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PROCEEDINGS. 

Boston and Cambridge, May 22nd, 1861. 



Pursuant to adjournment, the American Oriental Society held its An- 
nual Meeting for 1861 in Boston and Cambridge, on Wednesday, May 
22nd. The Society assembled in the rooms of the American Academy of 
Arts and Sciences, and was called to order soon after 10 o'clock a. m., by 
the President, Dr. Robinson of New York. 

After the reading of the minutes of the last meeting, reports from the 
officers were called for. The Treasurer first gave a summary statement 
of the income and outlay of the past year, and of the present condition 
of the Treasury, as follows : 

RECEIPTS, 

Balance in the Treasury, May 17th, 1860, .*.._..« $820.68 
Members' fees: ann. assessm'ts for 1860-61, - • $465.00 
do. do. for previous years, - 116.00 
do. do. for 1861-62, - - 5.00 676.00 

Sale of Journal, 68.S9 

Donations from American merchants in China, ... 400.00 

Total receipts of the year, .--.>.>-< $1038.39 

$1568.97 

EXPENDITURES. 

Paper, printing, and engraving for Journal, Vol. VI (balance), - -$429.15 
do. do. do. Vol. VII (in part), - - 473.43 

Other printing, 16.59 

Binding books, - - - - - - 41.18 

Other expenses of Library, of correspondence, etc, .... 41.40 

Total expenditures of the year, --..-- $1001.75 
Balance in the Treasury, May 22nd, 1861, ■> 657.22 

$1658.97 

The Treasurer's accounts were referred to an Auditing Committee 
composed of Messrs. Charles Folsom of Cambridge and Samuel F. Haven 
of Worcester, and, having been by them duly examined and audited, Were 
accepted. 

The Librarian laid before the Society the list of Additions to the Library 
and Cabinet since the last annual meeting (which list is annexed to this 
report of Proceedings). He read the names of the several donors, and 
pointed out the gifts of highest interest and value. Attention was espe- 
cially called to a donation' from Hon. Charles W. Bradley, lately Tj. S. 
Consul at Ningpo, by far the most valuable which the Society has ever re- 
ceived, comprising a collection of more than seven hundred volumes of 

VOL. VII. *' 



x American Oriental Society : 

works relating to every part of the Orient, but especially to China and 
Egypt, and adding probably not less than half to the previous value of the 
Library; including also .a series of Chinese coins, of four hundred and 
thirty different varieties, and many other objects of curious interest for 
the Society's Cabinet. The condition upon which Mr. Bradley's gifts 
arc now made was stated : viz., that the Library remains in its present 
place of deposit in New Harven; shotrlrl % -at •anytime be removed to 
another locality, the books are to be transferred to the Library of Yale 
College. A special vote of thanks to Mr. Bradley for his unprecedented 
liberality to the Society was proposed and passed ataanimously. 

The Committee of Publication reported that the ^continuation of the 
Society's Journal, forming the first half of Vol. VII, was almost complete, 
and would be distributed in a few days to (the members for the 'past year. 

The Corresponding Secretary gave information that the following gen- 
tlemen had, since the previous meeting, byacceptanee-of election, become 
Corporate Members' of tbe Society : 

Mr. William P. Allen, West Newton, Mass. 
Mr. Brinton Coxe, Philadelphia. 
Prof. Timothy Dwight, New Haven. 
Mr. S. Hastings Grant, New York. 
Rev. Charles R. Hale, Philadelphia, 
Rev. Edwin Harwood, New Haven. 
Rev. William Hutchison, New Haven. 
Rev. Thomas S. Potwin, Franklin, N. Y. 
Mr. Joseph S. Ropes, Boston. 
Mr..J.iHammond Trumbull, Hartford, Conn. 
Mr. George P. Vose, Pitchburg-, Mass. 
Mr. James M. Whiton, New Haven. 

