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ARTICLE I. 



GRAMMAR 



MODEEN SYRIAC LANGUAGE, 



AS SPOKEN IN 



OR MIA H, PERSIA, 

AND IN 

KOORDISTAN. 

BY 

Rev. D. T. STODDARD, 

MISSIONARY OF THE AMERICAN BOARD IN PERSIA. 



TABLE OP CONTENTS. 



Pages. 
Introductory Remakes, 3-8 

Orthography and Orthoepy, 9-21 

The alphabet, 9 ; vowels, 12; modification of vowel-sounds, 16 ; 
some peculiarities of 2, C7, O, ■», and X, 18; talkana, 20 ; 
accent, 20 ; punctuation, 21 ; Nestorian manuscripts, 21. 

Etymology 22-144 

Pronouns, 22-21 : personal, 22 ; demonstrative, 22 ; relative, 23 ; 
interrogative, 24 ; indefinite and distributive, 24 ; suffix, 25 ; 
reciprocal, 27. 
Verbs, 27-111 : conjugation of %0 Of , 28 ; classes of regular verbs, 
34 ; class first, conjugation of -m^o , 35 ; verb with negative 
particles, 43 ; list of verbs of class first, 45 ; class second, 51 ; 
conjugation of -H* , 52; list of verbs of class second, 57; 
irregular verbs of class first : first radical 1,60; second radical 
2 or * ; 63 ; second radical £k , 66 ; first or second radical mt , 
66: third radical 2, 68; third radical iw, 72; verbs doubly- 
irregular, 74 ; irregular verbs of class second : verbs of four 
radicals, 78 ; list of such verbs, 80 ; causative verbs, 87 ; second 
radical X, 89 ; third radical 2 , 90 ; third radical X , 91 ; irreg- 
ular causatives, 92 ; synoptical table of irregular verbs, 94 ; pas- 
sive voice, 97 ; verbs with suffixes, 102 ; relation of modern to 
ancient verb, 107. 
Article, 112. 



[ii] 

Pages, 

Nouns, 112-127 : gender, 112 : number, 114 ; case, construct and 
emphatic state, 117 ; derivation of nouns : patrial, 118 ; diminu- 
tive, 119 ; abstract, 119 ; verbal, 120 ; nouns from foreign lan- 
guages, 125 ; composition of nouns, 127. 

Adjectives, 127-131 : gender, 127 ; number, 128 ; comparison, 
128; derivation, 129. 

Numerals, 131-134. 

Adverbs, 134-140 : adverbs of place and order, 134 ; of time, 135 ; 
of manner and quality, 136 ; general remarks, 138. 

Prepositions, 141-143. 

Conjunctions, 144. 

Interjections, 144. 
Syntax, 145-176 

Article, 145 ; relation of nouns to nouns, 147 ; adjectives, 149 ; 
subject and verb, 150 ; predicate nominative, 152 ; substantive 
verb, 152 ; object of the verb, 153 ; pronouns, 154 ; moods and 
tenses of verbs : indicative, 158.; subjunctive, 161; subjunctive 
after particles, 165 ; infinitive, 167 ; participle* 170 ; substantive 
verb, 170 ; adverbs, 171 ; prepositions, 171 ; conjunctions, 172 ; 
phrases, 172 ; salutations, 175. 

Specimens of the language, in poetry and prose, . 17 7-1 80 

Appendix, .. «.. • - 180a 

CORRECTIONS', • • • 180 f 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 



It is an interesting fact that, although the Nestorians of 
Persia have for many centuries been conquered and out- 
numbered, and have had very little share in civil affairs, and 
their brethren in the Koordish Mountains have enjoyed only 
a doubtful independence, they have preserved to the present 
time a knowledge of their vernacular language. In Persia, 
most of the Nestorians are indeed able to speak fluently 
the rude Tatar (Turkish) dialect used by the Mohammedans 
of this province, and those of the mountains are equally 
familiar with the language of the Koords. Still, they have 
a strong preference for their own tongue, and make it the 
constant and only medium of intercourse with each other. 
This is the more noticeable, as in modern times, until within 
a short period, they had no current literature, and the spoken 
dialect was not even reduced to writing. Their manuscript 
copies of the Bible and other books were very scarce, and 
were carefully hid out of sight, covered with dust and mil- 
dew. Very few, if any, except the clergy, aspired to be 
readers, and still fewer were able to read with any degree 
of intelligence. 

The first attempt worthy of record to reduce the Modern 
Syriac to writing, was made by Kev. Justin Perkins, a Mis- 
sionary of the American Board of Commissioners for For- 
eign Missions, at Tabreez, in the winter of 1834-5, in con- 
nection with the study of the language, under the instruction 
of the Nestorian Bishop Mar Yohannan. 

The first attempt to write it in a permanent and useful 
form, was made by Dr. Perkins in the construction of school- 
cards, in the winter of 1836, after he and Dr. Grant had settled 
at Oroomiah. On the 18th of January of that year their first 
school was commenced. Says Dr. Perkins : " Seven boys 



from the city attended. They all took their stand in a semi- 
circle around the manuscript card suspended on the wall, 
which Priest Abraham with my assistance had prepared ; 
and as they learned their letters and then began to repeat a 
sentence of the Lord's prayer, for the first time, with a de- 
light and satisfaction, beaming from their faces, equalled 
only by the novelty of their employment, I could understand 
something of the inspiration of Dr. Chalmers, when he pro- 
nounced the Indian boy in the woods, first learning to read, 
to be the sublimest object in the world." — Residence in Persia, 
p. 250. 

In another connection, Dr. Perkins, speaking of the pre- 
paration of the cards for that missionary school, says : 
"There was no literary matter for its instruction and ali- 
ment, save in the dead, obsolete language. I therefore im- 
mediately commenced translating portions of the Scriptures 
from the Ancient Syriac copies, by the assistance of some 
of the best educated of the native clergy. We first trans- 
lated the Lord's prayer. I well remember my own emotions 
on that occesion. It seemed like the first handful of corn 
to be cast upon the top of the naked mountains ; and the 
Nestorian priests who were with me, were themselves inter- 
ested above measure to see their spoken language in a writ- 
ten form. They would read a line and then break out in 
immoderate laughter, so amused were they, and so strange 
did it appear to them, to hear the familiar sounds of their 
own language read, as well as spoken. We copied this trans- 
lation of the Lord's prayer on cards for our classes. Our 
copies were few. We therefore hung up the card upon the 
wall of the school-room, and a company of children would 
assemble around it, at as great a distance from the card as 
they could see, and thus they learned to read. We next 
translated the ten commandments, and wrote them on cards 
in the same way, and then other detached portions of the 
Word of God ; and thus continued to prepare reading mat- 
ter by the use of the pen, for our increasing number of 
schools, until the arrival of our press in 1840. This event 
was hailed with the utmost joy by the Nestorians, who had 
long been waiting for the press, with an anxiety bordering 
on impatience ; and it was no less an object of interest and 
wonder to the Mohammedans. They too soon urgently 
pressed their suit, that we should print books for them also ; 
and a very respectable young Meerza sought, with unyield- 



ing importunity, a place among the Nestorian apprentices, 
that he too might learn to print. The first book which we 
printed in the modern language, was a small tract, made 
up of passages from the Holy Scriptures. As I carried the 
proof-sheets of it from the printing-office into my study for 
correction, and laid them upon my table before our transla- 
tors, Priests Abraham and Dunkha, they were struck with 
mute rapture and astonishment, to see their language in 
print : though they themselves had assisted me, a few days 
before, in preparing the same matter for the press. As soon 
as recovery from their first surprise allowed them utterance, 
' It is time to give glory to God,' they each exclaimed, ' that 
we behold the commencement of printing books for our peo- 
ple ;' a sentiment to which I could give my hearty response." 

The first printing in the Nestorian character was an edi- 
tion of the four Gospels published by the British and Foreign 
Bible Society in 1829, the type being prepared in London 
from a manuscript copy of the Gospels obtained from Mar 
Yohannan, by the eccentric traveller Dr. Wolff, several years 
before, and taken by him to England for that purpose. 
This volume is all that has ever been printed in the modern 
language of the Nestorians, otherwise than by the agency 
of our mission-press, with the exception of one or two small 
Papal tracts, published a few years since at Constantinople, 
with miserable type prepared under the supervision of the 
Jesuits in that city. 

Since the arrival of our press in 1840, it has been busily 
employed in printing books for the Nestorians, in both their 
ancient and modern language, mostly in the latter. 

Dr. Perkins has furnished the following list of our more 
important publications, arranged nearly in the order in which 
they have been issued from the press. 

The Psalms, as used in the Nestorian churches, with the 
Eubrics, in Ancient Syriac. 196 pp. 4to. 

Instructions from the Word of God, in Modern Syr- 
iac. (Extracts from the Bible.) 77 pp. 12mo. 

The Acts and the Epistles, in Ancient Syriac. 8vo. 

The Great Salvation, a tract in Modern Syriac. 

Sixteen short Sermons, in Modern Syriac. 

A Preservative from the Sins and Follies of Child- 
hood and Youth, by Dr. Watts, in Modern Syriac. 

Aids to the Study of the Scriptures, in Modern 
Syriac. 109 pp. 8vo. 



6 

Scriptural History of Joseph and the Gospel of 
John, in Modern Syriac. 316 pp. 8vo. 

The Gospel of Matthew, in Modern Syriac. 192 pp. 
12mo. 

Tracts on Faith, Eepentance, the New Birth, Drunk- 
enness, and The Sabbath, by Mr. Stocking, in Modern 
Syriac. 

The Faith of Protestants, in both Ancient and Mod- 
ern Syriac, in separate vohvmes. 164 pp. 8vo. 

Scripture Questions and Answers, in Modern Syriac. 
139 pp. 8vo. 

First Hymn Book. 10 pp. 12mo. 

The Dairyman's Daughter, in Modern Syriac. 136 
pp. 8vo. 

Useful Instructions, in Modern Syriac. 

The Four Gospels, in Modern Syriac. 637 pp. 8vo. 

The New Testament, in both Ancient and Modern Syr- 
iac, the translation being made by Dr. Perkins from the Pe- 
shito, with the Greek differences in the margin. 829 pp. 4to. 

Scripture Help or Manual, in Modern Syriac. 192 
pp. 8vo. 

Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress, in Modern Syriac. 712 
pp. 8vo. 

Questions on Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress, in Mod- 
ern Syriac. 99 pp. 

Second Scripture Manual, and a larger Hymn Book, 
in Modern Syriac. 131 pp. 8vo. 

The Shepherd of Salisbury Plain, in Modern Syriac. 
70 pp. 8vo. 

The Young Cottager, in Modern Syriac. 98 pp. 8vo. 

Smaller Arithmetic, in Modern Syriac. 24 pp. 8vo. 

Larger Arithmetic, in Modern Syriac. 192 pp. 8vo. By 
Mr. Stocking. 

A Geography, in Modern Syriac. 302 pp. 8vo. By Dr. 
Wright. 

The Lord's Prayer, Ten Commandments and Cate- 
chism for Children, in Modern Syriac. 78 pp. 8vo. 

A Spelling Book, in Modern Syriac. 54 pp. 8vo. 

The Old Testament, in both Ancient and Modern Syriac, 
the latter being translated from the Hebrew by Dr. Perkins. 
1051 pp. large 4to. 

Spelling Book, with Scripture Eeadings, in Modern 
Syriac. 160 pp. 8vo. 



The Rays of Light, a monthly periodical, devoted to 
Eeligion, Education, Science and Miscellanies. Fourth vol- 
ume now in progress. 

In press, an edition of the New Testament in Modern 
Syriac, and Baxter's Saint's Rest. 

Ready for the press, Scripture Tracts, of the American 
Tract Society, and Green Pastures, an English work, con- 
sisting of a text of Scripture, with a practical exposition, 
for each day in the year. 

Our schools have been gradually increasing in number, 
till the present year. We now have about eighty village- 
schools and flourishing Male and Female Seminaries. Of 
course, the number of intelligent readers is rapidly on the 
increase, and the modern language is assuming a permanent 
form. It should still, however, be considered as imperfect. 
It is difficult to give in a precise manner either its orthogra- 
phy, its etymology or its syntax, because the language is not 
to-day just what it was yesterday, nor just what it will be 
to-morrow. Until the publication of the Old and New Testa- 
ments, there was no standard of usage. It was difficult to say 
which dialect should have the preference. The same uncer- 
tainty in a measure still remains. If we assume that the 
dialect which is nearest to Ancient Syriac should be the 
standard, this will necessarily be unintelligible to a large 
portion of the people. We generally use the language in 
our books which is spoken on the plain of Oroomiah, unless 
there are obvious reasons for variation in a particular case. 

Rev. Mr. Holladay, one of our missionary associates, pre- 
pared a very brief, though excellent sketch of the grammar 
of the Modern Syriac, about the year 1840. He also aided 
much in translating works for the press. His health and 
that of his family obliged him in 1845 to leave us for Amer- 
ica, where he still resides, near Charlottesville, Va* 

Much time has been bestowed on the preparation of the 
following grammar ; although, as it has been written with 
indifferent health and amid the pressure of missionary duties 
and cares, it has not been subjected to so thorough revision 
as it would have been under other circumstances. The 
Syriac has been written by Deacon Joseph, our translator, 

* Mr. Holladay haB kindly consented to superintend the printing of this 
grammar. Comm. op Pdbl. 



8 

who has had much experience in labor of this kind, and is 
perfectly familiar with the grammar of the Ancient Syriac. 

My design has been to trace up the language, as now 
spoken, to the Ancient Syriac, and I presume no reader will 
complain of the frequent references made to Hoffman's large 
and valuable grammar. As some may find occasionally 
Ancient Syriac words written in a manner different from 
that to which they are accustomed, it may be Well to sug- 
gest that the Syriac of the Jacobites, which has generally 
been the Syriac of European grammars, differs somewhat 
from the Syriac of old Nestorian books. The latter are of 
course the standard with us. 

