 

SfffrT Hl-^HIfrJ^I ^RfrT: ^^^rfaspifT: imf 

VOL. VII. 4 

26 F. E. Hall, 

%r f^Wt^IT ft^T q&farl TO l 

On the Paramdra Rulers of Mdlava. 27 

^Mtairw)^ FT^Tt?f ^*hi[hh ^t^wt^ 
eiiHwIeuiHiH^ oiyMif^^rU^ 

UlUlimilWsMRhjUHl *qmi 
g:^fd^H fl^HWIf^T Frf^THPTliPnrTT 

28 F, E r Hall, 

*IUWft|(HHH=hM UJ^ q^T mm WIH^Hl- 

af]fJiPi^rU^rl^4l<Nl sTMH^H-HcU: merino I 
3?fi *f l 

urn ?m nq yffirnm rm frt q^iuit 

i^UHHRl^ HH^Msill^ri ^Tl 

On the Param&ra Rulers of Mdlava. 29 


Om I Glory to Virtue, the frontlet-gem of the four human 

ends ! 7 

1. May the Lord of the twice-born — gladdener of the world, 
from notoriously occupying the earth, in being as it were a 
shadow — bestow on you prosperity. 8 

2. May he, Paras'urama, be exalted ; penetrated by the Ksha- 
tras slain, in strife, by whom, in order to become donor of the earth 
to Brdhmans, the disk of the rising and declining sun has perma- 
nently acquired a coppery hue. 9 

3. May Kama — who, in battle, allayed, with the water of Man- 
dodarf s tears, the fire of severance from the mistress of his life — 
be of avail for your welfare. 

4. May Yudhishthira be triumphant : whose feet even Bhima 
placed upon his head, and whom the founder of his race, the 
moon, framed, so to speak, in the similitude of himself, for gen- 

5. There was a sovereign, the auspicious Bhojadeva : the or- 
nament of the Paramara lineage ; in glory, a Kansajit ;" a man 
whose ploughs overpassed the face of the earth ; 12 

6. The moonlight of whose fame having irradiated the undu- 
lating ridges of the quarters, the lilies of the abundant renown 
of hostile princes became closed. 18 

7. From him sprang Udayaditya ; whose sole delight was con- 
stant enterprise ; of peculiar felicity as a champion ; and a source 
of infelicity to his antagonists ; 

8. By whose arrows, discharged in fierce destructive war, how 
many lofty monarchs, formidable with armies, were not extirpa- 
ted ! 14 * 

9. Of him was born King Karavarman : who clove the vital 
parts of his enemies ; sagacious in sustaining virtue ; the limit 
of princes; 15 

30 F. E. Hall, 

10. Who, by shares 16 of villages which he, every morning, 
himself bestowed upon Brahmans, rendered Virtue, one-footed 
as it was, multiped. 

11. Of him a son was born, Yas'ovarman, the frontlet of 
Kshatriyas. From him issued a son, Ajayavarman ; renowned 
for his conquests and fortune. 

12. Vindhyavarman was born as his son ; at the head of he- 
roes, of well-omened birth, Zealous in the extinction of the Gur- 
jaras, 17 long-armed. 

13. Of whom, skilled in warfare, the sword, with its edge up- 
raised, 18 as if to deliver the three worlds, assumed a triple edge. 

14. Subsequently, his high-born 19 son, King Subhatavarman, 
affluent as Sutraman, persevering in religious duties, incited the 
earth to their observance: 

15. Of whom, conqueror of the directions, of sun-like lustre, 
the splendor, as it were a forest-fire, even to this day blazes, re- 
sounding, in Pattana 20 of the Gurjaras. 

16. He having attained apotheosis, 21 his son, King Arjuna, now 
sustains, with his arm, the circuit of the earth, like a bracelet : 22 

17. Whose celebrity — since Jayasinha 23 took to flight in the 
war of his juvenile diversions — as it had been the laughter of 
the custodians of the quarters, extended in all directions : 

18. Who, a repository of the entire wealth of poesy and song, 
fitly relieved the goddess Saraswati of the burthen of her vol- 
umes and her lute. 

19. Who, possessing three descriptions of combatants, 24 spread 
abroad his renown as threefold. Else, how have the three worlds 
acquired their whiteness ? 25 

The same, a sovereign exalted above all, in respect of the land, 
remaining over and beyond that bestowed by former princes, in 
the village of Hathinavara, on the north bank of the Narmada, 
in the district 26 of Pagara, gives notice to 27 all imperial officers, 
to Brahmans — the eminent, 28 to the local village head-men, 29 to 
his people, and to others, — 

Be it known to you as follows : By us, sojourning at the holy 
station of the blessed Amares'wara, 30 after bathing at the junc- 
tion 31 of the Keva and Kapila, at the sacred season of an eclipse 
of the moon, at its full in Bhadrapada, in the year twelve hun- 
dred and seventy-two, and after worshipping the adorable lord 
of Bhavanf, 32 Onkara, 33 the consort of Lakshmi, and the master 
of the discus ; 34 considering the vanity of the world, as thus set 
forth : — 

k Unstable as the storm-cloud is this delusive primacy of earth.. 
Sweet for only the fleeting moment is the fruition of objects of 
sense. Like a water-drop on the tip of a spear of grass is the. 
vital breath of men. An ! virtue is the sole attendant on the 
journey of the other world :' 35 — 