The Directors offered to the meeting the names of several gentlemen 
with the recommendation that they be elected Corporate Members of the 
Society ; those proposed were thereupon balloted for, and elected without 
dissent. Among them were the following American merchants, resident 
in China, who had recently donated each one hundred dollars to the 
Society, through Hon. C. W. Bradley, and who were therefor* chosen as 
Life Members : 

Mr. John Heard, Hongkong. 
Mr. T. C. Smith, do. 
Mr. Robert M. Olyphant, Shanghai. 
Mr. Thomas Walsh, do. 

The Directors farther announced that they bad, reappointed '.the Com- 
mittee of Publication of last year. Also that, while thariking 'Hon. C. 
W. Bradley, of Ningpo, for his zealous and efficient efforts to promote 
the interests of the Society abroad, especially in the far East, they had 
authorized and requested him to continue his exertions in its behalf as he 
-should find opportunity. 

The correspondence of the past six months was presented, and. read in 
part. Among the letters were the following: 

1. From Capt. H. G. Raverty, dated 'London, Oct. :12th, I860. Capt. 
Raverty calls the Society's attention to the series of works on the Afglian, 
Pukhto, or Pushto language, which he has lately pubbshed by subscrip- 



Proceedings at Boston and Cambridge, May, 1861. xi 

tion, and solicits the Society's subscription. The series consists of a Dic- 
tionary (four guineas), a Grammar (one guinea), and a Chrestomathy (two 
guineas), all in quarto. The Corresponding Secretary said he had been 
compelled to reply that the Society did not authorize its Librarian to 
make purchases for its. Library ; hat that he should take pleasure in lay- 
ing Capt. Raverty's letter before its next meeting, and recommending the 
works in question to individuals as a most valuable contribution to orien- 
tal philology and ethnology. 

2. From Mr. Brian H. Hodgson, dated Dursley, Oct. 18th, 1860. 

" . . . . I have sent you a copy of the third and concluding part of my last papers 
on the Turanian languages of the Himalaya. .... Since these notices were penned, 
I have read Muir's Sanskrit Texts, and it seems to me not improbable that my 
Hayus, whose name might as well be written Haiyus, may be identical with the 
people called Haivas at vol. ii, p. 59 of that work ; and that the Haihayas of vol. i, 
p. 181 of the same work may perchance be still the same. Also, that my Bahings 
may be not impossibly the Bahlkas of Muir, vol. ii, p. 481-2, though the language of 
the Bahlkas be there said to be Sanskrit. But the Brahminical writers, in their no- 
tices of the tribes and peoples around them, show extreme ignorance of the forms 
and of the tongues of those tribes and peoples, since even the Indochinese are by 
those writers set down as " degraded Kshatriyas," that is, Aryans in race and speech ! 
I mention these things just as they occur to me on the spur of the moment." 

3. From Mr. Fitz-Edward Hall, dated Camp Nursinghpoor, Feb. 21st, 

and Saugor, March 4th, 1861. 

" Lately, when at Eran, I made out the oldest Hindu date hitherto deciphered. 

It corresponds to A. D. Ill Bapu Deva's version of the Surya-SiddhAnta I 

found published, a fasciculus of the Bibliotheca Indica, when I reached Calcutta. 
With the same help as before [that of Archdeacon Pratt, of Calcutta], he is now 

going to give a version of the Siddhanta-S'iromani Here at Saugor, I have 

come upon what seems to be a very correct copy of the Katha-sarit-sagara in its 
entirety. I am having it copied for Brockhaus ; and so we may see this huge col- 
lection of venerable fibs in print some day or other. .... I have corrected for the 
press, this day, the first sheet of my edition of the Das'a-rupa and its commentary. 
My translation of it will be printed when I shall have done with the Sanskrit. This 
I finished before I left India in 1859. " 

Dr. Taylor of Andover, Rev. Mr. Hale of Boston, and Mr. Salisbury of 
Worcester were appointed a committee to nominate a board of officers 
for election for the ensuing year. They proposed the subjoined ticket, 
being the same with that chosen last year, which was thereupon balloted 
for, and declared duly elected : 

President — Prof. Edward Robinson, D. D., LL. D., of New York. 