It may seem unnecessary to some to link in the Hebrew 
with the Modern Syriac, and I have had myself many doubts 
about the expediency of doing it. But, considering how 
many Hebrew scholars there are in America, who would 
take pleasure in glancing over the following pages, and how 
few of them are at home in Ancient Syriac, it seemed to me 
not inappropriate to adopt the course I have. The refer- 
ences to Nordheimer's Hebrew Grammar certainly add little 
to the size of the work, even if they do not at all increase 
the interest of the reader. 

Every thing serving to develop the Ancient Aramean of 
these regions is worthy of investigation. And it has occur- 
red to me, as not at all unlikely, that the Nestorians use 
many words, and perhaps grammatical forms, in their daily 
intercourse, which have never found their way into gram- 
mars and lexicons, and yet are very ancient, and owe their 
origin to the Aramean, which was once so extensively spo- 
ken in Persia and made even the court-language.' — Ezra 4 : 
7, 8. 

I at first designed to give in an appendix an outline of 
the Jews' language as now spoken in this province. It is 
nearly allied to the Modern Syriac, and Jews and Nestorians 
can understand each other without great difficulty. But 
whether these languages had a common origin, within the 
last few centuries, or whether they are only related through 
the Ancient Syriac and Ancient Chaldee, we have not yet 
the means of determining. The discussion of this subject, 
which is necessarily omitted now, may be resumed hereafter. 

D. T. Stoddabd. 

Oroomiah, Persia, July, 1853. 



ORTHOGRAPHY AND ORTHOEPY. 



THE ALPHABET. 



The letters of the alphabet are the same in number and 
bear the same names as in the Ancient Syriac, and generally 
have the same power. New forms, however, have been 
given to V,, f i A and X, as will appear by the following 
table. 

Initial. 

2 

a 



Medial. 



Final. 



a 

or 

a 



9 



« 



Initial. 

SB 

1 
XB 

X 

a 

m 

a 
x 
x 



Medial. 



5 Before final 

/ sometimes 



Final. 



»i » 



V» S Before final 2 ? •). 
*■ ^ sometimes $ >*? 



The Estrangela is still employed by the Nestorians for the 
title-pages of books and other occasional uses. 

The letters 2, a, f , £ and a, are never united with the 
succeeding letters, ci and a are occasionally written in 



* * is used in some manuscripts as initial, medial, or final. The same may 
be said of 2 : but % can only be used as a final letter, or at the end of a sylla- 
ble ; never as an initial letter. 2 and 2 are used indifferently according to the 
fancy of the writer. a. l. h. 



10 

connection with the next letter : oj with 2 and o ; O with 2, 
A, So, * and X. 

9, ik,, 3, A, £, X, are susceptible of aspiration as in the 
ancient language. A large point above the letter (daghesh 
lene of the Hebrew) which is often omitted, especially at the 
beginning of words, denotes that the letter is not aspirated 
in pronunciation. A similar point below shows that it is 
aspirated. It is to be noted, however, that £, unaspirated, 
is written without any point. When aspirated, it is writ- 
ten 4- 

Note. — It would not be an easy matter to lay down the rules by 
which these letters are aspirated in Modern Syriac. Nor is it neces- 
sary to attempt it, as the aspiration is indicated in nearly every case 
by the point below the letter. Wherever one of these letters is 
unaspirated in a verbal root, it is unaspirated throughout the conju- 
gation, and vice versa. 

3, when aspirated, has nearly the sound of the English 
w, sometimes inclining to v, and can hardly be distinguished 
from O. The latter must, however, be regarded as the weaker 
consonant. Cases will be mentioned farther on, in which 
9 coalesces with the preceding vowel and loses its power as 
a consonant. 

V,, when aspirated, has the sound of gh (the Persian £), 
and is perhaps more deeply guttural than A, which seems to 
a beginner to resemble it. 

^ has the sound of the English j. Until the last two or 

three years, we used it also to express ch. See A. 

i. 

The aspirated a is not much, if at all, used in the province 
of Oroomiah. In the mountains of Koordistan, its proper 
sound is that of th in these, but it is said in one or two cases 
to have the sound of th in thin. 

07 has a more decided and full pronunciation than the 
English h, without approaching in sound to *» (hh). The 
latter cannot be distinguished in pronunciation from J>. 
Their equivalent nearly is found in the German ch (Bach)'. 

Note. — The Nestorians pronounce **. A, i^, etc., with much 
stress of voice, in consequence of which the sound of their language 
is at first unpleasant to an English ear. The Turkish of Northern 
Persia in this respect resembles the Syriac, and is very unlike the 
cultivated language of Constantinople. Whenever the Turkish is 



11 

referred to in the following pages, the reader will understand by it 
the rude Tatar dialect of this province, which has not even been re- 
duced to writing, and is therefore noted in the Syriac character. 

o, used for connecting words and clauses (the Hebrew *|), 
is pronounced nearly like oo in hood, but with a more rapid 
enunciation. 

9 or X is equivalent to z in azure, or s in pleasure. These 
characters are rarely used. 

A, unaspirated, has often the sound of k in hind, as pro- 
nounced by Walker, a y being quickly inserted after k. 

A has the sound of ch in cherry and rich. 

1 is sometimes pronounced like So, when it precedes 9 or 
&, e. g. &J3U2, a store-room ; \t\A , to stagger ; uO UH V., 
lazy; 9bS4f, to swagger, etc. So in Persian. So in Eng- 
lish in the words imbitter, impatient, io is also occasionally 
written instead of 1, as kASUDn, sound being regarded more 

than derivation. 

X, 2 and .», are readily confounded by a foreigner in cer- 
tain connections, but are at once distinguished by a native. 

t * 

We may take as an illustration 29b*2, the hand, and 2»lik, a 

feast ; or 7&l\, a Jig, and fo>V, mud. The difference in these 

words may seem slight, but, unless the ear is trained to make 
nice distinctions, a foreigner will be often misunderstood, 
even if he does not fall into ludicrous blunders. 

*L has been used more or less to represent the/ and ph of 
other languages, but, as the Nestorians pronounce this sound 
with difficulty, and it never occurs in words truly Syriac, we 
have for some years past dropped it in our books. ^ coa- 
lesces with certain Vowels, as hereafter stated. 

5. — When this letter is used, the syllable fills the mouth, 
as it were, more than when XO is used. 

JO. — A very hard k, which can be represented by no anal- 
ogy in English. 

X, when unaspirated, is equivalent to the English t. ^ 
is a harder t, and sounded farther back in the mouth, x, if 
aspirated, has the sound of th in thick. This aspiration, so 
common in the ancient language, is quite lost on the plain 
of Oroomiah, but is retained in Koordistan. 



12 



TOWELS. 



a 
a 



a in father. 
i between e in efafe 
| and a in hate. 

i in ^>m. 

o in note, 
oo in poor. 

e in me. 



Names. Notation. Power. 

lLk& P'tahha — o in Actf. 

ikof Zkapa — 

lk&X& Ha&f Zlama (long) — 

£jUJ %Sa£f Zlama (short) -7 

XwOB R'wahha 
2^99 E'wasa 

2y3U« Hhwfisa 

Note. — The names of — and — in Ancient Syriac grammars are 
just the reverse of those here given, but, as it seems more proper to 
call — hard, the Nestorians follow the usage noted above. 

P'tahha has generally the sound of short and close a. In 
the great majority of cases, when a consonant follows it 
(excepting 2, Of, X, and cases specified on pp. 10, 11), which 
has a vowel of its own, that consonant is doubled in pro- 
nunciation, e.g. 1*2 ; these; %&\, a wave; \ t .!! t ., true; 
where 1, £ and 9 are each doubled. 

Note 1. — There is no doubt that at least the Eastern Syrians for- 
merly used the daghesh forte, though, as now, without any distin- 
riishing mark. Compare Hoffman's Grammar of the Ancient Syriac, 
17, Annot. 1. Assemann states that in many cases JL is followed 
by a dagheshed letter, but this is not the usage now, except in 

t*-**Ti l * and |X3y, and then with questionable propriety. 

Note 2. — It is perhaps unnecessary to state that 2, VI and X, are 
letters too weak to receive the daghesh. The usage is the same in 
the Hebrew. Unlike the Hebrew, however, the Modern Syriac may 

double d» and », and does so constantly, e. g. ia**9, to envy; ? .»» !» , 

to make alive; pronounced respectively bahh-hhul, m&hh-hhee. So 

too iS^ilib,,, to wallow; 1%A, deaf; pronounced garril, karra. 



13 

Note 3. — A few words, such as lUx», Z»©«2, jA}±SO (the 

i m i > t lit 

first syllable) and la, >*\T, derived from the ancient language, are 

i i 

exceptions to the above rule. The sound of -j- in these words is like 
that of .*_, and the following consonant is not doubled. 

P'tahha is lengthened, when followed by 2, OT or X, as in 
the second syllable of iajAJa, where 4- is to be pronounced 

im I ''I* t ' '• 

like -*-. So in 2acf3, light; JlXaa, an arm; *UA*a, a serf. 

Sometimes the sound of -J- in a mixed syllable, beside the 
cases hereafter specified, nearly approaches that of short u, 

e. g. 2a X2, pronounced uthra or utra. 

Zkapa has properly the sound of a in father, but, in order 
to give uniformity to the spelling of like forms, occasional 
deviations have been made from this rule. Thus, we have 

h&AJQtf, I may heal; *£Cf, I may be; *£*fl, / may read or 

call, although in the first -*- has nearly the sound of e in met, 
in the second, the sound of a in father, and in the third, the 
sound of a in ball. 

Note 1. — It will thus be seen that the Nestorians have what Hoff- 
man (§11, 3) properly calls the more elegant pronunciation of-*-. 
So far as we know, this vowel is never pronounced by them as long o. 

Note 2. — It may here be remarked, once for all, that several seri- 
ous difficulties are in the way of an orthography which shall per- 
fectly represent the sound of each word. Many words, as, for in- 
stance, OOf and u0f, have a different sound from what they had 
formerly ; and yet, for the sake of etymology, it is considered impor- 
tant to retain the original spelling. It is often a matter of much 
doubt how far we are permitted to go in defacing the escutcheon of 
words, and obliterating all traces of their ancestry. One who had 
not fully considered the subject, might often think we were arbitrary, 
where good reasons for a variation may be assigned ; e. g. Anc. 

a&9, "pXO, Modern a&9, l pJ3. 

The difficulty is still greater in regard to words which have been 
transferred from other languages, the Turkish, the Persian, the 
Koordish, and the Arabic. Even if we were thoroughly acquainted 
with these languages, as we are not, the words derived from them in 
Modern Syriac are often completely disguised, and years pass before 



14 

we successfully trace out their origin. Others are more or less cor- 
rupted, though not properly made over ; and still others retain very 
much of their original form and sound. In the latter case, we intend 
always to refer to the language from whence they came, to ascertain 
the true spelling. 

The varieties in dialect present another obstacle not easily sur- 
mounted. As familiarity is acquired with the language spoken, in 
all the dialects, reasons are often found for changing orthography 
which was supposed to be definitely settled. 

Long Zlama. — The sound of — is not exactly that of long 
e, nor of long a, but something between these sounds, ap- 
proaching a little nearer to that of e than of a. 

Short Zlama. — This vowel, though generally i, sometimes 
approaches in sound to e. When followed by X, its sound 

resembles -y, e. g. ^ jV MA a a J t, hear. 

The same rule which has been mentioned for the doubling 

of a consonant after -J-, applies also to — . Thus in 13*, a 

I* 

hear ; % 'i oJO. a hoof; JaV smoke ; the a, ie and i, are re- 

spectively doubled in pronunciation. The fact that the 
daghesh must always, as in Hebrew, be preceded by a short 
vowel, needs no explanation. 

It may be well to state, under this head, that Cf, *» and X 
occasionally admit of daghesh forte in the Ancient Syriac, 
after a short vowel, but not 9. 

B'wdhha. — This is long o, but is often undistinguishable in 
pronunciation from a, which has the sound of oo in poor, 

but at times inclines also to the sound of long o. When — 
precedes, O should follow; when -f- precedes, O should 
follow. 

Note 1. — As the Nestorians generally use O and O, especially in 

the neighborhood of Mosul, there is no doubt that the former corres- 
ponds to *i in Hebrew, and the latter to si- 
Note 2. — Unlike 1 in Hebrew, is so far an essential part of the 
vowel, that the latter cannot be written without it. The same re- 
mark may be made of * in hhw&sa. 

Note 3. — Hoffman, § 13, 4, speaks of these vowels as sometimes 
m, but the Nestorians know no such usage. In the examples he 

adduces, %J OJ» ,?J.<L*2 ,yftS.*. ,A ft> - D etc., the sound is as 

m t 

given above. 



15 

Hhwdsa. — This is in sound like a very long e in English. 
The * has sometimes belonging to it another vowel, in 
which case it performs the double office of a consonant (y) 

and a fulcrum for hhwasa, e. g. •*»-#, thought, pronounced 

hheyal; h-»A, of us, pronounced deyan. The word X»2, in 

which the etymology is preserved, .is sounded thus : It. In 
the perfect participle feminine, 1st Class, we have, for ex- 
ample, Z&J>.i fr V„ braided, pronounced as if written 2&Jta^. 
And so of similar cases. 

Note 1. — After y, * is silent. This mode of spelling, adopted from 
the ancient language, has been in a great measure dropped. Thus, 

we now write „i»X*OC?, you may be, for ^OIV*OOf; +JilS->1u*, 

it $ 

you may see, for ,_OX»**», etc. But uJBuU and some other 

words transferred from Ancient Syriac, retain their original form. 