On the Paramdra Rulers of Mdlava. 81 

Eeflecting on all this, and electing spiritual recompense ; has, 
from motives of the greatest piety, 36 with preliminary presentation 
of water, been granted, by patent; for enhancement of the merit 
and renown of our mother, our father, and of ourself ; for dura- 
tion coexistent with the moon, the sun, the seas, and the earth ; 
to the family priest, the learned and auspicious Govinda S'arman, 
a Brahman ; settled at the place called Muktavasthii ; 3r student 
of the Vajasaneya subdivision of the Veda; 38 of the stock of Kas'- 
yapa, 39 and of the three branches, Kas'yapa, A'vatsara, and 
Naidhruva ; son of the learned Jaitrasinha, grandson of the 
learned Somadeva, and great grandson of Delha, maintainer of a 
perpetual fire ; 40 this land ; of which the four boundaries are de- 
fined; 41 filled with fields containing trees; 48 together with mon- 
ey-rent, share of produce, house-tax, 43 ferry -tolls, impost on salt, 
and all other the like dues ; and with its hidden treasure and de- 

Mindful hereof, the resident head man of this village, and our 
subjects dwelling here, being observant of our behests, will deliver 
to him, Qovinda Sarman, all charges, as they fall to be paid ; 
namely, share of produce, taxes, rent in cash, and so forth. 

Moreover, knowing the requital of this meritorious act to be 
common, the coming occupants of our title, born in our line, or 
strangers, should admit and uphold this virtuous donation by us 
assigned. 44 

And it has been said : 

1. By numerous kings, Sagara and others, the earth has been 
enjoyed. Whosesoever, for custody, at any time, has been the 
soil, his, at that time, has been the fruit of even the previous 
hestowment thereof. 45 

2. He who resumes land, given by himself or given by another, 
transformed to a worm in ordure, grovels there with his ances- 
tors. 46 

3. Thus does Bamachandra again and again conjure all these 
and future protectors of the glebe : ' Universal to men is this 
bridge of good works, liberality, and to be guarded, by you, from 
age to age.' 

4. Beckoning, 47 accordingly, good fortune and human life to 
be as uncertain as a bead of water on the petal of a lotos, and 
conscious 48 that all this is appositely propounded, of a surety it 
behoves not men to cut short the repute of others. 

Done in the year 1272, on the fifteenth of the light fortnight 
of Bhadrapada, on Wednesday. 49 

This was executed by Madana, the king's spiritual adviser, 
with the approbation of Bajasalakhana, 60 chief minister of peace 
and war. 61 

This is the autograph of the great king, the auspicious Arju- 
navarma Deva. 

Engraved by Bapyadeva, clerk. 

32 F. M Sail, 

Inscription No. II s2 
* # * 

srcj sr: srTOgrf^ n *fr% kIhoihIhS tot 


^fil^UNCui TOT >PT^t J^TJfl^iH^PW 


f^} h^kn^H! Hftftft^fr mFrrfq^TFr- 

On the Paramdra Rulers of Mdlava. 33 




This same sovereign, exalted over all, in respect of Ubhuvo- 
saha, 53 in the village of Uttarayano, appertaining to Savairisole, 64 
advertises all royal officials, Brahmans — the eminent, the resident 
village head-man, his people generally, and others. 

Be it known to you as follows : After ablution at the holy 
station of Somavati, on Monday, the fifteenth day of the moon's 
wane in A'shadha, the auspicious Arjunavarma Deva did grant, 
with prior presentation of water, to the excellent family priest, the 
learned Gfovinda, a ground*plot for a temple 65 to Dandadhipati, 66 
extending as far as the boundary of the edifices 67 on the main 
street, in the city of Mahakala* 

Likewise: by us } sojourning at the fortunate Bhrigukachchha, 59 
after bathing at the sacred season of a solar eclipse, at the change 
of the moon, in the dark fortnight of Vais'akha, in the year 
twelve hundred and seventy ; and after worshipping the divine 
consort of Bhavani; considering the vanity of the world, etc.: 
* * * reflecting on all this, and electing spiritual reward ; 
has, from motives of the greatest piety, with initiatory gift of water 

VOL. VII. 5 

U F. K Hall, 

been granted, by patent ; to augment the merit and good name 
of our mother, our father, and ourself ; for duration coexistent 
with the moon, the sun, the seas, and the earth ; to the domestic 
chaplain, the learned Govinda S'arman, Brahman ; settled at the 
place called Muktavasthu ; reader of the Vajasaneya Yaidika 
subdivision ; of the stock of Kas'yapa, and of the three branches, 
Kas'yapa, A'vatsara, and Naidhruva ; son of the learned Jaitra- 
sinha, grandson of the learned 60 Somadeva, and great grandson 
of Delha, who maintained a perpetual fire; even the entire vil- 
lage aforesaid; of which the four boundaries are defined; filled 
with fields containing trees ; together with money-rent and share 
of produce, with house-tax, including all dues, and with its hid- 
den treasure and deposits. 

Mindful hereof, the local headman of this village, and our sub- 
jects here abiding, observant of our injunction, will disburse to 
him, Govinda S'arman, all charges, as they fall to be paid ; to-wit, 
share of produce, 61 taxes, rent in money, and the rest, the per- 
quisites of the gods and of Brahmans excepted. 


Done in the year 1270, on Monday, the fifteenth day of the 
dark semi-lunation of Vais'akha. 

This was executed by Madana, the king's spiritual guide, with 
the acquiescence of the learned and fortunate Bilhana, chief min- 
ister of peace and war. 

This is the sign manual of the great king, the auspicious Ar- 
junavarma Deva. 

Incised by Bapyadeva, clerk. 


1. In the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal for 1836, pp. 377 
etc., is a land-grant of Arjunavarman, edited and translated by the late 
Mr. L. Wilkinson. In a subsequent volume, that for 1838, pp. 736 etc., 
this gentleman writes, pointing to that instrument : " I was about to 
add translations also of the other two inscriptions: but, finding that 
they both correspond, word for word, with that formerly sent to you, in 
all respects but the dates — which are later, the one only by three, and 
the other only by five years, than that of the former inscription — and 
that they both record grants by the same Raja Arjuna, translations of 
them would be but an idle repetition." But the correspondence is not 
so close as is thus asserted. The two inscriptions referred to are those 
now published. 