( Prof. Charles Beck, Ph. D., " Cambridge. 

Vice-Presidents •] Rev. William Jenks, D. D., " Boston. 

( Pres. T. D. Woolsey, D.D., LL.D., " New Haven. 

Corresponding Secretary — Prof. W. D. Whitney, " New Haven. 

Seer, of Classical Section — Prof. James Hadley, " New Haven. 

Recording Secretary — Mr. Ezra Abbot, " Cambridge. 

Treasurer — Mr. D. C. Gilman, " New Haven. 

Librarian — Prof. W. D. Whitney, " New Haven. 

Rev. Rufcts Anderson, D. D., " Boston. 

Mr. J. G. Cogswell, LL. D., " New York. 

J Pres. C. C. Felton, LL. D., " Cambridge. 

Directors ( Prof. W. H. Green, D. D., " Princeton. 

I Prof. J. J. Owen, D. D., " New York. 

Dr. Charles Pickering, " Boston. 

Prof. E. E. Salisbury, " New Haven. 



xii American Oriental Society: 

The President called the attention of the Society to the decease, since 
its last meeting, of one of its oldest, most active, and most highly re- 
spected members, Prof. J. W. Gibbs, LL. D., of New Haven. Dr. Wor- 
cester and Prof. Beck of Cambridge, and Prof. Provtdfit of New Bruns- 
wick were appointed a Committee to prepare appropriate resolutions, and, 
at a later period of the meeting, they offered the following : 

Sesolved, That in the death of Professor Josiah Willard Gibbs, late of Tale Col- 
lege, this Society lament the loss of an eminent linguistic scholar, distinguished for 
patient and thorough research, for his ardent pursuit and love of truth, for his vari- 
ous attainments, for his amiable qualities of mind, and for his Christian virtues, all 
which rendered him an ornament to this association. 

Jteaolved, That a copy of this resolution be transmitted to the finally of our de- 
ceased associate. 

These resolutions, after remarks from many of the gentlemen present, 
were passed. 

Prof. Francis, of Cambridge, then referred to the death within the past 
year of another member of the Society, one of its founders, and for a 
long time one of its officers, Rev. Theodore Parker of Boston, and offered 
the following resolutions, which were voted on by the meeting, and 
adopted : 

Resdwd, That the members of the Oriental Society received with deep regret the 
intelligence of the death, in a foreign land, of their distinguished associate, Rev. 
Theodore Parker, and that they desire to do honor to his memory by the expression 
of their respect for his rich and diversified scholarship, and of their grateful re- 
membrance of the many virtues of his character. 

Jtesdved, That a copy of the above resolution be communicated to his widow, 
Mrs. Parker. 

Communications being now called for, the following were presented : 

1. A few Critical Remarks on the Urim and Thummim, by Rev. Ed- 
ward C. Jones, of Philadelphia ; read by Mr. Abbot, of Cambridge. 

2. An Account of the Country of Siak, on the Northeastern Coast of 
Sumatra, in a Letter to Hon. C. W. Bradley, dated Singapore, May 20th, 
1857, by Maharaja Adam Wilson ; read by Prof. Whitney, of New Haven. 

This was a brief account of the extent, surface, soil, productions, trade, and pop- 
ulation of that part of Sumatra lying next opposite to Singapore, over a portion of 
which the writer had become ruler, by gift from the Sultan of Siak, in return for 
his assistance against rebel chiefs. 

3. An Inquiry into the Origin of the Semitic Feminine and Plural 
Endings, by Prof. W. Henry Green, D.D., of Princeton, N, J. ; read by 
Prof. Salisbury, of New Haven. 

Prof. Green pointed out succinctly the peculiarities of Semitic usage in the treat- 
ment of gender and number ; hp traced the original forms of the terminations em- 
ployed to distinguish the one and the other, and referred them to the pronominal 
elements from which he regarded them as derived. 