Note 2. — There is a sheva in common use, as in Hebrew, though 
without any distinctive mark. Sometimes there are two attached to 

two successive letters, e. g. wC?O.A\3a. that in his heart, pro- 

nounced d'Vlibboo. In a few cases the mark called in Ancient Syriac 

* ii ml 

.TvVofajQ and placed above the line (Hoff. § 19, 1), has been used 

for this purpose, but it is now dropped, as it is of no practical use to 
ourselves or the natives. The ear soon becomes so trained that it 
instinctively gives the sheva where it is called for. No one who has 

spoken Syriac two months would think of pronouncing >L&9J3U, fuel, 

i 

yalcdana, but, as a matter of course, yeHdana. So iSQJBS**, ycP- 
eobh. Compare the Hebrew a p3>^ . 

The sheva was no doubt employed by the Nestorians of old, 
though, so far as we can judge from the disposition of the vowels in 
the ancient language, with less frequency than in the modem. Those 
grammarians who, according to Hoffman (§ 15, Annot.), wish to class 
" inter absurdos" any who speak of a sheva in Ancient Syriac, should 
properly themselves be classed there. 



16 



MODIFICATION OF VOWEL-SOUNDS. 

The letters *>, S^, X, £ and 0, and, to a considerable ex- 
tent, also a, as and a, modify the sound of some of the vow- 
els which are connected with them in the same syllable. 
The general tendency of these letters is to make the vowels 
joined with them somewhat like short u, though this is not 
the uniform effect. As it is essential to a correct pronun- 
ciation that this subject be understood, some examples will 
here be given to illustrate it. The sounds of course cannot 
be perfectly represented in English. Observe that a— a in 
hate; d=a in saw; a, without a mark over it, =a in father ; 
a=a in hat; ee, at the end of words, = — . In some cases — 
may more properly be represented by simple e. e=*. 

1. These letters with -7-, >»*M u », fifty, pronounced lihum- 
she, ; 'p Sy'sS^ , turtum, to murmur ; ^b >, umman, with us ; 
BUJ^ttiB, mustar, a ruler for parallel lines ; 2J9U, nulcka, a 
whale. Also with io and a : n^ifrVW, mumte, let them cause 
to reach ; frl >\Srt, Muryam, Mary. 

2. With ■*-, fcaSw, hhudrit, thou mayest walk about; 
,7l\ii*1, butna, she may conceive ; <jOl», ewukh, we are ; Z*a£9, 

Murya, the Lord ; %i*OJB, hur'yana, a reader. 

These letters very often give — the sound of d. Thus 
we have l\**, hhdtee, he may sin ; 1*\, tdshee, he may con- 
ceal ; ,lSftS.1i>, dbola, a street ; i^g, sdpee, he may strain ; 

ZsU3, Mree, he may read ; 2io», rdma, high. 

3. With — , no effect is generally produced. 

4. With — 1 the vowel sound is in most cases u : in VV i m, 

hhushU, I went ; '\\^, pdlut, he may go out ; ia Jtt . V , usra, 
ten ; ^>»^», Musreen, Egypt ; X^kXJOA, p'kudUe, he com- 



17 

manded ; 2mOS, rumlee, he rose ; ISBttdOX, toomumma, com- 
i< n a i 

pleted. But X following -,-, lengthens it into — . 

5. A and o are affected rarely, if at all. 

6. * is in many cases unchanged. "When, however, these 
letters are followed by * or * coalescing in the preceding 

vowel -j- (see next section under * —), the vowel-sound is 
not generally a simple one, as in other cases, but resembles 
the sound of ei in height, e. g. Z>»\, teira, a bird ; 7\*\, 
eina, a fountain, an eye ; JJCOu.3, keisa, a tree. So with ■» : 
«Sft»fi, keimat, a price ; J.v*iy, teina, mud. 



FURTHER MODIFICATION OF SIMPLE VOWELS. 

1. 3 4-. — P'tahha followed by 9 has the sound of o, e. g. 
2v9f , zona, time ; 1> *l\ v gora, a husband. 

2. A -p. — P'tahha followed by o does not often occur ; 

never in our more recent books. But, wherever found, it has 

i i 

nearly the sound of 5, e. g. *£bXXON, totishoon, search ye, 

now written »^JU(\^X. See 2& -j-. 

3. * -j-. — This has in general the sound of ey in they, e. g. 

i* ' ' i I 

M^»2, eyga, then ; u4*2, eyrie, which of the two ; V*-*> beyta, a 

house ; J> » N , leylee, the night ; , lv »X, sheyna, peace. Excep- 

•' ' ' * • 

tions, for the sake of etymology, are la*»2, where, pronoun- 
ced eka ; t\*\ = lit, there is not; **2 = alch, as. ^CWrUd, 
a capital city, is pronounced nearly peitahht. Compare also 
what is said above of *», iy. etc., followed by *. 

4. ^ ', . — P'tahha followed by ^ has a sound varying be- 
tween ow in now, and o, e. g. MCfftt^U, b'nowshoo or o'no- 
s/wo, by himself; «>jftfi^i, NowtaU, Naphtali. 



18 

5. 9-*-, O-*-. — Zkapa before 9 or O has the sound of 5, and 

f 
is not distinguishable in the modern from 9 -J- , e. g. uJJX, 

o-de, they may do ; u>9b9JiL, 5-re, they may enter ; Afflft >, 

Yosip, Joseph ; Z-OCf, hoya, she may be ; 2f oJk,, goza, a wal- 
nut; 2»*£, dora, a generation. 

6. * -*-. — Zkapa before .» has the sound of ey in <Aey, and 
often does not differ from * -j-, e. g. }^6ct ] weyta, being ; 
yMuaJS, hreyta, reading. In such cases, * may also have a 
vowel of its own, and be sounded like our y, e. g. %} .i >fll 1> , 
k'seyyatee, covers. 

7. 9-„-, O— , ^-,r- — Short zlama before 9, A, or^, has a 
sound nearly like that of ew in Leiuis, e. g. iXSO, honey, not 
exactly divsha nor doosha ; Z&9 X, straw, not fo'vna nor toona ; 
tJCBO.v*0o2, i/je ocean; %>X**GJB, a Cyrenian; JtO&X&QJB, 
Cyprus; V.2SOJ3, gwici, etc. 

8. .» -r. — This has been alluded to in a preceding note. 
See under Hhwasa. 

9. ^o. — If O is followed by ^, the latter has either no 

effect on the syllable, or the sound is nearly that of ui in 

ruin, e. g. ^NX^oa, a winnowing fan, pronounced rooshta 

(nearly). 

It may be stated as a general rule, that *», X and », prefer 
the vowel -J-, as in the ancient language and the Hebrew. 



SOME PECULIARITIES OF 2, CT, O, * AND iw. 

2. — It has already been mentioned that 2 quiesces occasion- 
ally in -j-, and lengthens it. It quiesces far more frequently 
in - 1 -, as in the final syllable of 2»OuL,, great, and a multi- 
tude of other words. 2 may also quiesce in — , as in the 



19 

last syllable of plurals, and in O, -, — . When it follows 
the latter, it lengthens it into — .' At times the 2 in such 
cases falls out, as in the preterite of verbs of final 2, e. g. 

uAas = u^2M, I poured. 

When 2 is preceded by a letter without a vowel, but has 
one of its own, it has a tendency to give its vowel-sound to 

the preceding letter, and rest in it ; e. g. 1*1S, to be pro- 

nounced not b'ennee, but bennee. So 2CT13 = baha. So in 
Hebrew (Nordheimer's Grammar, § 88, 3). Compare also in 
regard to 2, Hon 7 . § 31, 3. 

CI. — In the suffix wOfO, neither CI nor .» is sounded. At 
the end of words CI is generally quiescent, as in the Hebrew ; 
and we often feel at liberty, e. g. in words introduced from 
other languages, to substitute 2 for it, as really a better rep- 
resentative of the sound. This may account for our writing 

the verb ©£»*, OpL*. he is, she is, ZX*, JjL». 

O. — This may be, and is rarely, the initial letter of a verbal 
root. It is found often as the middle radical, and sometimes 

at the end. Take, for example, AoAo to wail; JlOb. to 

L '' . "I II 

repent; and 0> V - V to reprove; in all which cases it retains its 

full consonant power. In OOCT, which is thus written for 
etymology's sake, the final o is not sounded, and the word 

is to be pronounced as if 2O0T. 

*. — This letter, when following o, does not flow into the 

vowel-sound, but has a sound of its own resembling short 

e, e. g. 2 fr .>0*V > , a wall, pronounced gooeda. Compare Hoff. 

§12, 1, and l!)p5 and similar words in Hebrew. 

X may in certain cases be treated as a quiescent, the Mod- 
ern Syriac agreeing in this respect with the Ancient, though 
in such cases it affects the vowel-sound, e. g. lAkaaX / 
heard. Here, too, X admits a vowel which J? cannot take in 
Hebrew. So 2 aJ XXa, doing. 

Some letters are otiant in Modern Syriac, being generally, 
if not always, those retained for the sake of etymology, e. g. 
.» in Jhi2, > Jy ft S .A, etc. 



20 

The representation given above of the sounds of the Syr- 
iao language differs from that often made in grammars of 
the Ancient Syriac, e. g. Hoff. § 12, 3. There is, however, 
reason to suppose that the Nestorians understand the pro- 
nunciation of their language better than it is possible for 
European scholars to understand it. The Ancient and the 
Modern Syriac are now pronounced nearly according to the 
same rules, and there has probably been no essential change 
in these rules, especially in Koordistan, for a thousand years. 



TALKANA. 

An oblique mark drawn over a letter, not under, as in the 
Jacobite Syriac, shows that a letter is not sounded, e. g. 

^if 2, pronounced azin ; J^v-aio, pronounced m'dZta. Oc- 
casionally, other diacritical marks are used, as in the words 
^Se, ^9, which are explained in grammars of the ancient 
language. 

ACCENT. 

It is almost a universal rule, that the primary accent is on 
the penult, and the secondary accent on the pre-antepenult. 
So strong is the tendency in this direction that a beginner 
in English will come and ask for the Pee-po'v-day, meaning 
by this the little book called "Peep of Day." It is, however, 
to be noted that, in the pronunciation of verbs, the auxiliary 

%ooi is considered, in the subjunctive mood, an essential part 

of the word, though written separately. Thus, in £»Cf /hi, 

he might come, l»Cf ^A&9, I might Vess, the accent is respec- 
tively on the syllables 2X and ^V So too when the pro- 
nouns Ja2, etc., are suffixed, e. g. ill 2)U» Via, I will see ; 
fr& bOL99 »^, if he seize him ; where the accent is respec- 
tively on the syllables If and U*S. Compare 1*2 0£o2 of An- 
cient Syriac, which takes the accent on &to. The auxiliaries 
»^J, VlOw, etc., do not follow this rule, e. g. »£^ ,7 ^ , »tt , 



21 

I am ashamed, has the accent on the syllable 1— , as if »£*♦ 
were not written. 

PUNCTUATION. 

Our system of punctuation is imperfect, compared with 
that of the English. The only characters we have intro- 
duced, which are not found in the Ancient Syriac (Hoff. 
§ 23, 1), are the Greek semicolon inverted, as the sign of a 
question, the note of exclamation, and the parenthesis. 

NESTORIAN MANUSCRIPTS. 

Manuscript works among the Nestorians are sometimes 
very beautifully written, and the best type can never ex- 
ceed, and perhaps not even rival, them in elegance. 



22 



ETYMOLOGY. 



PRONOUNS. 
1. Separate Personal Pronouns. 

J*i, I (m. and f.). u~2or «A-»2, We. 

*t£i or ^142, Thou (m.). ,. , , . t , 

, ', "'. *$n~2 or „OA«w2, You. 

J*U2 or .W Thou (f.). ' " 

o'er Bfe, it. . mn 

Q ™' u&2, They. 

wW, She, it. 

Note. — It will be observed that there is no distinction of gender 
in the second and third persons plural. Not so in the ancient lan- 
guage. 

These personal pronouns, with the exception of oc7, u'fl 
and u&l, are not used in the objective case. And these, 

especially the first two, are generally accompanied by the 
noun to which they refer. Compare the usage in the An- 
cient Syriac with »^a2 and f>*2 (Hoff. § 41, 3), and in He- 
brew (Nordh. § 859, f note). 

Note. — OCT and txCf are sometimes spoken, both in the nominative 
and objective cases, as if written ȣA2 and ^*2. 

2. Demonstrative Pronouns. 

These are 2C/2, this (m. and f.), oef, that (m.), Jeff, that (f.), 
Z»2, these (m. and f.), and uAj, those (m. and f.). 



23 

Remarks. 

1. It is probable that %ll is a corruption of the ancient ^«iCf, 

uXOI, and u*l2 of »^JlOf, w*iCf. See, for the distinction made by 
v ,■ » i v ,i 

the Maronites in these words, Hoff. § 41, Ann. 4. It will be remem- 
bered that some personal pronouns are also used for demonstratives 
in the ancient language. 

2. In Tekhoma, the people say J.OOOT for this, and 2o/JoOCT for 
<Ao<. On the plain of Oroomiah, the first of these is used for that, 

and the other for that yonder. In Bootan they say X*ll for these, 

9 1 I 

and XCIQAl for those. Whenever Bootan is referred to, it may be 

be remembered that it is at the western extremity of Koordistan, and 
farther removed from us than any other district of the Nestorians. 

The plural pronoun %il is also sometimes prolonged in Koordis- 
tan, by the addition of 2ef, 2ci-*, or %%OU, into lefi&l 2oV**2 or 
» * * ■ »• »' * i* i» ' * 

MOW', without a change of signification. 2ef*2 is heard at times 

in Oroomiah. 

There seems to be a natural tendency in language to make demon- 
stratives as emphatic as possible. Compare in Anc. Syriac XlCIQCI, 
in Hebrew frjii, 6 &vt6s in Greek, derselbe in German, cet homme la 
in French, and this 'ere, that 'ere in vulgar English. 