8. I now redeem the promise which I once made, to demonstrate 
that a mistake has been committed in throwing back Udayaditya to 
A.D. 618. Two facsimile copies of the Udaypur inscription, which I 
was at much pains in getting executed, have been of material aid to me 
towards arriving at a determination on this point. 

On the Paramdra Rulers of Mdlavct. 35 

The person for whom that wretched scrawl was indited calls himself 
a descendant of Udayaditya of Malava : but it is clear that, whether so 
or not, he knew nothing of Uday&ditya's family. The word yjeJli — 
rightly, ujj if) ^ — in the monument adverted to, is not the name of a 
king. Gondala is the first regal personage whom it notices. His son 
seems to be Gyata ; for which trrfTT has been printed ; the vernacular 
corruption, perhaps, of ?TTrTT, nominative of ?TTr|. af^TSTTSFT, if such 
be the true reading, is an epithet of the doubtful Gyata, and, by no pos- 
sibility, an appellation. "Udayaditya is represented as son of the last ; 
and he is distinctly stated to have been ruling in Samvat 1116, or S'aka 
981, i. e., A. D. 1059. For four hundred and forty-six years subse- 
quently, it is alleged, the Yavanas had been in the ascendant : and this 
term brings us to Samvat 1562, S'alea 1447 — which should be 142*7 — 
or the year 4607 — not 4669, as printed — of the Kali-yvga, i. e., A. D. 
1506 ; at which time the person at whose instance the inscription was 
written appears to have assumed some sort of authority. Six years later, 
in S'rimukha — an item wanting to Capt. Burt's copy — or A.D. 1513, 
he engaged in a pious transaction in honor of S'iva. His name was 
Sagaravarman — metamorphosed, as printed, into sjlji^ynj — commonly 
styled Chanddeva, or Chandra Deva, Nor is S'alivahana given as son 
of Udayaditya. 

More might be said on the present topic : but it is enough, if I have 
shown that we have here to do with a thing of no importance, abstrac- 
ted from its liability to beget error. See the Journal of the Asiatic So- 
ciety of Bengal for 1840, pp. 645 etc. 

Professor Lassen, I am told, has accepted the inscription thus dispos- 
ed of, as sufficient voucher for antedating Udayaditya some four hun- 
dred and fifty years. It is scarcely credible. 

Udayaditya was, very likely, in power in A.D. 1059, however reluc- 
tantly we receive the word of such as Sagaravarman, or his historicaster. 

There is an inscription, still undeciphered, lying at Bhopal, in which 
occurs the name of Udayaditya. Its date is Samvat 1 241, if I may rely 
on a blundering transcript of it. In another inscription, in the Bija- 
mandira, a temple at the same place with the record just spoken of, an 
Udayaditya is mentioned, in a Sanskrit couplet, as having been king 
over Bhripala in the S'aka year 1108, or A.D. 1186. The words are 
these : 

jjtt5T fPfcrreft ^HPjsTrrfnwTrffe; i 
H^t fif&f mvi oty^fadl : sra? ii 

3. Mr. Wilkinson quietly assumes Jayavarman and Ajayavarman to 
be identical ; though, in the inscriptions, each is said to have had a dif- 
ferent successor : the former, Haris'chandra ; and the latter, Vindhyavar- 
man. To reconcile the discrepancy resulting from this confusion, he 
resorts to the theory that Haris'chandra " was only a prince of the royal 
family, and, as such, became possessed of an appanage, and not of the 
whole kingdom." This view, he thinks, is countenanced by the title of 
J4^I*MI( being given to Haris'chandra. The same term, however, but 
dropped in the English version, is applied to his father, Lakshmivarman ; 

36 F. K Hall, 

who, it should seem, if not himself a king, was the eldest son of one. 
Mr. Wilkinson was unaware of this fact ; not having seen, apparently, 
the relative inscriptions translated by Colebrooke. 

Speaking of Yas'ovarman and Lakshmivarman, Colebrooke says, as 
touching the latter ; " He did not become his successor : for Jayavar- 
man is, in another inscription, named immediately after Yas'ovarman ; 
and was reigning sovereign." Miscell. Essays, ii. 303. But Colebrooke 
was unacquainted with the after-history of the family to which they 

As Lakshmivarman sat on the throne with his sire, it is reasonable to 
suppose that he was the first-born. His brother, Jayavarman, also speaks 
of himself as if a sovereign ruler. Lakshmivarman may have died while 
Haris'chandra was still a child, and Jayavarman have acted as regent on 
behalf of his nephew, to whom the government eventually devolved 
from him ; if they did not administer it conjointly. Yet it is noticea- 
ble that Jayavarman granted away land, at one period, precisely as if he 
were the sole and substantive head of the state. Possibly the extreme 
youth of his ward prevented his being named at that time. 

Lakshmivarman being mentioned, by his son, under the title of 
a^TOTtT, and not as king, it may be that he deceased during the life- 
time of Yas'ovarman. Haris'chandra designates himself in a similar 
manner, where he would certainly have called himself, without qualifica- 
tion, sovereign, had he laid claim to undivided power. His complete 
style, in fact, is that which his father used as prince regnant. Policy, 
or some other motive, may have dissuaded him from the style of full 
royalty, his hereditary right. It may, therefore, be conjectured that 
Jayavarman was still living in A.D. 1179. 

The words in which Haris'chandra takes notice of his own accession 
are worthy of remark. Premising his ancestors, while he passes over 
his father, he mentions his uncle, and adds, of himself: WrfOTIH JjrarflUPTt: 
S|yieiJtiQU<4RsUfM*W:. In other words, he acknowledges that he had 
' obtained his supreme rank by the favor of this, the very last, ruler.' 
Yet, notwithstanding this assertion, it will be observed that he does not 
unequivocally pretend to kingship. The delicacy of the distinction is 
truly Hindu. 