Here the Society took a recess, to come together again at the residence 
of Prof. Beck, in Cambridge. 



Upon reassembling, at 4 o'clock p. m., the Society continued to listen to 
communications. 

4. On the Explorations of the Schlagintweits in Northern India, by 
Mr. Daniel C. Gilman, of New Haven. 



Proceedings at Boston and Cambridge, May, 1861. xiii 

The first Part of the magnificent publication by the brothers Schlagintweit of the 
results of their Indian explorations — being a quarto volume of text, and an accom- 
panying mammoth folio portfolio of colored lithographic pictures and maps — was 
exhibited to the members present by Mr. Oilman, who described summarily the 
course of the expedition, the character of the collections it had brought back, and 
the mode in which it was proposed to give them to the world. 

5. On the Ansairiyah of Northern Syria, being a Review of the late 
work of Rev. Samuel Lyde entitled " the Asian Mystery," by Rev. Charles 
H. Brighara, of Taunton, Mass. 

After some general introductory remarks on the unfitness of the title applied 
to the work, and the special qualifications of Mr. Lyde for preparing such a work, 
as also a brief notice of what other travellers had reported respecting the Ansai- 
riyah, Mr. Brigham proceeded to state the principal facts thus far known respect- 
ing this people. Their home is the mountain region in the northwest portion of 
Syria, though they are found widely scattered, from Tarsus in the west to Persia on 
the east and Mount Hermon on the south. Their estimated number is 200,000, and 
is steadily decreasing. They are poor, ignorant, rude, and turbulent, hostile to 
strangers and quarrelsome with each other. Their traffic with their neighbors is 
very scanty, and chiefly in the tobacco sold at Ladakia. They live mostly in small 
villages, avoiding the large towns and the plains. They are divided into two great 
sects : the Shamsiyah or Northerners, and the Kamriyah or Southerners, so named 
from the superior reverence which they pay respectively to the sun and the moon. 
The Shamsiyah are regarded as the descendants of the original Canaanites, while the 
Kamriyah are descendants of immigrants from Mesopotamia or Persia, who came in 
the 8th or 9th century. The former are more numerous, the latter more proud and 
domineering. The chief difference between them is that tobacco is forbidden to 
the one and allowed to the other. 

The principal topic of the review, however, was the religious system of the An- 
sairiyah, which was analyzed and discussed at length — the unity and nature of the 
Supreme Being ; the Trinity of the Ma'na, the Ism, and the Bdb, with their several 
names and offices ; the seven historical manifestations of this Trinity, from Abel 
to Ali, from Adam to Mohammed, and from Gabriel to Salman the Persian ; the 
Hierarchies, heavenly and earthly, with their names, order, rank, and numbers ; the 
relation of men to these divine beings ; the character and use of prayer; and the 
relation of the religion to the customs and life of the people. The vagueness, con- 
fusion, and meagreness of the religion as explained in its catechism and its sacred 
books were pointed out, while its indebtedness to the Gospel was shown in the 
practical precepts given for the believer. 