3. It is worthy of note, that the ancient feminine ISO? is some- 

» *' 

times heard corrupted into wft2, and that too on the plain of Oroo- 
miah. We also sometimes hear t*A.i Both wS2 and wxl are 
used with masculine as well as feminine nouns. 2SOT is also used 

in such expressions as jCU 2ftOf, it is so (it is this) ; ibtCI V\A3, on 
account of this, etc. * ' 

m 

4. OCT is pronounced sometimes with the sound of cw in now, 

and sometimes, and oftener, simply as long o. wff is pronounced 
sometimes with the sound of ay in aye, and oftener as a in /ate. 
They have always, however, the sounds of 6 and a when used as 
demonstratives. 

3. Relatives. 

a is the only relative, and is of both genders and num- 
bers. So it is in the ancient language. The use of this rela- 
tive in grammatical construction will be explained in the 
Syntax. 



24 



4. Interrogatives. 

These are *& or uAiO, who ? (m. and f.) (ancient k!o) ; 
* >t 

u&£a>, whose? w»»0«bP, what? uJL*l, which of the two? (m. 

and f.) (ancient JX»2) ; and 2MA, Aow much, or how many ? 
as in the ancient language. 

Note 1. — In one part of the plain of Oroomiah, in Salmas, in Ga- 
war, and perhaps other districts, u£& is prononuced u&£9. ulftit 
is very generally contracted in vulgar usage into 90&S, tVAAO or 
O^O, especially when preceding a noun. t*U0 mX*2, which of them? 
is vulgarly contracted into iminey. We hear also rarely 3)2 (m. and 
f.) instead of u«l»»2 ; compare the ancient feminine form 2X*2. In 
Bootan, for w^tcA o/ <Ae two, they say itVVl J, which is no doubt a 
contraction of «*■ ktimtl. 

Note 2. — kSo in the ancient language is sometimes applied to 
things. See Luke 8 : 30, <gOX ^B. So in the Hebrew *J»ttJ ,, !g ; 
but we find no such usage in Modern Syriac. 

Note 3. — The ancient ]ds, what, is retained in the common idiom 
^9 d ^^- Jjo, what to thee from us ? i. e. what have we to do 
with thee ? Of course we may substitute any other suffixes. So too 
we have in daily use such expressions as J^*9 »*«» %&C1 1S9, what 

to me a house? i. e. of what profit to me ? ,?% »>02 tJt wOOf Jio 
IsS^k, what may be to us so many sheep ? In some parte of the moun- 
tains, 2ep9 is used to denote what, wSO^a perhaps = u3Z £D. 

5. Indefinite and Distributive Pronouns. 
These are iVa, any one, every one (vulgar AOA, perhaps 
derived from &«i»&); p9 or ^a ti^, any one, every one; 
£ t \y t each one. We often hear also 2oera i^A, whomever, 
or whatever, you please, literally, any one that may. 

Note. — It may be hardly necessary to state that t2k£k, as in the 
kindred languages, is written defectively, and is to be pronounced hool. 



25 



6. Suffix Pronouns. 

These are few in number and simple in their form, and 
are in general the same for verbs, nouns and prepositions. 
The following is a list of them. 

a. Personal Pronouns of the Objective Case. 



, me. uL , ^» us. 

4* thee(m.). , \ 

«*' thee (f.). •*?• y ° U 

Of, wOfO him. «^> »^0f, w» 



them. 

bt", ero her. (^** ' ?** »•?**>. 

i 

Bemarks. 

**' t i 

The suffixes ^O and »AOf are confined to verbs. wOP and k*0P 

> « . ' "• 

are used only in Koordistan. «^Op is a common suffix in Bootan. 

It will be seen that the suffix of the first person singular, having 
a vowel, must always be sounded, unlike the corresponding suffix of 
the ancient language. The modern differs from the ancient (Hoff. 
§ 42, Annot. 1.) also in having verbal suffixes after the third person 

plural. Beside ^ , *£Of , we have what is equivalent to a suffix in 
the forms given farther on, under the head of Verbs with Suffixes. 

b. Possessive Pronouns. 

These are the same in form with personal suffixes of the 
objective case. Thus, for example, with ^*9 a house : 

My house wiUS Our house «J^*3 i t»i-XU3 

» i l less frequently. 

Thy house (m.) <jOTU3 , ,. , 

' \ Your house »oaoxv*3 

Thy house (f.) **aiU3 
His house uOfO n*3 
Her house Of XUS 



Their house wiUS 



26 

In the same way the suffixes are applied to the plural, e. g. 

wIUkkl9 my houses, ^utTLana thy houses, etc. When the 

noun, as in this case, terminates in a vowel-sound, final 2 is 
dropped, to prevent the hiatus which would otherwise occur 
in the pronunciation. When the noun terminates in a con- 
sonant, no change is made by its reception of the suffixes. 

Note. — In our books we have often written Of as a noun-suffix for 

- * *' _j^ • 

3d pers. sing, masc., and Of for 3d pers. sing, fern., e. g. CfZ\*9 

his house, OfR«S her house. We now substitute for these, in all 

nouns, wOfO and OfO , in accordance with Oroomiah usage. CfJ>2 > 

CfJkd, etc., retain the other suffixes. Of and wOfO are both used m 

Gawar; the first only in Tekhoma and Tiary. In Nochea and 

Tekhoma, we find only Of' ; but, on the other hand, this is not used 

at all in Gaw r ar. In Tekhoma and Tiary, the suffix h»Op' is the 

noun-suffix for 3d pers. plural. In Bootan, ^OP (m.) and u*OV» (f.). 

We, however, employ now only »#' as the noun-suffix of 3d pers. 

plural. We have also, in such expressions as 2JC&2B Ol&O&S, 

dropped the suffix which is employed both in Ancient Syriac and in 

Chaldee. (See Jahn's Grammar, § 28.) It is not in accordance with 

present usage, and we now substitute 2 for the Of. The expression 

,?ao 0>. » 0j\>& will be referred to in the Syntax. 

Emphatic Possessive. 
Sometimes the suffix, for the sake of emphasis, is separa- 
ted from its noun by a preposition, e. g. u*A 2&S the father 
of me {and not of you), <S?0~» JA9 the father of thee, etc. 

Note 1. — Compare t3>>A in Ancient Syriac. This form, which is 

always emphatical in the Modern, is by no means uniformly so in 

the Ancient Syriac. (Hoff. § 122, 6.) 

Note 2. — Such forms as >Aw3 unAOAjSB, John 4 : 34, tJ3 

t m * • (» *# 

JL.», 2 Cor. 5 : 19, or ^Jiai &»<&» kA J»OI», Matt. 3 : 1, 
cannot properly be admitted in the Modern Syriac. It may, how- 



27 

ever, be remarked here, once for all, that in the translation of the Old 
Testament from the Hebrew, and of the New Testament from the 
Ancient Syriac, idioms have been designedly more or less introduced 
which are not in accordance with vulgar usage. 

7. Peciprocal Personal Pronouns. 

u4\ myself. *4?*£, or ^*^. ourselves. 

*&»£, thyself (m.). , „ K . tt , , 

^aoniX^or ^OJkAUk. yourselves. 
"A'vX. thyself (f.). 

wWOiik, himself. „ , 

. ' . JniV, or w>Uk, themselves. 

CfasX, herself. 

The word 1A, soul (Persian q !■?■•), which is thus con- 
nected with the suffixes, corresponds nearly to self in Eng- 
lish. It may indeed have two different significations in the 

same sentence ; e. g. »***J* &i^ my own soul, <>aiXJ» VA, 

thy own soul, etc. 

Xi$>* is also used in connection with the suffixes, but with 

a different meaning. If we wish to express the ideas : " by 

myself," "by thyself," etc., %*Q,i receives the suffixes, and 

has the preposition 3 prefixed. Thus, i> T*ai*1 by myself, 

declined like muL above. Compare the use of XX^x and 

JioajM in the Ancient Syriac (Hoff. §127, 1), ttie; and nn in 

Hebrew (Nordh. § 873), and ujbj, etc. in Chaldee (Jahn § 15). 

VERBS. 

The roots of verbs in the Modern Syriac are in many cases 
identical with those of the corresponding verbs in the an- 
cient language ; but the terminations and inflexions, and the 
general scheme of conjugation, are different. Indeed, it is 
interesting to observe how the Modern Syriac, like the Mod- 
ern Greek, and other languages, has broken up the original 
form of the verb, and employed new auxiliaries, both in the 



28 

active and passive voices. These changes will be discussed 
hereafter. It is sufficient to remark, here, that they have 
been so great that it is useless to keep up the old distinc- 
tions of KB, 32, etc.; and that the object will be better 
accomplished by classifying the verbs as now used, without 
any reference to the scheme of the verb in the ancient lan- 
guage. 

Without attempting a complete analysis of the modern 
verb, it is intended to give the paradigms of those classes 
and forms of verbs which commonly occur, both on the 
plain of Oroomiah and in the mountains of Koordistan. 

As the verb in its simplest form is always found in the 
third person singular masculine of the future, this will be 
called the root or stem, and the other forms will be derived 
from it. For greater convenience, however, we shall begin 
with the present indicative, after giving the infinitive and 
participles. 

The auxiliary and neuter verb, the verb of existence locff 

to be, is given below, inflected both positively and negatively. 

INFINITIVE, 3-OW, jLbc^ to he. 

tt 

Present Participle, J-»oo^3) Perfect Participle, i»©W, 3s-»OCf 
Being. J Having been. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 

J)u %H I am (ra.). , , . 

" KtOmt kV**1 We are. 

VlA-^JCUi Thou art (m.). 

,"'.'. »V*U *V*W You are. 

JlkOw JtUj. Thou art (f.). 

ii- OW He is. , _ , 

■' ' lU u*i They are. 

j£k* wCf She is. 



29 



Present Tense, negatively. 

wOw 2_V ixl I am not (m.). , , , 

/' , [ , . <*oJ Jj> kU2 We are not. 

.£- iA Ji2 I am not (fA ' '' v ' ' 
t 

VlA^J^*tti2 Thou art not (m.). , , , 

,1 •' ' „OlC 1^ »OlW2 Youarenot 

JjLoJ Z2t JVlii Thou art not (fA •' ' 

i ,< i 

2^ 1^ Oof He is not , ^ 

J.'^ *' . JlJ 1* uAi They are not 

XSLt %\ wOf She is not ■' 

Note. — In these forms, * has a vowel (hhwasa), whenever pre- 
ceded by a consonant ; when preceded by a vowel, it receives talkana. 
OOf is an exception, as it is followed by 1*— . Otherwise, the rule 
seems to be universal. * ' 

When * has talkana over it, it still comes in for its share in the 
pronunciation, changing the character of the vowel which precedes it. 

Thus, u(L» %li is pronounced as if written bA>»2, uOw JJJI&S 
as if kAtoB J&S, etc., the -. coalescing with the preceding -£-. (See 
previous remarks on the sound of * -*-.) The auxiliary Xbof is some- 
times written jLoCf, and sometimes £o6V> and the same remarks 
apply to this * also. ' 

In some mountain-districts, Zl— is used for li»», and inBootan m£, 
through all the conjugation of the verbs. Thus, %l+ ?\r ^*T 
or um Jt^Yt* 1 ! they are going out ; Zv- %-tS.iS or uA jJxiltJ 
they are coming, etc. 

Imperfect Tense. 

JoC? .^O- Zl'2 I was (m.). f ,, f . < 

OOC7 W o..,) ^3«m2 We were. 
£oW ^ i&2 I was (f.). ' ' ' 

Zoef'kLO«»Vl£2 Thouwast(m.). f _ , , 

, , " ^', OOC7 ^0«- ,.OTl-.2 You were. 

JjB»C> uXlOw J*U2 Thou wast (f.> ' ' 

t r t 

3 ' • 

ZOOp OCT He was. 

; c . OO0T uAf They were. 

lOCT t*9f She was. ' 



30 



Imperfect Tense, negatively. 

''Si I was not 

i' We were 
not. 



JAW ^ A?j£ Iwasnot(f.). " ' 



, ,. , not(t). 

iOOJ Z-V POT He was not 
f _, '' . OOC7 1^ »**? They were not. 

lOGf 2-> uff She was not ' 

i' 

There is generally an elision in the pronunciation of this 
tense, which is so very prevalent that we can hardly call it 

a vulgarity. The final 2 of the pronoun %i}, in the first per- 
son singular, and the letters Ow are not sounded. Thus, we 
have the pronunciation anin wa, anan wa. So when any 

other word which ends in a vowel precedes »0^ ; for exam- 

pie, low »0»» JJbiV / was there, is pronounced tamin wa. 

This elision is not confined to the first person singular. In 
the second person, the sound is atit wa, atdt wa, and in the 
first person plural ahhnanukh wa. 

Of the negative form, the first person singular is pro- 
nounced (ana) levin wa, leyan wa; the second person, leyit 
wa, hyat wa; and the first person plural, leyukh wa. 

Preterite Tense. 

wJVOC? ii} I was (m. and f.). k-JtOVf >1ii.< We were, 

it' v » ( t v t * 

*jbAo«T Vllj' Thou wast (m.> 

^", ', .OAOJtOOT »OXW You were. 

uAiiaOl Jtlii Thou wast (f.). 

» r> < 

J^OCT OCT He was. , ^ , 

•' '' _ ^oAoef y*2 They were. 

Jj»OC/ u>CJ She was. 



SI 



Preterite Tense, negatively. 

The negative is formed by inserting 2-» (not JA) between 
the pronoun and the verb, in all the persons and in both 
numbers, e. g. ZAOef }-i OCf he was not. 

Note. — When u^OOT is not used as an auxiliary, it has the sig- 
nification I became, I was bom (comp. ylvofiai). A similar remark ap- 
plies to the perfect and pluperfect tenses. %AOI , thus employed, is 
conjugated as a verb with final 2, having for its present, ^0«» £»O0}3 
I am becoming; and for its imperfect, JjBCT »J»»* jLt'tkolSt I was be- 
coming. 