If the phrase crT^TJTOTttT be designed to indicate the succession of a 
son to like dignity with his father's, a strain is put on it as regards its 
application to Jayavarman, provided he was not a usurper. Haris'chan- 
dra, in the body of his patent, does not say whose son he himself was : 
and, if he had done so, perhaps he could not .have employed this_ for- 
mula with any more propriety; as I conceive that its strict tenor, in its 
most usual acceptation, is to mark connection between monarchs succes- 
sively in actual possession. 

Ajayavarman, being son of Yas'ovarman, must have been brother — 
presumably, younger brother — of Lakshmivarman and Jayavarman. 
His son, or grandson, came to the chief power ; bat how, remains to be 
discovered. Of offspring of Haris'chandra and Jayavarman we hear 

Devadhara, entitled r&ja-putra, or ' king's son^ is found as a subscri- 
bing witness to a donative instrument of Yas'ovarman. This is all that 

On the Paramdra Rulers of Malava. 37 

can be said of him at present. It may be that he was simply a Rajput, 
and not of the issue of Yas'ovarman. 

These speculations are founded, in part, on the presumption that the 
sons of Yas'ovarman were not independent masters of as many distinct 

See the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal for 1836, pp. 377 
etc. ; and for 1838, pp. 736 etc. : also Colebrooke's Miscellaneous Essays, 
ii. 297 etc. 

Between Vindhyavarman and Subhatavarman a King "Amnshya- 
yana" is interposed by Mr. Wilkinson, who mistakes an epithet for a 
proper name. This and several other misinterpretations are copied, 
without correction, by Mr. A. K. Forbes, in his Bds-m&ld, i. 114, 208. 

I am perplexed what to make of " Wullal, the King of Oujein," who 
is said to have been conquered by Kumarapala of Gujerat. Kumara- 
pala's time was between A. D. 1142 and 1173. Can it be that Ballala — 
as I should spell the word — was another name of Jayavarman ? See 
the R&s-mblb, i. 184-187. 

That Naravarman ruled as early as A. D. 1107, we have the evidence 
of an inscription on marble, seen by Col. Tod. Transactions of the 
Boyal Asiatic Society, i. 223, 226. 

4. ^Jtefymmi^HM idi*Hlrjj " from his abode at the auspicious Vardha- 
manapura :" an improbable idiom. Miscell. Essays, ii. 307, 309. Cole- 
brooke's facsimile of his original leads me to believe that the right 
reading is JHldfeWMM^y^ldlHI ^ '• ' here, resident at the auspicious 
Vardhamanapura.' The 5T is unmistakable ; and, as the ardkdkdra was 
not to be expected, there wants nothing, to bring out my wording, but 
the stroke which converts & into o. 

5. This is, probably, either the original, or the Sanskritized form, of 
the present Mandii. We have the same word, I presume, in Kath- 
mandu, usually derived from Kashthamandira. Whether mandapa ever 
means ' city,' I am unable to say. If it does, like pattana and nagara, 
its synonymes, it has come to be an appellation. Compare n&Xig in the 
vulgar Romaic 's i^ ndlrj, Stambol, or Constantinople. 

6. Mr. Wilkinson errs in understanding that Haris'chandra issues a 
patent " from his capital of Nilagiri." The document recites that Nila- 
giri was the district— mandala — in which the land alienated was situate. 

7. According to Hindu conception, the purpose of life is fourfold : 
virtue, wealth, gratification of the senses, and final blessedness. I know 
of no warrant for considering the third, or grrrr, to imply " love of God," 
as Colebrooke explains it on one occasion. Digest of Hindu Law etc. 
(8vo. edition), ii. 382. 

There is something peculiar in the salutations of nearly all the edicts, 
hitherto discovered, of the later rulers of Malava. In one of the grants 
published by Colebrooke, we find wtercff -s WRITS', " auspicious victory 
and elevation." Another of them has sfh&it •s«J<JU41, ' auspicionsness, 
victory, and elevation.' Colebrooke seems silently to have departed, 
here, from his facsimile. See his Miscell. Essays, ii. 307, 308. 

38 F. E. Hall, 

8. Mr. Wilkinson changes ll(ri{Sn*rPwrc[ to irfwfsPStrRrr. Imagin- 
ing the couplet to be pregnant with puns, he translates it in three differ- 
ent ways. The true sense which would come in place of that which he 
ranks as principal is, however, defeated by reading utHPsl^dill ; however 
we might then find something, in the verses, about eclipses of the moon ; 
the writer of them being assumed to hold the rational opinions of Bhas- 
kara A'charya concerning the cause of those phenomena. But it is 
impossible, on either lection, to extort from the passage anything appli- 
cable to the serpent S'esha. 

The moon — but not here — is sometimes called fer^T or fssT^TsT, 
' chief of the twice-born.' Its primary emanation from the eye of Atri 
counts as birth the first ; and its extraction from the sea of milk, into 
which it was cast, is its second birth. 

The nineteen stanzas which commence my original are in every wise 
identical with as many at the beginning of the inscription translated 
by Mr. Wilkinson in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal for 
1836, pp. 377 etc. I write with a copy before me, in manuscript, taken 
from his facsimile. 

9. Such is a literal rendering of the scarcely less awkward original. 
Warriors who fall in battle are supposed, by the Hindus, to reach 

Paradise through the sun. 