6. Remarks on Rev. R. Caldwell's Comparative Dravidian Grammar, 
by Prof. William D. Whitney, of New Haven. 

Prof. Whitney spoke of the great interest of this work as a comparative presenta- 
tion of the South-Indian group of languages, but wished to treat especially of a 
single matter brought forward in it, namely, the author's claim that the languages 
in question form a branch of the Mongolian or Scythian family, specially allied to 
its Finnish branch. A somewhat similar claim had been some years since put forth 
by Miiller, but upon grounds of which the adequacy had not been generally accepted. 
The point was one of the highest consequence, in its bearings upon ancient eth- 
nology. It was also one of peculiar difficulty, considering the character of the 
Mongolian languages, the laxity of their compositions, the great variety and diver- 
sity, even as between nearly related dialects, of their formative elements, and the 
consequent facility offered for establishing coincidences between them and other 
languages by a loose method of etymologizing : taking the whole wide range of 
tongues reckoned as Mongolian, it would not be hard to discover here and there 
resemblances of roots and forms with those of any other given language. The 
degree of confidence to be placed in Mr. Caldwell's general conclusions, then, must 
depend upon the qualities which he exhibited as a general linguist — upon his lin- 
guistic acquirements and his etymological method : and with these the speaker pro- 
fessed himself not altogether satisfied. He referred by way of illustration to the 
author's comparison of Dravidian and Sanskrit roots, intended to prove an ultimate 
relationship between those two families also : it was of no scientific value ; the 
greater part of the Sanskrit employed in the comparison was not even genuine an- 
cient Sanskrit, such as alone had any right to be so used. The speaker insisted, 
as an indispensable qualification for comparing and determining the relations of 
two languages or groups of languages, on the possession of an equally profound 
and familiar knowledge of both, and thought that Mr. Caldwell, whatever his desert 



xiv American Oriental Society: 

in the special department of Dravidian philology, had no right to an authoritative 
opinion in a matter concerning the Scythian family also ; he could not regard the 
remoter relationship of the South-Indian group of language* as anything bat an 
open question still. 

7. On tbe Date of Composition of the Amphitrao of Pfautus, by Prof. 

George M. Lane, of Cambridge. 

The various conclusions or conjectures which had been offered by different writers 
respecting the date of this play — derived, in lack of other evidence, from hints and 
allusions in the play itself— were first subjected to criticism, and in part disproved, 
in part set aside as too vague and unsatisfactory. Evidences more significant, and 
more decisive of the question of date, than any which had been hitherto painted 
out, were seen by Prof. Lane in the references to Bacchants and Bacchanalian rites 
which the play contained. The prominent importance of these as fmb^acts of com- 
mon talk and public action at one period in the life of Plautus wa» explained, and 
the various allusions to them presented by his different works were noted. Tbe 
conclusion was arrived at, as one possessing a fair measure of plausibility, that the 
Amphitruo was written during the last two years of the poet's life, or 186-184 B. C. 

8. Ought the Greek of the Early Christian Writers to form Part of 
the Course of School and College Study ? By Prof. John Proudfit, D. D., 
of New Brunswick, N. J. 

The object of Prof, Proudflt's paper was to set forth the grounds for answering 
this question in the affirmative. He maintained the high value of the Christian 
Greek literature, for the purity of its language, the elevation of its style, the no- 
bility of its sentiments, the genius of its authors, and its important historical rela- 
tions to the ancient heathenism and the modem Christianity — which qualities ren- 
dered it eminently worthy of being allowed a part in the education of the young at 
the present day. He explained the circumstances in the midst of which it grew up, 
and which determined its form and character, and extolled the abilities, virtues, and 
actions of tbe men who were its chief exponents, particularly Basil and Chrysostom. 
He contended that it was a defect in a classical education to leave quite out of sight 
a literary period of such prominent Interest. He pointed out that many of the 
difficulties which had hitherto lain in the way of a study of the works of the period, 
in their rarity and costliness, their unwieldy form and difficult typography, and the 
uncritical condition of their texts, had been of late in great part removed ; and he 
expressed the hope that better justice would ere long be done to their claims upon 
the attention of modern scholars. 

9. On the Ancient and Modern Dialects of the Persian Language, by 
Prof. Whitney. 

This was a succinct view of the five principal forms of Iranian speech, namely 
the dialect of the Achsmenidan Cuneiform Inscriptions, that of the Avesta, the 
Huzv&resh, the Parsi, and the Modem Persian, giving tbe period and locality of 
each, as determined by the latest researches, and sketching their phonetic and ety- 
mological character. 

No other communications were offered. The Directors accordingly 
gave notice that they had appointed the next meeting of the Society to 
be held in New York, on Wednesday, October 16th, 1861, and had 
designated Prof. J. J. Owen and Mr. A. I. Cotheal, of New York, and 
Prof. W. H. Green of Princeton, to act as a Committee of Arrangements 
for that meeting, and the Society adjourned.