Perfect Tense. 

lA* X**6l %*l I have been (mA , , , „ r , 

V .' .. f t «r>..>4 t ;..| We have 

^ 3»»»«^ W I have been (f.). ^^ •" *• ' been- 



VuoJ3JodrW rhouhast 

** been(f.). 



* been(m.). ^.^ jVrf You have 

Jini*' &-oer JM* Thou hast " ' been - 



^^^"ffiT 



)CL» 7-*OCI Off He has been. 
i> ' 

IX* ^->OC/ wCf She has been. 

Perfect Tense, negatively. 
iA is to be inserted before n*—, and t»OCf comes last in 

order. "We thus have t»O0f tdOu jA Jal. This is inflected 

regularly, except that there is some elision, which has been 
spoken of under the Imperfect Tense. Pronounce leyin 
weya, etc. 

Pluperfect Tense. 
>- w ^-a- «r *»♦ been(m.). , , , - Weha d 



32 

" ' • oeen \ nu h aoer on_>2_.oo7 oxu.2 

ioer JftA- £-oor Jhii, Th ° u hadst OOC7 ^^ fr w j^f 

amv/ w*m* ^a« *-*»♦, been jj . j_ y ou ij a( j been 

^»0T ZIOOT Oof He had been. , '.They had 

zborfc-oer wor^ e e e h n ad ' been - 

Pluperfect Tense, negatively. 
X* is to be inserted before tA*. and t»O0f to be placed 

'' TIT ''Si'" ^ 4 ' 

last. We thus have i-O0f JoCf *A"* *^- The direct form is 

to be pronounced weyin wa, wetan wa, weyil wa, wetat wa, and 
the first person plural weyukh wa. The negative form is to 
be pronounced leyin wa weya, hyan wa wetd, etc. 

Note. — In Tekhoma, the people say ioCf JOCf, which corre- 

i' 
sponds in form nearly to the ancient pluperfect ; but they use it 

rather as an imperfect. 

Future Tense. 

uaer S X\3 "& I shall be (m.). * * i_ < - 

„", " AXIOT TVa bi-4 We shall be. 

^.OOr 113 U? Ishallbe(f.). " ' ' 

Sv-i. V»- Sj^ij Thou wilt 

"< ',mu (m- H u ^i^uoer^ha ^ft-4 Youwiiibe. 
^ow^w.W T b h e - wllt ^ ' "^ ' 

iAOr ^3 OOT He will be. , . 

/ , " m wOer TL3 nil They will be. 

2^eer Via Jer she win be. ' " ' 

II 

Future Tense, negatively. 

This is m»W li» Z*<!, inflected as above in the different per- 

sons and in both numbers. 

Note. — As this future in Syriac is rarely, if ever, used to express 
determination, but denotes only simple futurity, "shall" is employed 
to translate it in the first person, and "will" in the second and third. 
I will be, that is, / am determined to be, would be expressed by some 

intensive, as, e. g. (*Cf *13 9Cf. 



•63 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 

kJBO? I may be (m.). 

, " , <*OCf We may be. 

^-OW I may be (f.). ' 

JftAC? Thou mayest be (m.). ( 

. , " ,, ^tlrfOCf You may be. 

fc*«»*OOf Thou mayest be (f.). ' 

lOO? He may be. { 

/ r wOOf They may be. 

JwOCf She may be. 

Note 1. — The pronouns will hereafter be omitted before the dif- 
ferent tenses, and in all the paradigms. 

Note 2. — This tense with j!i> and Jjk is often very much clipped 

in pronunciation. Thus we hear Joe) Zj>, IOC? !»*, J-OCf }-W, 

ilftO? 1^, etc. 

Imperfect or Pluperfect Tense. 

"Labi a« ^ might be or might 

AOC7 (|«C7 have been (m.). * -. *«^ 

, „ s , OOCf **Of We might be, etc. 

JjHC? LiOOf I might be, etc. (f.). 

iacr^tvacr Thoul ™g htest > 

etc. (m.). - ^ V^o^ you might be, etc. 

iocrJhJocr T S^ ghte8t ' 

ZOCT iOOf He might, etc. s „ > 

•' 00C7 b»OCf They might be, etc. 

JOCf JwOOf She might, etc. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 
uOCT Be thou (m. and f.). ^OJaaOCf Be ye or you. 

General Remarks. 

The preceding verb not only may be an auxiliary to other verbs, 
but is sometimes an auxiliary to itself, e. g. in the imperfect, signi- 
vol. v. 6 



34 



fying / was becoming — l'oC7 ^oJ* lloatfS. So too in the expression 
X-tOVI l&ift 2.0C7 i\ »2 i/ he should not be, or if he had not been, 

iora. 

It may be difficult to account for the precise form of *&->, *VJJut, 

^ a i a i 
etc. It seems, however, pretty clear that they are made up of A, the 

principal letter in lOCT, the old verb of existence, or, better, of O of 

the pronoun OCf , which was used so much in the Anc. Syriac to ex- 
press the idea of existence, having the talkana on it (H. §121,2, c), 
and fragments of the personal pronouns. See in this connection a very 
interesting statement of the relation of the corresponding pronoun 
Nlrt to the corresponding verb !r>ri in Heb. (N. § 647), from which 
it seems certain that they had a common origin. It is not so easy 
to say whence comes the * which precedes. In Bootan, they use for 

the second person plural present ^XV*OCf, which gives us a ■>. It 
can hardly be doubted that Ijw and 2J»»» are really C?J»-» and c£>.». 
As to Jiw, it is probably a fragment of ^Oi2. Compare the an- 
cient »jpa2 »jO>iCf with the modern Ji-» t*&2. The resemblance in 
sound is very striking, and the signification identical. 

CLASSES OF VERBS. 

There are two great classes of verbs in the Modern Syriac, 
which are always distinguished from each other by their 
mode of inflection, and sometimes by their general signifi- 
cation. Each class embraces several varieties. These vari- 
eties might indeed be designated as distinct classes ; but it 
is thought best to enumerate only two classes, because the 
general resemblance to these leading forms is discoverable 
in all the other varieties. 

Class I. Regular Verb. 

The first and most numerous class of verbs has almost 

invariably but three radical letters, as i S^V ^, J3x£, MAB, 

the verbs which respectively denote "to go out," "to finish," 
and "to support" or "prop." The peculiarity in the mode 
of conjugating runs through nearly all the tenses. Verbs 
of this class are usually, though by no means uniformly, 
intransitive. 



35 



Let us take as a model, Jt'lS, which signifies to finish 
(intransitive). 



INFINITIVE 



, idhJ^k to finish. 



Present Participle,%JBb,&a) Per/. Participle, fit ,\ 4, felt i»4 ) 
Finishing. ) Having finished. ) 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 

\Jb - Xtli&Si I am finishing (m.). 

^" " «*' jg kAa We are 

Mid'x±3 I am finishing (f.). ^"* .finishing. 

VlA^^Oiflk3 Thou art finishing (m.). 

<-"!,*' +" Ji*£ tt'i&a J " are 

JiUoJ tt&Aa Thou art finishing (f.). "^ „ finishing. 

J V i XfiAA9 He is finishing. , , , mi 

,7 > > ]uBdhSJ3 She is finishing. " b * 

The present tense of this class is always formed by prefix- 
ing the present participle to the present tense of the verb 
of existence, in its several numbers and persons. The pre- 
sent participle is formed by prefixing short zlama with 9 to 
the first radical, making zkapa the vowel of the second radi- 
cal and also of the third, and adding the quiescent 2 to the 
third radical. 

The present tense of any other regular verb of this class 
may be formed by precisely the same process. 

Note 1. — If the first radical be 3 or S,the sound of the pre- 
formative 3 in the present participle is scarcely heard, though always 
written, and in vulgar pronunciation it is entirely omitted. Indeed, in 
the rapid enunciation of the people, many other verbs, and especially 

those beginning with &B, drop this 3. Thus we have } tt,Kftf3 

anointing, sounded m'shahha, , , ^- l YVT*f becoming meek, sounded 

wJkakha, 2aJM*3 doing, sounded wada, etc. 

Note 2. — This tense is often vulgarly contracted into prakin, pra- 
kan, etc., and the remark applies to any verb of this class. 



36 

Imperfect Tense, 
tact wxi idzAa l was finish " 

*~ rT" **"*„ mg(m.). * A > ^ ,*J. A- We were 

laer oJ iaxtet Iwas fi° ish - oow ^ "" « finding. 

lOCrVuj^. ZfliA3 Thou wast 

« „ finishing(m.). * ^ 'V,- i^i d«« You were 

A* Jfai£ tfia* 5^ "" •*• "**? — » 

laar 1'a'i.^s ** e was ^ n * 

>»W >s*» ishing- , jUvd- They were 

- ii, ,*,J-. h _ She was fin- „ finishing. 

zaer iBxaa ishing- 

From the present tense is formed the imperfect, by add- 
ing the auxiliary Jbw. In the third person singular, iOCJ 
takes the place of Aiw , 1*-, instead of being added to them; 
and in the third person plural, OOC7 takes the place of li*. 

Note 1. — The elision spoken of in connection with the imperfect 

tense of the verb 2O0T to be, takes place here also. Thus, the 

first person singular masculine is pronounced biprakin wa, or prakin 
wa; the first person feminine, biprakan wa, or prakan wa; the sec- 
ond person masculine, biprakit wa, or prakit wa; the second person 
feminine biprakat wa, or prakdt wa ; and the first person plural, 
biprakukh wa, or prakukh wa. 

Note 2. — Instead of this form, we occasionally hear t»^OCJ 

XJBX&31 , in which case m^OOT seems to be equivalent to 20CT »|lw . 

u>^OOT may be thus used with the present participle of many verbs, 

but it is not necessary to allude to it again as a regular tense. 

Preterite Tense. 
uSi.H\^ I finished (m. and f.). ^i.43xd We finished. 

^•OtStiBJb^ Thou finishedst (m.). 

' ' " Jy*aXj3'±£ You finished. 

».Vh U Thou finishedst (f.). 



lS- ff V^ He finished. 

,i m 

Z&&4 She finished. 



r oJS^axd They finished. 



37 

This tense has no preformative letter. A short zlama is 
inserted between the second and third radicals, and the fol- 
lowing terminations are subjoined: u>\, 1 sing. m. and f. ; 

5^j> , 2 masc. sing. ; uA A , 2 fem. sing. ; jA , 3 masc. sing. ; 

JJ>, 3 fem. sing. ; ^*,1 plural; »^AO>2k, 2 plural; »«J>, 3 
plural. 

Note 1. — In Bootan, the third person plural (m. and f.) is 
uJkJB "\& ; and so in all verbs. This usage is not confined to that 
district. We also have sometimes ftAflV^ for ^a>£xd. 

Note 2. — When the last radical is & or a. the terminal ^ is 

dropped. Thus, from t -- V to grind, we find the preterite ••*•- V , 

not ■-^•« --\ • from 9hflM to saw, we have the preterite w3JBU. 

When the final radical is ^ , this is not doubled in pronunciation. 

Thus, from \^,ff to kill, we have the preterite " tV, fT This 
i/V i «' 

rule applies to the preterite of all verbs of both classes. 
Perfect Tense. 

^ ZO-3.^ I have finished (m.). .^ imJLA We have 

^j*- • " finished. 



,_0»» H^J3LSbfl I have finished (f.). 

ied(f.). " ' 

3^. fa. ,\ 4 He has finished. 



W ]k,&* Thou hast finished (m.). , Youhave 

JtUoS &AL9J& Thou hast finished (f.). ~ " ' """ ' * 



zL* ? ti >a 4 They have 

7> > I^BLtXS She has finished. '' ' 

This tense, like the present, is a compound tense, and is 
formed by prefixing the perfect participle to the present 
tense of the verb of existence, exactly as the present parti- 
ciple is prefixed to it to form the present tense. 

The perfect participle, in all regular verbs of this class, is 
formed by inserting * after the second radical, and adding 

2 ' to the last radical, if masculine, or 2X , if feminine. It 
will be noticed that the participle takes 2, in the plural. 



38 



lk«f k' *L« &A Ihadfinish- X. ,. , 

low ^ ^o^xs ed {{x 

* 



Pluperfect Tense. 
I had finish- 

ed (m.). ^ ^j Ub^bA 7?£i 

aish- " XT* - > TT finished, 

ed (f.). 
Thou hadst 

finishedfm.). < ^ jfc; UJL.aA 1°"^^ 
Thou hadst W ** TT finished, 

finished (f.). 
He had fin- 

ished - oaer UJUa^ ^ hey u h 5 d 

She had fin- w • ,, , finished, 

ished. 

This tense is formed by adding the auxiliary %aei to the 

respective persons of the perfect tense; Xacf taking the place 

of JjJ and V& in the singular, and Ji^ in the plural, as in 

the imperfect tense. 

Note. — In pronunciation, the same elision is made as in the im- 
perfect tense. Thus, we have prekin wa, prektan wa, etc. 

Future Tense. 
kJBXS Vl3 I shall or will perish (m.). 4-0*>3 ^9 We, etc. 

>id\S *13 I shall or will perish (f.). 

VVOS^ *h3 Thou, etc. (m.). 

" " ,£>UDaJ&Tft3 You, etc. 

J^CiJaiA TX3 Thou, etc. (f.). 

J3X& ^UJ He, etc. 

ia'Jb i tl3 She, etc. uJt*& ^XS They, etc. 

» < " 

To form this tense in regular verbs of this class, zkapa is 
almost universally used with the first radical, and the sec- 
ond radical is included in the first syllable ; but the third 
person singular masculine is an exception, as the first sylla- 
ble in this case is a simple syllable, not including the second 
radical. The terminations subjoined to the third radical are 

t , lmasc. ; ^, 1 fern. ; A- w , 2 masc. ; «N ( , 2 fern.; the 

vowel — between the second and third radicals of 3 sing. 



masc. 



; ^, 1 pi. ; ^*A- , 2 pi. ; and »-, 3 plural. 