Mr. Wilkinson, by two bold strokes, alters the Sanskrit entirely : and, 
after all, he entirely misapprehends the drift of his alteration. After 
correcting an obvious error of the press, -t^mii for gum I, his reading 
will run thus : 

His English of this is in these words : " May that Paras'urdma, who 
gave to the Brahmans the whole earth, after it had become red as the 
setting sun, being drenched in the blood of the race of Kshatriyas pros- 
trated in terrible conflicts, ever be praised." I should be disposed to 
substitute as follows : ' May he, Paras'urama, be exalted ; of whom, 
munificent, the earth — as measurable by the sun's disk throughout the 
turns of the day — worn by Eshatras slain in strife, assumed a coppery tint.' 

10. Mr. Wilkinson turns the plurals 5£FTP. and TT3[T: of the original 
into duals, yfTT and crr^. The latter are more nicely exact, in the 
article of grammar ; but the former are held to be more respectful. 

11. Kansajit, ' the conqueror of Eansa,' is Krishna. As none, how- 
ever, but the initiated, will be likely to look into such a paper as the 
present, I may dispense with indications of this sort. Hence many of 
the historical allusions are also left unexplained. 

19. With the latter line of this stanza Mr. Wilkinson takes some- 
thing of a liberty, in transforming it to : 

Bhojadeva is thus made to have ' subjugated the face of the earth to 
its borders.' The old rendering of the above is : " He traversed the 
earth, in victory, even to its ocean limits." 

On Hie Paramdra Rulers of Mdlava. 89 

13. The meaning is, that, since the influence of Bhoja reached to 
the ends of terrestrial space, all opposition vailed before him. 

There is a species of lotos which shuts at night-fall. 

In this couplet the earth is supposed to terminate in rugged declivities. 

Mr. Wilkinson alters qmwufcjafljlrt to 8Bnm%^^ l^. 

14. The second half of this couplet palters with several words, to 
this effect : ' how many towering mountains, impregnable from their 
escarpments, were not eradicated 1' 

15; Here, again, Mr. Wilkinson arbitrarily innovates, in putting 
fiiFT- for f^rr-, 'broken' for 'cleft.' 

The 'limit of princes' denotes their ne plus ultra. 

16. My authority for representing q£ by ' share' is an inscription 
published by me in another volume of this Journal (vi. 542 etc.). 

IT. In the original, mrr. And so the word seems to be written 
quite as often as jj^. Still the- latter alone is reputed correct. 

1§. The Sanskrit is here peculiar ; the idiom employed being of very 
questionable purity. 

19. This is the term which, as mentioned above, Mr. Wilkinson pro- 
motes to the name of a king. It is the adjective of yifWJliim, ' son of 
somebody,' an hidalgo, a eupatrid. 

90. Or Analavata ; vulgarly, Anhilwara. Without much demur, 
we should so understand the word ; allowance being made for a fraudu- 
lent vaunt. But it would be just as permissible to render ' in the cities.' 
The ambiguity of the Sanskrit looks as if intentional. 

According to Mr. Forbes, Subhatavarman contemplated an incursion 
into Gujerat, in the time of Bhima II, but did not carry his design into 
execution. His son, it is said, was more successful. ft&s-m&ld, i. 208. 

Mr. Wilkinson, at the cost of sense and grammar, puts sjcjifTiyiW 
for 4jbnfTh^HI . 

81. This implies a death of happy hopes; absorption into deity, and 
hence identification with him. 

33. The frivolous equivoques of the original appear sufficiently in 
the English, without the necessity of comment. 

33. There is a difficulty here : but, with the aid of Mr. Forbes, it 
may, perhaps, be solved. 

Jayasinha of Gujerat — taking for granted that he is intended — 
reigned in A.D. 1093-1142 or 1144 ; whereas A.D. 1210 and 1215 are 
among the ascertained regnal years of Arjunavarman. But Bhima II, 
whose date is A. D. 1178-1214, is called, in one inscription, "a second 
Siddharaja;" Siddharaja having been the title of one of Jayasinha's 
ancestors. May not Bhima have been popularly called " a second Jaya- 
sinha" also I If so, there was a taunting appositeness in Arjuna's choos- 
ing to give him this designation, 'dropping the qualification of " second ;" 
since the real Jayasinha aggressed on Malava, took Dhar& by storm, 

40 F. R Hull, 

defeated Arjuna's predecessor, Yas'ovarman, and carried him captive to 
Analavata. Ras-mdla, i. 66, 113, 114, 208. 

In the inscription which Mr. Forbes speaks of at p. 66, Jayasinha 
appeal's as conqueror of " Wurwurk, the lord of Oojein ;" meaning 
Yas'ovarrnan. Does " Wurwurk," (partly owing to the printer), stand 
for Varmarka, ' the sun of Kshatriyas V What Mr. Forbes writes at 
p. 116 has not passed unnoticed. 

Col. Tod says that Siddharaja — his Siddharaya — took Naravarman 
prisoner, after seizing his capital. He adds that Siddharaja " ruled 
from Samvat 1150 to Samvat 1201." Transactions of the Royal Asiatic 
Society, i. 222. Greatly preferring to trust Mr. Forbes, I believe that 
Col. Tod has mixed up Naravarman with Yas'ovarman. 

24. That is to say, elephantry, cavalry, and infantry. In ancient 
times, chariots were added as a fourth arm. They must have been dis- 
used long before the thirteenth century. 

Mr. Wilkinson changes JPT to FPT. 

25. Renown, in the Hindu typology, is of a white color. 

There is a play on the word VoTtfTrer, which means both ' whiteness ' 
and ' purity,' ' fairness.' 

These stanzas, which are in the pathyavaktra measure, are, even in 
Hindu estimation, of rather indifferent fabric. A number of their allu- 
sions, as being of commonplace occurrence, have been left unannotated. 
Alike in these verses and in the rest of the inscription, the engraver of 
the plate has here and there omitted a visarga, and has substituted the 
dental sibilant for the palatal. All errors of greater moment than these 
are specially pointed out. 