39 

Note 1. — In some parts of Oroomiah and Koordistan, XV3 is con- 
tracted to 3. Instead of a', the termination A is often vulgarly 
given to the first person plural, making it ^UE&S. Instead of the 
termination ^.OXV*, we sometimes hear .^OXIA , making the second 
person plural ,o)C\AXJXS. On the plain of Oroomiah, this person 
is in some villages pronounced AaI\.*£txS, which is probably a 

contraction for +tt,&oX\*JB\a . 
■ i 

Note 2. — Instead of the personal pronouns being prefixed to this 
tense, we occasionally find them suffixed, thus : 

%Ll %JO\S *\3 1st sing. masc. , , . 

,, ". .. . " *J~2 XrDx£ J\3 1st plural. 

Ill JJa'xB 113 1st sing. fem. " ^ 

»jfti2 XOxS nS 2nd sing. masc. 

^il %k"x& Vl3 2nd sing. fem. uj.1 ihdil V\3 3rd plural. 

"We have rarely, if ever, written any of these forms, except for the 
first person singular. If uA, as has been assumed, is a fragment of 
util they, it is often very improperly joined by the ignorant villag- 
ers to a verb in the singular, e. g. w&l JBXS VlS he will finish. 

i a a 

The pronouns may in the same manner follow other tenses besides 
the future. Thus, in the present, we hear %il lA*" J h'+,^1 I am 
finishing, Jtul Vuju %Xt"l&3 thou art finishing. The' accent 
coming before — , lengthens it. Pronounce biprakeyweena. The * in 
uOh* gives the preceding -£- the sound of eg. 

These remarks apply to all verbs. The similarity between the an- 
cient and modern language in respect to these forms is worthy of no- 
tice. Thus, in the ancient, we have %il \%X or Zi^lX , lxi %X£t 
^Lm ^*9dB, etc. The relationship, however, of the ancient to the 

modern language in the inflection of the verb will be discussed far- 
ther on. 



40 

Second Future Tense. 
•* M • A .IV,, I shall have 
,**"* i«™?. ^OaJtfLW^^ 1st plural. 
3^ttu3>£ LoCTTta lstfem. '' ' 

JjdU9h^ Vu»C7 Vl3 2nd masc. « „ „ , 

3^du5^ J*UOC>V« 2nd fern. - ** ' - P luraL 

X0UX& ZOO? Via 3rd masc. , . 

,'' " UJU&S w OCT 113 3rd plural. 

Vtt-»,£ Z^OCT Via 3rd fem. '' ' 

This tense is formed in all verbs by prefixing the first future of the 
substantive verb to the perfect participle. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

The Modern Syriac verb, as used in dependent clauses, 
resembles sometimes the subjunctive of the Latin, French, 
or German, and sometimes that of the English grammarian 
Murray ; but for the sake of greater brevity, not to say sim- 
plicity, these varieties will be considered together under the 
common title of Subjunctive Mood. 

The verb assumes the same form in the present tense of 
this mood as in the future tense, the auxiliary Vl3 being 

generally dropped and 1*07 being added to form the imper- 
fect tense. 

Present Tense. 
*BX& I may finish (m.). 
^Xt'xh 1st fem. 
ZlB JtS 2nd masc. 
uX\JBi& 2nd fem. 
i&"\& 3rd masc. 
tia'xh 3rd fem. 



^J3XS 1st plural. 

JshOUOaJl 2nd plural. 
i 

<+Xt'*& 3rd plural. 



Though this tense is properly used in dependent and hypo- 
thetical clauses, by prefixing XSt or w2 to it, it becomes a 



41 

generic present. The particle JA is used in Salmas and 
Oroomiah, while w2 is the common prefix in Koordistan. 
"We thus have ^JB x3 l> I am in the habit of finishing ; 
t\iV4 %3> I am in the habit of going out, etc. This ZA or w»2 
is used with all the persons and in both numbers. 

On the other hand, *pJt, derived from the ancient *Pi-B, 
prefixed to this tense makes it a preterite, equivalent to 
ulD 'x& , e. g. ^OxB *pM I finished. This is but little used 
out of Oroomiah, and is used there for the sake of euphony, 
in cases where the regular preterite does not readily take the 
suffixes. Thus, eiLMbUGD *pJB I supported him, would be pre- 
ferred to c&l » Aa.ua>. 

When 1^ (not Jj>) is prefixed to this tense, it is also a 
generic present, or a future, the idea being expressed nega- 
tivelv, e. g. 1 > j ^ J9XS A / am not in the habit of finish- 
ing quickly, or / shall not finish quickly. These statements 
apply to verbs of both classes and all varieties. 

Note 1. — In telling a story we sometimes hear a native vulgarly 
use the form £A almost exclusively, as his "narrative tense." It 
seems then to have the force of our English present, " he goes," " he 
tells," " he does so and so," and to the mind of a Nestorian gives a 
sort of vividness to the story. 

Note 2. — Before verbs whose first radical is 2 or *, Jft has the 

s i' 

sound of A with a simple sheva, e. g. .^.2 *.a , pronounced k'atin. 

Second Present. 

%0'xAS a^Of I may be finishing (m.). , , , 

tu . " t " , tishJla fcOCT lstplural. 

XOX&Si (-OCT lstfem. " / 

Ua'x^S VlAOf 2nd masc. 

TJBX&a J*UOff 2nd fern. 

// / 

TLO'iAa ZOCT 3rd masc. 
iJBa&a %L*k 3rd fem. 



iMX&a JACUOC! 2nd plural. 

II I 

zial^a woer 3rd piurai. 



42 

This tense is formed by prefixing the auxiliary, ^*W, ^»ocf, 
etc., to the present participle. 

Imperfect Tense. 
Z'oCT ^Ja'xB I might finish (m.). 

,'- i £- k , , °'°® r 4?'^ lst plural - 

JflCr ^DXS lstfem. ^ 

Z'flOf Vuiiii 2ndmasc. ,. 

. '/ , Ober ^XUOlS 2nd plural. 

laer JlUJ IS 2nd fern. 

JflC? kdJbS 3rd masc. , , , u 

OOCT u»0JbS 3rd plural. 

laCT %h\& 3rd fern. 

With 2A or t-»2 prefixed, this tense denotes a past action 
habitually performed, e. g. 2>A*s 2'ac? kD>S i> Ae was m 

,> IT, II ,' 

(he habit of finishing quickly. So too with X*, the idea being 
expressed negatively. 

Perfect Tense. 
•>''¥*. SV«1 ..mm I may have 

^ j. cr finished(m ., ^^ ^ 

^^ttL&S (-OCT lstfem. '' ' ' 

XBLBbA tlflCf 2nd masc. 
3^t3L:x£ JtCafal 2nd fern. 
XBWX& 1*»CT 3rd masc. 
3a.Bu3^ jioW 3rd fem. 



XttuaJ^ JfruaCI 2nd plural. 
i 1 i i 

J tl, tijA wOer 3rd plural. 



This is formed by prefixing the auxiliary, ^acf, etc. to the 
perfect participle. 



43 



Pluperfect Tense. 
~^ ^ *"?, finished. im I. A A& < U 1st 



}j.tlAd J.9W (Joe? 1st fern. 



iaA4oo6r<,to plural> 



l'tk.3.3 li»C? tVOCT 2nd masc. , ,. , 0n j 

^JflLabS IftCT JlUOCT 2nd fem. ' ' r 

ItJlAS i'oCT low 3rd masc. ...... « s,d 

k*-*3 I'aCI Ua6l 3rd fem. " ' ' P 

t 

This tense is formed by prefixing the auxiliary, liaCf «-?W, 
etc. to the perfect participle. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

hBOSjd Finish thou (masc). , , 

, . . ^OJIOXS Finish ye. 

UbBOJhS Finish thou (fem.). 

The imperative is formed by inserting© between the sec- 
ond and third radicals, and giving the plural its appropriate 
termination. 

Note 1. — Sometimes we have the following imperative : wQCf 
Zfli^.3 be finishing, and the plural XO'i&St ^Q£oeoT ; but this 
is not common. 

Note 2. — When the middle radical is 9, it is not ordinarily pro- 
nounced in the imperative ; e. g. kOAAX, pronounced shook. When 
the middle or final radical is O , to avoid the coming together of two 
O's, one is omitted in writing, e. g. the imperative of tX9.3k.is tXj»V ; 
of OVi it is aVd, etc. 

VERB WITH THE NEGATIVE PARTICLE 7& OR iV 

Only the first person singular of each tense will be given, 
as the other persons can be easily supplied by the learner. 
As every verb in the language makes its negative form pre- 



44 

cisely like »*>^, the subject need not be alluded to here- 
after. 

JJBlAS kdOu Z^ I am not finishing. 

%Bxx3 JflCf »Q-. Z2W I was not finishing. 

»S>OV4 iik I did not finish. 

%B*&J& kJ&S lJk I have not finished. 

Za..n>^ lACT (JX^ iS I had not finished. 



^^ 



I shall not finish. 



t-0 A& *J*il j£ I did not finish. 

Note 1. — For the pronunciation of the imperfect and pluperfect 
tenses, see previous remarks on the elision of Ow. Thus, the imper- 
fect is pronounced leyin wa bipralca, and the pluperfect leyin wa 
preka. 

Note 2. — It will be noticed that the future, in taking the negative, 

drops its preformative AS. Sometimes, however, t-B^S TXSf 1^ 
is used as an emphatic future, e. g. A»ft? *V3 l^O »^<J tCS 3^ 

^ // • ii u u 

neither will I come, nor will I eat. 

Note 3. — The proper negative of k,OJj» >CU) is given above, but 
kJOxS J^ *pJB is allowable. 

" ' Li 

Note 4. — The subjunctive takes !■» before its different tenses, 
which are not inverted. Vulgar usage sometimes employs J^ in- 
stead of %J> with the subjunctive. 

Note 5. — Though the inversion of the present, imperfect, perfect, 
and pluperfect indicative, as a general rule, takes place only with- the 
particle 2Jk, sometimes the inversion takes place without that parti- 
cle. For example, { %iL *£&* VwAw wa k aftfl why are you going 
out? ^^ " " ' 

VERBS USED INTERKOGATIVELY. 

The verb (as in English and French) takes no new forms 
in an interrogative sentence; and the interrogation is known 
only by the inflection of the voice or the sign placed at 
the end of the sentence. 



45 



PASSIVE VOICE. 



This will be most advantageously considered, after we 
finish the paradigms of the Active voice. 

VERBS OF THE FIRST CLASS CONJUGATED LIKE 

It is to be understood that when a verb is marked " 1 or 
2," the verb is either of the first or second class, its signifi- 
cation remaining unchanged. On the other hand, " 1 and 2" 
denotes that the verb is conjugated in both methods, but 
with a change of signification. 

It is not to be presumed that all the regular verbs of the 
first class are given here, or that any of the following lists 
are complete. An effort has, however, been made to collect 
as many of the verbs in common use as possible. 

Although one meaning is placed opposite to each verbal 
root, this is by no means a dictionary. Frequently a verb 
is used in four or five or more significations. Only one, or 
at the most two of these are noted down. 

iXV . 3 to become lean. f *3 to dry (intr.). 

m t t m m i 

!WV9 to thrive. 1 and 2. <k!X3 to kneel. 

• i mi 

93t3 to be scattered. 1 and 2. ifl VI to lighten (flash). 
« // 

•»m i u. i j\ i n Um S to be or become cooked. 
tJBKJ to scatter (seed). 1 or 2. iJ»»3 < , ■ „ 

it 2 5 to be or become useless 
k *TT 3 I or idle. 1 and 2. 

k^ul to conceive. iV*l \ s to fashion ; mingle. 

*& \ t0 nes e s) PreSSed (With bUSi * ***» t0 marr y- 
><H\*1 to bruise, crush. i\>\^ to braid. 

***** Tllndr 11 ' ^ PleMed ' A ^< to blaspheme, lor 2. 
9kA&3 to be devoured. 1 and 2. AXV, to stack up. 

mi 4 4* 

9m3 to diminish (intr.). land 2. OV^A, to move (intr.). 



4G 



3&V, to circumcise. hSf to buy. 

r 4 s (to laugh. The present is w -* . , , ,. „ ,„ 
***V J 6 . , tA3« to struggle (in fight). 

^^f generally ^^-V3. 
A*X, to conquer. 

>*AX , to lose the bark. 1 and 2. 

aaai^ to full (cloth). 

tX^OUk, to grasp firmly, wring. 
AUk, to steal. 
OklV, to snatch. 

ft&Jk, to efface, scrape off. 

• i» < to strip off (as leaves), be 
- TT* I stripped off. 

\>\ to slip. 

kJQftitX. to grind (in a hand-mill). 

*-^ S to shovel off, sweep away 
' ^/^ I (as a river). 



I yl ». \ f to oppress. 
tSn^Of to fill (to the brim). 
*SOf to look sullen. 
ftJOf to sing. 
9J3f to weave, knit 

m i 

f 39 to become ready. 1 and 2. 
fc^ftf to scratch (as a board). 
40f to scratch (with the nails). 
dBftf to rise (as the sun). 



to mix, confuse (tr. and 
intr.). 



idH, to slide. 
tXftX. to draw. 

u-aSft to sacrifice. 
ktl3ft to seize or hold. 

9t9ft to lock, to bar. 

30ft to thresh. 
^OOft to lie down, to sleep. 



iXA— to confine, shut up. 
tft.^— to start (with fear). 

"'tr 

ftftnl* to walk (around). 

ftA— to become white. 
9k>-~ to pound, to beat. 
tU>M to milk. 

i\)S»« to err. 
^U>~ to dream. 



»«J^» to leak (as a roof). 1 or 2. Ait.-- to change (intr.). 



t^Mft to be seared. 1 and 2. 
9J3ft to touch. 

m i 

tXftft to argue. 



V. '' < to squeeze ; to escape. 



1 and 2. 



JUi« to lock ; to set (as fruit). 
iV in i'i to bear, to be patient 



47 



. ^\ ; 



to ask for. 



r u ■ to be or become sour. 

JOAxL \ t0 be or , become rotten ' a^ftiL to sink down. 1 and 2. 

„ £ to putnfy. 7, ▼ 

JO.iL \ t0 c ^f> drown > etc - ( tr - OSaiL to dip (tr. and intr.). 
„ } and intr.). ~~ 

jtffllii.r to prohibit, keep back. 
tJ>JQ3u* to wean. 



3>ffl> in to be deficient, 
ktlaw to embrace. 

!x£J» to dig. 

Smm to reap. 

!XflL< to honor, praise. 

i3>m to spoil (intr.). 

«V3uw to expend. 1 or 2. 
fXw to arrange in order. 

\9lm to scoop out. 
^*3w to be singed. 1 and 2. 
lAXw to grin. 
•JSSwx to be or become sharp. 
ASm to think. 
n»Xd» to be worthy. 
i^sSt** to thresh, pound up. 
/rt^S*» to seal. 
3<Sn to be boastful. 

i».*t\i to crush, break in pieces. 
>»»V| to grind. 



?>\ to drive away. 
iS^V to beat up (as eggs). 
f.3>V to grow fat. 



tXSUk to thrust in. 



to migrate, remove from 
place to place. 



am J to anoint, to paint (as eyes). 
u*. TV .a to be or become faint. 
>V.J>a to seize by violence. 

■£• ii 1. 

kSkAA to split 

Sk U B A to be or become mature. 

>Xva to sweep. 
u* OA to prune (vines). 
S&h k to fold. See \1,B. 
>a fl to be or become hungry. 

9k9kA to deny (as one's religion). 

»3lxi to be or become angry. 
fXSk to thrust through. 

mltA to climb. 

kSkXSk to be evident 

iSfXMSt to write. 

StVa to tie a knot 



48 



<mi*H\ to flash. 

iX3LA to put on (clothes). 
^ti»\ to be fitting. 

A3wk to beckon, wink, etc. 
>»>>> to lick. 



i Vw i l to sift. 

> 9 u> t to be or become ashamed. 
> *VV |i 1 to drop (as water). 
1\pi to keep. 
> Vft »> to pull or root out 



.\mV S to peck up (food) ; to em- 5^ 
> „ } broider. „ 



iV,f SO to mix (liquids). 

to be found. 1 and 2. 



4&SiAB to be or become meek. 

ivV^O to pluck. 
kjy^S to rub off skin, to be bald. 

iNli^b to be or become bitter. 

>iD\*W to scour, to be polished. 

M»T*b to anoint. 

wwIUS to stretch out. 

tSfrlSO to tell a parable. 1 or 2. 

ihuU to bark (as a dog). 

O.Vil to reprove. 

ix V .l to hew. 

AShi to vow. 
>\p\ to pine away. 

90A to shy (as a horse). 



iiimflkl to blow (with the mouth). 

X&l to fall. 

mAi to shake (as clothes). 

t9t*& to plant 

XflU to be slender or thin. 

%JbJL to peck. 

ABil to peck at 

aJ3U to drive (a nail). 

tXBkl to paint 1 or 2. 

iVtt to skin. 

AXl to drain off (tr. and intr.). 

d tit Xl to kiss. 

OAS, to make an onset 

ai*Vi to fall (as leaves). 

aJ3UP to trust 
9b^J(b to worship. 
yS^*** to fill up (tr. and intr.). 



ftfti to abstain from meat, etc. kAJB to be or become quiet 



49 



tSUJGB to plunder. 
fcttMHTC) to redden, blush. 
SbUGB to support, prop. 

t . fll V XP to need. 
>J0>3UC8 to rot. 



^BU»& to reflect. 1 or 2. 
un^A to open out, become flat 

i\ft>fl to be or become crooked. 
4 tjL I to work. Present parti- 
" ( ciple may be Xlj.Vfl. 
i\»1 to go out. 1 and 2. 
**£» to become empty. Iand2. *1& t o be crooked, deceitful. 
b.3j» to wait. j^ t0 fight 

&AO to be or become weary of. . tsv fa to exu i t 
\AXO to be beautiful, land 2. *£& to comlnand . lor2 . 



^XtJUGB to reproach. 
t9aUO to deny. 
33JQ9 to bolt (as flour). 
t V'XHP to scratch, trace. 
iSTblB to suck in. 
hPaU Itt to comb. 
sixMO to undo, pull down. 

90& to do. 

9JUk to pass. 
ulX to spin. 



nmfiUfl to blossom. 

9)9kS to flee (as sleep). 

y.3.3 to fly. 

i y\fl to tear, wear out. 

^9kS to rub, use friction. 

i?2>£ to burst out, to make burst. 

*p~$& to cut 

iJQ>aJ& 5 t0 s P rea ^> as wings (tr. 

„ £ and intr.). 

tXX9 to separate (tr. and intr.). 

> w»t 3 to rend. 1 or 2. 



/OLSK^ See under iXXs , p. 63. iVtiit to stretch (out). 

lit, f* * // 

».**£ to be baptized. *pJ& 5 to . be ° r become B0TT Y- 

' a r « ; 1 or 2. 

a.»il to dwell. UiSjd 5 t0 , be or become straight. 

i, ,, I 1 and 2. 

9J&X. to dig out aJtS to melt (intr.). 1 and 2. 

U33bX to flee. u#h3 to open. 



50 
t^&A to wind (tr. and intr.). T**? to tremble. 



k&£ to scorch, as food (intr.). 
iV flw to squat, 
wiv to be or become mad. 
tSS w to string (as peppers). 

\Sd to receive. 1 or 2. 



frlVft to stone. 

HI, 

kV^ to be numb. 
at, 

w»OS to be broad. 
i Vi inS to run. 

^DU#3 to have mercy on. 1 or 2. 
kfiU*S to be far. 



JJUJ to complain. ^ ^ to ride. Future some- 

m *' ' " 

OA,0 to bury. 

mVP to joint together. 

„_ i. S to be or become holy. 
a * a 5 1 and 2. 



times b*>*1S A3. 
. .; v " • " 

4AS to be or become soft. 

UQ3k9A to kick, stamp. 

Mi 

9U33 to dance. 
>0kX3 to delineate. 

w\3 tO boil. 



<t< ^ < to put on (the outer gar- 
> £ ment). 

iV^fl to kill. 

iA^|W to gather (grapes). 

aXB to turn aside. h B UXX to let, let go. 

S\h J to 1086 *' 16 bark ( as a f^O- dkx to confuse, to be confused. 

„ £ 1 and Z. if- 

', m ? 

iri*^ft to be crushed, to crush. A&X to leap. 

■V »*fa to twist. > »t i to be or become warm. 

S^OJO to pinch. i«» ^ | T to spread out. 

AVJ9 to be wrinkled or puckered. >*i \ »X to pluck. 

.U^i to f n iH 1 or 2 ■-^» S t0 strip off (as one's 

kXa-D t0 told - - 1 or A "*T* J clothes). 1 and 2. 

tSXd to partake of the sacrament. tla . V X to be dislocated. 1 and 2. 

\\h to bite. h b j »X to be parboiled. 1 and 2. 

*5»aJ3 to win ; to overlay. i VVM to break. 

m9J3 to sweep, rake. 1 and 2. m»3lX to overflow ( intr.). 1 and 2. 



51 



ijAX to be or become palsied. »9^X to perish. 1 and 2. 

k&X to level. 1 or 2. JCtmAX to perish, be lost. 1 and 2. 

TbliViT to be pleasing to. mb\ to spill (intr.). 1 and 2. 

>j>,dLX to take. lS\ to mould or be mouldy. 

n ^ii 

#*X 5 t0 bur ^ ( as an «**)• ! **4 JL to meet. 



and 2 
■S a 31 to sag down. 

■ ■ * 

fe3*X to partake. 1 or 2. 

iiDT>t to eat out. 

uknX to transplant. 1 or 2. 

hCHVX to be or become silent 

fcS^V to be or become numb. 

9b3X to break. 
tttl »iX to thrust. 

9AX to remember. 
>i m\ X to fall down (as a wall). 



jCVSX to sneeze. 
ukCJX to weigh (tr.). 

Am* Z 

tVdX to be reformed. 1 and 2. 

» ', 
M\ to crumb up. 

m9\ to be mended. 1 and 2. 

wOSX to be buttoned. 1 and 2. 

^ytVV^ to be or become thick. 
^U to wither (intr.). 

1- m *' 

^XaJaO to press out (Juice). 



Note. — Some verbs of four radicals are included in the above 
list, as they are in every respect regular, except that the second 
radical takes — in preference to -*- (according to the analogy of 
the ancient language) in the present participle. Thus we have 

7*rtSi \jmi3 dreaming, , >>aft,'Vf' withering, ? S. V JJaMlSI press- 

1 a t, 1 1, a 1, i a 

ing out. 

Class II. Regular Verb. 

Verbs of the first class are very often intransitive. On 
the other hand, the majority of verbs of the second class 
are transitive. A number of verbs, which, when conjugated 
according to the first class, are intransitive, when conjugated 
according to the second class, become transitive. For ex- 



52 

ample, > ^> 3, if it conform to the preceding paradigm, de- 
notes to go out; but if it conform to the following paradigm, 
to bring out or to cause to come out. The same is true of 
*09bS : when conjugated as a verb of the second class, it 
denotes to finish, in a transitive sense, or to save. 

It is, however, to be remarked that a few verbs are used 
indifferently as verbs of the first or second class, without 
any change of signification. Thus &£& , following either 
paradigm, is transitive, and means to command. More rarely 
a verb is intransitive in either conjugation, as tiJA? to leak, 

which is properly of the first class, but used in some dis- 
tricts as if of the second class. 

Verbs of the second class have regularly three radicals. 
A io is prefixed to the root in all its inflections by the peo- 
ple of Tiary, Tekhoma, Nochea, and the western slopes of 
the Koordish mountains, but is not heard on the plain of 
Oroomiah. It has been for a number of years omitted in 
our books. 

The rules for the formation of compound tenses being the 
same in all verbs, it is unnecessary to repeat them. The 
two conjugations do not differ in this respect, but in the 
form of the infinitive, the participles, the preterite, and the 
imperative. 

To 1 form the present participle from the root, the first 
radical takes — when the root has — , and - r when the 

root has -f-. If — is the first vowel, O is inserted after the 
the second radical ; and when -$- is the first vowel, • is in- 
serted. The third radical takes — with final 2. We will 

again take wdx£ as the model. 
> it 

INFINITIVE 2-0O9b9tS to save. 

Present Participle. Perfect Participle. 

J49O0J& saving. %OZQj£i, ^yJBSOj^ having saved. 



53 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Present Tense. 

+$* XaOZJS I am saving (m.). , ( t 

; '' , *jO^ IdOOLS 1st plural. 

J^ XOOa^B 1st fern. 

VlOw idOaJ& 2nd masc. ^ , 

" ■' ( j •*"-> IdOaJs 2nd plural. 

JlUO^ ZJ3093 2nd fern. 

jikJ X0093 3rd masc. { „ , . «. 

Zi- XB09J9 3rd plural. 
)£j JiSOaJ^ 3rd fern. 

Imperfect Tense. 
I was saving 



loer ^oJ ZaoaJS (m) _ 

3 savin. 

OOOJ »i>VC WJOaJi 2nd plural. 



. , " , '' , ,. OOOf AJL. UB*a£ 1st plural 

Xatfl ,^-i X0OX9 I was saving (f.). ^ 

2.»©7*XU»w 2d09bS 2nd masc 

Jj»0? J*LO^ U*03L^ 2nd fern. 

jJkCf idOSkJA 3rd masc. , „ , . , . 

, , OOCT ZA09J9 3rd plural. 

ZiBCfJJSOixB 3rd fern. 

The same elision takes place which has been repeatedly 
noticed. We are to pronounce paroohin wa, etc. Notice 
this in the pluperfect. 

Preterite Tense. 

ukbkJOaCkd I saved (m.). kX030b£ 1st plural. 

i a i ' *■ i a i 

^oAoOSOjd 2nd masc. 

^" ,, " ' ^fllOSOi 2nd plural. 

uTkXaaa^ 2ndfem. 

&0»&4 3rd masc. , . 

'' ; ' ^OXaaoS 3rd plural. 

MiOa&S 3rd fern. 

This is formed like the corresponding tense in verbs of 
the first class, except that A is inserted after the first radical. 



54 

Perfect Tense. 

UXrf 2>0aO»S I have saved (m.). 

, " , . ' 4JO^ %a»0& 1st plural. 

^- JjJSaaS 1st fern. ^ 

VtOu JJjiObA 2nd maso. ,,_ . . 

," , ' *«>«- JUSaaS 2nd plural. 

uVldOu £j&o4 2nd fern. 

li^ 2J3ao4 3rd masc. , ^ . „ 

J ' J.J- 2J3a&S 3rd plural. 

jiLT 2^0a&4 3rd fem. 

The perfect participle is formed by inserting O after tlie first 
radical, and giving the last radical the vowel -*- with final 2 . 

Note. — In some cases, — is inserted between the second and 

third radicals, as, for instance, 3jL»OJI having envied. This vowel 

always appears in the feminine participle. 

When the root takes -'- instead of -^-, the perfect participle, 
with scarcely an exception, takes this — between the second and 
third radicals, and the same vowel appears also in the future ; as 

lJmmJ 113 / will envy. By inspecting the catalogue of verbs of 

this class, it will be seen that this usage is founded on the principles 
of euphony. For example, verbs whose second and third radicals are 
the same, take this vowel ; and also verbs whose middle radical is O . 

If it should be objected that tSOX to repent, and similar verbs, with 

radical O, have -*- in the root and — in the perfect participle, it 
may replied, that, although -*- is written in accordance with the 
rules of the ancient language (Hoff. § 12, 1), the sound is that of 

-;-. ThusioJi, iVj>f. 

Pluperfect Tense. 