26. Pratijag&ranaka, in the original. I have remarked, in a previous 
paper (see this Journal, vi. 531, n. 38), on the word patUda, which I 
take to intend a canton or commane. That this term and pratijkgara- 
naka are synonymes, I am indisposed to believe without further proof; 
especially since the latter is used as if it were the subdivision of a king- 
dom, next inferior to the mandala or province. See the Journal of the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal for 1838, p. 737; and for 1836, p. 379. 

Sir H. M. Elliot, discussing the antiquity of the word pafffana, as a 
geographical technicality, says that it is found so employed " even on an 
inscription dated A. D. 1210, discovered at Piplianugur in Bhopal ;" and 
he adds a reference to the second of the land-grants just indicated. Sup- 
plemental Glossary, p. 186. Had Sir Henry taken the trouble to turn 
baCk a leaf, he would have seen that Mr. Wilkinson's " pargana" was 
only meant as a substitute for the Sanskrit pralijagarmiaka. 

27. I here take prati to be a preposition ; though, as such, it is su- 
perfluous in its place in the sentence. It may be a distributive prefix ; 
and, in that case, must not stand independent. 

28. Colebrooke, in haste, twice renders brahmctnotlar&n by " Brah- 
manas and others." Miscell. Essays, ii. 303, 309. 

29. Pattakila, which, Colebrooke says, " is probably the Pattdil of 
the moderns." Miscell. Essays, ii. 303. Professor AVilson could scarcely 

On the Paramdra Rulers of Malava. 41 

have remembered this observation, when he set down patll as the orig- 
inal form of the word, and wrote of it as follows : " the term is princi- 
pally current in the countries inhabited by, or subject to, the Marathas, 
and appears to be an essential Marathi word, being used as a respectful 
title in addressing one of that nation, or a Siidra in general : it may be 
derived from Pat, a water-course, the supply of water being fitly under 
the care of the chief person of the village; or from Pat, a register or 
roll (of the inhabitants, etc.) of the village." Glossary of Indian Terms, 
pp. 407, 408. 

It is at least plausible to suppose that pattakila is a depravation, by 
metathesis, of pattalika. It may, then, be allied to pattal&, ' canton ; r 
which, likely enough, besides being the same with patala, was also writ- 
ten pattald : as we have both pattana and pattana for ' city.' 

If this be tenable, the jurisdiction of the pattakila may have been 
wider formerly than it is at present ; though a functionary of this sort 
sometimes has, even in our day, three or four villages under him. 
Accordingly, by the phrase ' pattakila of such and such village' would 
be understood an officer holding certain authority over the shire of 
country in which it was comprehended. 

Otherwise, if we connect pattakila with patala, ' the filing of suits,' 
it may have denoted the magistrate presiding over a court of primary 

There is still much to determine as to what is imported by patta and 
several of its real or apparent conjugates, when employed relatively to 
matters judicial. 

30. This place has not been identified, any more than several others 
specified in this inscription and in that which follows. The phallus of 
Amares'wara lies to the west of Mount Paryanka, according to the 26th 
chapter of the Reva-mah&tmya. Mount Paryanka is son of Vindhya, 
in mythology. 

31. This junction is east of the Vaidurya mountain, in Dharmaranya, 
at Siddhimanwantara. It lies to the north of the Reva, or Narmada. 
The Kapila takes its rise in the highlands of Khandesh, and disem- 
bogues opposite the temple of Onkara-mandhata, a little to the east of 
the " Cburar." It arose from the water used at a sacrifice performed 
by King Vasudana. Great is the merit of dying at the confluence of 
the Reva and Kapila. Again : 

^eSHHiJJ Zf ^STtt Mirlrfl! chl<yt<JUt| I 

That is to say, so efficacious is the holiness of the Narmada, at all points 
throughout its length, that the very trees sprinkled by its spray are pro- 
nounced to be secure of future beatitude, Reva-m&h&tmya, chapter* 
1-15, et alibi. 

38. This is S'iva. 

33. In the original, the anu&wara is wanting over the last syllable of 
this word. Onkara, or ' the syllable Om,' is, among the S'aivas, the 
sensible type of S'iva ; among the Vaishnavas, of Vasudeva or Vishnu. 
vol. vn. 6 

42 F. E. Hall, 

34. I suspect that the engraver had before him, in his written exem- 
plar, g*mfuj. He has cut °?3recnf^f, which, though it cannot be 
called altogether inadmissible, is yet anomalous. 

35. These verses I have translated in other inscriptions. Their me- 
tre is the Vasantatilakd. • 

36. Colebrooke mistakes this expression, irprr Hej-rtll, for T^rr ijerrtii, 
"to be fully "possessed." Miscell. Essays, ii. 308, 310. 

37. This name and several others to follow are misprinted in the first 
inscription published by Mr. Wilkinson. 

38. The white Yajur-veda. 

39. There are three such, named from Naidbruva, Raibha, and S'an- 
dila. The first is here denoted. 

40. A'vasathika. See Colebrooke's Miscell. Essays, ii. 305, foot-note 24. 

41. Chatuh-kankata-vu'itddha. This expression is found, among 
other places, in one* of the inscriptions published and translated by Cole- 
brooke. But he forgets to translate it. Miscell. Essays, ii. 301, 305. 
The more common phrase is chatur-dghata-vh'uddha. Kankata, in the 
sense of ' boundary,' is not in any dictionary that I have been able to 

42. Sa-vriksha-m&l&kula. Colebrooke resolves this combination 
into radio, 'field,' and kulo, ' abode.' He adds that " the passage may 
admit a different interpretation." The hint proposed by Col. Tod is 
little to the purpose. Miscell. Essays, ii. 305, 306. 

In the note here cited, Colebrooke gives the Sanskrit word in question 
for 'field' correctly. But he considers hula to be annexed to it; thus 
lengthening it to mhl&; for which there is no warrant. The last mem- 
ber of the compound is dkula, 'filled.' For this acceptation of the 
verb kula with the prefix d, as it is omitted in Professor Westergaard's 
Radices Sanscrit*, see my edition of the Vdsavadattd,?. 249, first line, 
in the Bibliotheca Indica of the Asiatic Society of Bengal ; and the 
Das'a-r&paka, iii. 49. 

43. " Superior taxes." Colebrooke's Miscellaneous Essays, iL 312. 
Both renderings are tentative. 

Mr. "Wilkinson turns STlqf^*^' into *Tl<a*W{. 

44. Colebrooke calls a passage, almost word for word like this, a 
" stanza." Miscell. Essays, ii. 306 ; where he refers to another reading 
of it, at p. 313 ibid. Neither of them can be reduced to any prosodial 

measure. . . . 

The formula in the text has a number of shapes in prose: and it is 
not unusual to find something of the same kind in metre. One version 
runs thus : 

atsisrr: qp^fhrfiicrwr on 

On the Param&ra Rulers of Afalwva. 43 

' To all future kings on earth, sprung from my race, or descendants 
of other monarchs, with hearts free from wickedness, I clasp my hands 
to my head, praying that they will uphold this my virtuous deed.' 

I quote the ensuing verses from Colebrooke's Miscell. Essays, ii. 311 : 

5TT *TwT H^HCHf^MMH ^ 11 

" This donation ought to be approved by those who exemplify the he- 
reditary liberality of our race, and by others. The flash of lightning 
from Lakshmi swoln with the raindrop, is gift ; and the fruit is preserva- 
tion of another's fame." 

This import, by the bye, cannot even be extorted from the Sanskrit. 
Colebrooke annotates : " I have here hazarded a conjectural emenda- 
tion ; being unable to make sense of the text, as it stands. Perhaps 
the transcriber had erroneously written tundala- for tundild ; and the 
engraver, by mistake, transformed it into the unmeaning vandala, which 
the text exhibits. Lakshmi is here characterized as a thunder-cloud 
pregnant with fertilizing rain." 

But the facsimile has, with tolerable distinctness : -#srerraT. I there- 
fore construe as follows : 'This donation — a gift of fortune, fugitive as 
is the lightning's flash, or as a bubble — and its fruit, and the preserva- 
tion of another's fame, should be respected by those who exemplify the 
munificent practice of our family, and by others.' 

45. These four stanzas have often before been translated, and by my- 
self among others. The full intent of the first couplet is something 
more than I formerly apprehended. 

46. A common addition to the above is in these words : 

' Then he is born in the insect tribe, and subsequently among out- 

Similar denunciations are forthcoming in great variety. A selection 
of them is here presented : 

' Resumcrs of land-gifts are produced anew, in another birth, as black 
serpents, lying in arid hollows of trees, in the waterless wilds of the 

tWItW f^TT ^R^U'IUH FT ^TfpTT I 

• Land appropriated inequitably, or inequitably caused to be appro- 
priated, burns, to the seventh generation, the usurper and his agent.' 

44 F, E. Hall, 


sT^mTxrrt ^ms nyuini vmjfts \ 

' Not by laying out thousands of gardens, nor even by excavating 
hundreds of reservoirs, nor by the donation of ten millions of cows, is 
happiness assured to the confiscator of land.' 

Menace and the converse are, in some cases, propounded together : 

sl~HM*|fpr UZ 3TT rCT^^oT faWicji il3?rjl 

♦By withholding after promise, or by usurping what has been bestowed, 
all the benefactions conferred since one's birth become ineffectual. 

' He, on the other hand, that grants away land will abide in the sphere 
of Brahma myriads of millions of cycles, or thousands of millions.' 

But it is the sacerdotal class in especial which the priests would en- 
sure from dispossession : 

'Poison, it is said, is not properly poison ; but a Brahman's property, 
wrongfully occupied, is justly so denominated : for ordinary poison de- 
stroys but one ; whereas the property of a Br&hman, illegally appropri- 
ated, ruins one's children and grandchildren, as well as one's self, 7 

H { *1 1 s^HilH ldr|u IHlrH *| Q: H 

' Trifling, in substance, as grass, is all the happiness of life, in this 
world of animation, transitory as the play of the clouds. Sensible of 
this, let that evil-minded person who longs to fall into the whirlpools of 
hell's profound abysses deprive Brahmans of their patents.' 

The superior virtue of maintaining ancient assignments is thus insis- 
ted on : 

«NI'^ ST 5 * iH^liliy* MWiy <0*foigH*JL ' 

' A gift outright involves no trouble ; but long guardianship is bnr- 
thensome. Hence the sages have declared that protection, as earning 
merit, surpasses alienation.' 

Finally, the praise and the meed of liberality in general are quaintly 
delivered in these three stanzas : 

On the Param&ra Rulers of Mdlava. 45 

a rolled OTJT ^m USlMJIoT) g^grTPEr ITTeT: I 

H^lolPri dlJlfui ^WtSi l)^iUH 11 
*HT¥hli'<Jprl ftrTp U&MPrT Rdl^l! I 

wfq^ -s^q^pr snTr: tei^yi Hi{(ii«jiH' 11 

' Gold is the chief offspring of fire ; the earth appertains to Vishnu ; 
and milch cattle are progeny of the sun. He, therefore, who gives away 
gold, kine, and land, bestows what will ensure him the benefit of the 
three worlds. 

' For years as many as the roots of the stalks of all crops, and as the 
hairs of all cattle, will that man be honored in the solar sphere. 
. ' His parents clap their hands, and his remoter progenitors augment 
in vigor, saying: "A giver of land has appeared in our family, and 
will work its redemption." ' 

47. A portion of the stanza which here begins has been rendered by 
the Rev. Dr. Stevenson, and in a way which well exemplifies the sciol- 
ism of a certain section of Sanskrit scholars of the old school. His 
version is as follows : " Thus [departed he] who was nothing less than 
the friend of all (Vishnu), contemplating the goddess of eloquence and 
prosperity, as she resembled a drop of pure water resting on the leaf of 
the lotus ; and at the same time guarding the life of man." Journal of 
the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, for April, 1842 ; No. 
iv, p. 154. Dr. Stevenson's original ended with M*viR|-, to which he 
must have mentally subjoined ST, in order to make out his " friend," 

48. These verses likewise conclude one of the inscriptions published 
by Colebrooke. Where they have ^ ^oTT he finds a difficulty .in his 
original, on which he remarks : " '^HT, in the text, is an evident mis- 
take ; it should undoubtedly be sr^VT." Miscellaneous Essays, ii. 313, 
foot-note. This positiveness is a little unfortunate ; as sr^rr sins against 
the metre, the Pushpit&gr&. 

The inscription just now referred to is one of three, published in the 
original, with English versions, by Colebrooke, in his Miscell. Essays, 
ii. 297-314. Together with transcripts of these records, in the ordinary 
Devanagari, Colebrooke has given facsimile impressions of them. An 
examination of the latter has discovered that the learned decipherer has 
scarcely made them out with unfailing accuracy. The following correc- 
tions, supplementary to those which I have already noted, are confined 
to the more important errors, dependent on a wrong apprehension of 
characters. Hence I pass by the misrendering of rr^oTTT etc., at pp. 
302 and 309. 

P. 300, 1. 11. For SUPJfwsrfOcFT-, "inhabiting," read SPTOTfasrfiter-. 
See lower down the inscription, at p. 301, 1. 19. The village head-men 
and others, 'throughout the entire realm,' are addressed. Colebrooke's 

46 F. R Ball, 

reading gives no sense. The case of the word -which precedes the ex- 
pression is not the genitive, but the locative of relation. 

P. 300, 1. 19. For ^rrtefjr- substitute m4)cMI -. I remark this inad- 
vertence, slight as it is, because Mr. Wilkinson, misled by the dental 
sibilant, puts n f ti^UI -. 

P. 301, 1. 10. In lieu of -fsfaG[- the facsimile has -fz&Z-. Cole- 
brooke says, in a note : " Dwivid is one who studies two vedas : as 
Trivid, one who studies three." It is not so : and, moreover, the word 
in the text does not end in a consonant. Had it so ended, its final d 
would have become t. Colebrooke was thinking of dwivedin and trive- 
din. Dwiveda is an unusual equivalent of the first. 

At p. 308, 1. 13-15, is a couplet, printed thus : 

" Having gained prosperity, which is the receptacle of the skips and 
bounds of a revolving world, whoever give not donations, repentance is 
their chief reward." 

To this interpretation a note is appended : " Valff&gra-dh&rd-dhArd : 
an allusion is probably intended to Dh&rd, the seat of government of 
this dynasty. Valga signifies a leap ; and dhara, a horse's pace." 

In order to bring out a very different result, we have only to restore 
the right reading, by putting ^m for st^it, ' a wheel,' not " a leap." 
The translation will then run : ' Having gained prosperity, whose abode 
is the rim at the top of the wheel of the revolving world,' etc. 

S^FPTT is, of course, a printer's mistake for i^ymi ; as 5^:, be- 
sides not being in the original, violates the measure of the verse, and is 
no word. 

As for cT&T for ^37, Colebrooke had said, at p. 237 : " the Nkgari 
letters ST and : zf" are " very liable to be confounded." He might have 
added cT. On his reading grrqrnx into c)J l°IJiU, I have remarked 
elsewhere. See this Journal, vi. 532. 

<t». The mystical letters and numeral which here follow, in the Sans- 
krit, I must leave even as I found them. They occur again in this 
paper. Colebrooke ventures no explanation of the first, which is in one 
of the inscriptions by him deciphered. Miscell. Essays, ii. 3 1 1. jr might 
stand for jrm ' ambassador,' ' deputy ;' but that does not help us : and 
there is a cyclical year entitled S'rimukha, which might be shortly rep- 
resented by sffcr ; but neither does this hint an admissible explanation, 
since the same abbreviation is found in both the inscriptions, though 
dating from different years. 

50. Depraved from Rajasalakshana. 

51. Expressed by an abbreviation of tj^iyiPyfoiiif^*. And so at 
the end of the next inscription as well. 

On the Paramdra Rulers of Mdlava. 47 

52. The portions of this inscription which are identically common to 
it with the last are not repeated. 

53. This word has no case-ending in the original. The place was, 
probably, a ward, or a precinct. 

54. Perhaps this means ' the sixteen villages of Savai'ri.' ?ft^r closely 
approximates to the vernacular corruption of crfcJST. For an aggregation 
of villages similar to that here surmised, see Colebrooke's Miscell. 
Essays, ii. 309. 

55. I thus translate diyQiJ^, with submission to the amendment of 

56. ' The primate of the mace ;' S'iva. 

57. So signify »n\{ and HU\\{ ; and so, on supposition, does UIJII^. 

58. This is the city of Ujjayini. Its temple of Mahakala has long 
been famous. Mention is made of it in the 103d chapter of the Reva- 

59. This place is considered to be one with Bhera Ghat, on the 
Nerbudda, a few miles from Jubulpoor. 

60. On the plate, qftUrl is abridged of its final letter. At the end 
of the inscription, the place of the same letter, in this word, is supplied 
by a vertical stroke. 

61. "Without hesitation, I have exchanged tftrmtTT for iTOnrfrT. 

Saugor, Central India, October, 1858.