OOOr ^Bu Xa'^oA 1st plural. 

OOCT «jokC )L0aad 2nd plural. 



%aai »iu ]^0a&4 1st fem. 

XaUI^ClA* ikyoA 2nd masc. 
a i 

IOC? JkLOu 5^0aO-^ 2nd fem. 
JjOCT UO^oA 3rd masc. 
iatn Js-OaCkd 3rd fem. 



OOCT 2A3ȣ 3rd plural. 



55 

Future Tense. 
JBX& VlS I will save (m.). <J3a.3 Vl2» 1st plural. 

This is inflected like the corresponding tense of the first 
class. Those verbs, however, which have -'- in the root, or 
-- in the perfect participle, have the same vowels here also ; 

e. g. !»*•*> to return (tr.), cause to turn, has its perfect par- 
ticiple 2990M , and its future »? V» ****• 
Second Future Tense. 
Zflio^ oof *ta 1 shal i !* av ? 

*"~ a ""^ *-*?"" saved (m ) - _. * ; t 

, ' ," ,. " savedW - loao^ <,bcr < ha istpiur. 

3^a»O.B ^.OCf TCV3 1st fem. .' > / 

^a^cr^o 2nd masc . 

5^J»ia^ J^OOrVV3 2nd fem. " ' ' " plura1 ' 

** II I I II 

iOSO^ lOW Vl3 3rd masc. . ^ , . 

' /' " UlioA uborVl3 3dpIur. 
iLa*&& JJOCT 113 3rd fern. 

// * II 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present Tense. 
^BaJ& I may save (m.). ^P^ 1st plural. 

This is inflected like the corresponding tense of the first 
class, and takes -J-, as well as --, between the second and 
third radicals, whenever the future takes them. 

Second Present Tense. 
2»BOXS kOOf I may be saving (m.). , 

'!.«,,«"< lOOSbS ^aor 1st plural. 

JJBOXS ^.OCff 1st fem. v 



l*JOaj£ VlOCPf 2nd masc. 

I* // 

ZUOaJ^ JkUOOr 2nd fem. 

XB09kS JdOOf 3rd masc. 
i* 1 1 

JJJOaJi J^OOT 3rd fem. 



2J30X& ^)VU0er 2nd plural. 
JJBOaJa wOOT 3rd plural. 



56 

Imperfect Tense. 

JMOI kilXS I might save (m.). OOW <fcOa>9 1st plural. 

This is inflected like the corresponding tense of the first 
class. Like the present tense, its vowels depend on the 
vowels of the future, to which they always conform. 

Perfect Tense. 

Ia's&s on l ma J\ have 

wa r *-? W saved (m. . »-i^A < > , , , , 

, . ' , f JJBaOJS fcOOr 1st plural. 

fcXtSaJa ^>001 1st fern. , , / 

Ulia^ Vt*C? 2nd masc. . ,« , 

, " , JJfeflLS ^OTUOCT 2nd plural. 

%JBSaA JlUOer 2nd fern. " ' 

JJ&oA XaCI 3rd masc. . , 

' , '' , ZOSAS wOCJ 3rd plural. 

Jj^ttSO^ lifter 3rd fern. " ' 

a i 

Pluperfect Tense. 
Xa'zoA low oct l mig }} have 

Mmm , *" w **f w saved (m -V 
2^03O*S ZicT ^.OW 1st fern. 



saved (m.). J* ^ 00 ^ 0W ^ 



2J03OJ9 2j30T *tl*k 2nd masc. . , „ ,. , 2 d 

«« " m. .« - *_' * .7 """" •J"*-'"" plural. 

VBSOd^aer JlUOOr 2nd fern. ' ' ' 

XahaA i*V\ %ak 3rd masc. . , ^ , 3rd 

„s ■ ^««^.5 * *T", •••"" ■»"■ "i plural. 

&0»ftS JjOW 2-ftOT 3rd fern. ' ' r 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 
U99bS save thou (in.). ..tt.B JV . 4 j 

'.' ^ ' or . i* r save y e - 

ujaaJa save thou (f.). „ a&voaJa 

It is to be particularly noted that the verbs marked i in 
the following table make the plural imperative by simply 

adding -^ to the singular. Thus, .jm* 9 envy ye, » ffiSft\ , 



57 

answer ye, etc. The second form given above, » j > MUB93 , 
may be used with other verbs, but is not so common, and 
is now omitted in our books. iVHI^i forms its imperative 
plural thus : »j>\'Tl\^ . 

VERBS OF THE SECOND CLASS CONJUGATED LIKE 

Note. — r, following a verb, shows that it conforms in every re- 
spect to wBXS ; i, that it takes -'- in the present participle, — in 

the perfect participle, etc. Verbs are not repeated in this table 
which are used as verbs of either class, without a change of signifi- 
cation, and which have been given already in the first table. 



ft>>3 to cultivate, r 

"V 


mVy to strip off bark, r 


S9hS to scatter (tr.). r 


JBMftX^to spy out. i 
a i% 


m 1 

SA9 to glean, i 


■■4* 

k99bX^to tempt, r 


>Vim*1 to envy, t 


iNlij^to wallow, i 
a i 


• * 

fXw>SI to search, r 


OUk to be dizzy, i 


iVVy*l to render vain or idle. 


r kflLxi^to look, r 


^lfft*1 to heal, r 




9JQ30 to deflour. r 


ObSISt to support, nourish, r 


• * 

3m3 to degrade (tr.). r 


*Wj> to lie. r 


oJtiS to ask a question, r 


MA to sear, r 


<«9b9 to bless, r 
iJ«3t3 to cook, r 
9bX9 to do skilfully, r 


»»^flf to provoke, i 

• * 

MCT to make ready, r 

9m 07 to help, i 


S\V to wrangle, r 

ii" %■ 


►SOCf to believe, i 


iSJOA^to answer. » 


wtgOJf to beget, r 


VOL. V. 


S 



58 



J9f to sell, r 09*39 to find time ; to supply, r 

tm 5 ml 

tXOf to join. » 3)339 to return (tr.). t 

ft^f to disturb, be disturbed, i itnn'W to love, i 

n i 

,< \ to defile, or become defiled, ^ ^_ ^ , 

t**^ with milk, etc., during fasti *-?* to heat ( tr -)' * 

f 3f to prepare, r 



i\i*t »i to incite, r 
i\3U< to become cold, r 
0J3U* to ask after one's health, r 
Tl9ww to renew, i 
^CLihutw to rule, r 
>J » J»*» to wash, i 
kJ>N to be or make strong, i 
kkA*» to escape, r 
<?9m» to singe, r 

i \ to play, r and i 

*^- V to indulge, i 
SVlV to bury, r 

3.33k3 to drive away, r 
tSAd to hem ; to brush up. r 
^•ftaik to roll up. r 

rto carry (away), r 



^.3333 






V*V J This root is also JkJ O , iSjVl39 

i L iX!3ba,or Xau. 

, > , V to blot, t *7* to ^e (the dead), r 
^ii i " 



to find, r 
)0A!Kt to blacken (tr.). i 
ySQA&O to cover, shut, r 

i&a.'an to bow (tr.). / 

// i 
itSi^l> to pay a debt, i 

ka\fO to teach, r 

to smell, i 

to nurse. £ 

^3UQMa to apply (attention), i 

tBUBMa to cause to ascend, r 

i»AY> to cool (tr.). i 
a i 

lyWB to burn (tr.). r 

^irtlrt to raise, i 

"VWlfl to chisel out. i 
n i 

>3t,ttft9 to cool (tr.). i 
n i 

V>.B3a to cause to hit. i 
^Jiia to lift up. r 
•VXSO to kindle (tr.). i 
to place, r 



59 



fc da J B B to empty (tr.). r 

\MS O to ornament, r 

XVdLCO to maim, i 
a i 

\3\ S t to wonder, r 

*V^- to vex or be vexed, i 

t*T? I 

AO>9 to gape, i 
a i 

tJkMaS to atone, r 

9bS>S to muse, r 
i\>\4 to bring out. r 
k-^k*S to cut out. r 
tVpkS to gaze at. r 
iX)T*\ to stretch out r 
ktlXS to translate, r 

9kXS to chew tlie cud, to digest, r 



i J>3h 3C to entice, r 

»XX to be or become foolish, i 
fi i 

3XX to send, r 
aIAX to long for. i 

!X3>X to praise, r 

i»VX to strip, despoil, r 

>j»j>X to be or become quiet, i 
a i 

t3kJ»X to dislocate, r 

>.dljiX to parboil, r 
n 

iXiftX to perform a burial servicer 

klX to be or become peaceful, i 

nmSUX to make overflow, r 

f 9lX to be acquainted with, i 
a i 

• m I 

«?9tX 



^A, 



* a i 



to be partaker, r and t 



to be or become sober, i 



hS3f» to refine, i 
"> 

^X0 to anticipate, r 

>3CXB to make holy, r 

>\ft.H to promise, t 

^4qJB to happen, i 

SU) to look, r 

t&Vfl to peel, r 

mU9 to squeeze in. t 
^ a i 

m i 

>imi31iX to glorify, r 



t30X to repent, i 

tfiuVX to cause to perish. ;• 

bdL \ X to destroy, r 
i 

^3tS0X to finish. 2 
« i 

u*iiV to sigh, r 
J U C PX to prop, r 
umSS. to spill, r 
tX3X to abandon, r 

> s 

w3\. to make, r 
kSSX to button, r 



60 

A verb of four radicals may follow this paradigm, e. g. 
^09 to shed tears; X being regarded as a quiescent. A 
few of the above roots beginning with da are really causa- 
tives, a weak radical, as, for instance, 2 in the case of AaJW , 
having fallen out. The rules for the formation and conju- 
gation of causatives will be considered hereafter. 

Irregular Verbs of the First Class. 

First vawjktt. First radical 2. Root <Xa'2 to eat. 

it 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 

JSh* JmJS I am eating (m.> , 

I, t ,; " «A- 2W9 1st plural. 

.^ VkA)a 1st fem. ^ * '* 

m 1* 

t\AL* ,?V>?"1 2nd masc. , , , 

", „ \ - ^V^ ikaJS 2nd plural. 

JfcdOu yLaiS 2nd fem. ' '* 
< • 1' 

1^ &&X2 3rd masc* .»*.#*. 

■' * - ii- JiAjS 3rd plural. 

J& Ma 13 3rd fem. ' " 

• i* 

The only irregularity here is owing to the 2. This is 
heard but faintly, if at all, and the — is lengthened to — . 

Imperfect Tense. 

XOCI ^ j£aj3 I was eating (m.). OOC7 <fcOw J&ijS W ^ e 

Preterite Tense. 
tJkaj I ate. *ajtf We ate. 

Perfect Tense. 

^ iiL4 I have eaten. ^ *-* ™f 

The perfect participle, by the aid of which this tense is 
formed, is regular ; but the first radical is silent, as well as 
in the preterite. 



61 



Future Tense. 
The future tense is regular, and the imperative also, ex- 
cept that in the latter the 2 is not sounded. It is written 

u^OJSk2 eat thou, „ g . A 0. a 2 eat ye. 

Note. — It will be understood, both in regard to this and the fol- 
lowing varieties, that those tenses which are not mentioned are per- 
fectly regular. 

LIST OF VEEBS WITH INITIAL 2. 

a©2 to enter. *^f£ to go. tflUtP Z to go tip. 

it a a 

3l3o2 to say. 9dBB$ to bind. tXJj2 to cool (intr.). 

#/ « // 

The verbs »o'2 and 9£o2 are entirely regular ; i. e. they 
conform to the preceding paradigm. The same is true of 
kAf'2 , except in the future, where ^ is for the most part not 
sounded (see Hoff. § 27, 4, a), and in the imperative, which 
is if in the singular, and »J*ao2f in the plural. Compare 
the imperative of the same verb in the ancient language, 
»^f , **Af , etc. In the modern, we often hear 4f»0-V2# go 
thou, just as ^V k^f in the ancient, and St?""-!,? in the He- 
brew. This suffix is used with the imperative of but few 
verbs ; e. g. i'HV^ , i k J UX , JjiX etc. The idiom will be 
referred to farther on, when the relation of the modern to 
the ancient verb is discussed. 

Future Tense of **>'2. 

tXfi s na i win go (m.). 

V'SV.1 , , **W «» 1st plural. 

^f2 1X3 1st fern. ^* 

Vlikt? , XV3 2ndmasc. ,. 

v_ iw"*. t " ^XUjkf 2 , *UI 2nd plural. 

JhAf2 TRS 2nd fern. ' » 

i\f 2 ^13 3rd masc. 5 

.4<"«. *_" u«2m2 n3 3rd plural 

%Hfi T03 3rd fem. ' 



62 

Note 1. — With a negative preceding, 2 is not sounded in com- 
mon conversation (e. g. &f} 2^)> an & three syllables are reduced 
to two. 

Note 2. — In Bootan, we have the following form of the future, 
which is well worthy of a place in our grammar, as it throws light 
on the relation of the ancient to the modern language. 

t Af I Via 1 sing. (m. and f.). iif } S X\3 1st plural. 

/ // ' i' i a 

tyO^kfi Via 2nd masc. 

' ,, " «. " »^*O^W "3 2nd plural. 

»3J>f 2 Y19 2nd fern. 

» « 

Aft "3 3rd masc. 4.« « ' 4_ 

' „ . " u^fi "3 3rd plural. 

22kf£ *V3 3rdfem. 

Note 3. — On the plain of Oroomiah, the verb «X*»A is generally 
used instead of Af2 in all the tenses of the indicative, except the 
future, and in the imperative. The present tense is ^Ow , lil — >^l 
(in some villages *A* JJLLjSt ), the preterite A i U , the perfect 
^OwZXm* , and the imperative J6A >. . This is no doubt the an- 
cient &+A to crawl, and, sometimes, to wove one's self. We occa- 
sionally hear in the mountains the future l&m> Vl3 . It would 
have been better to write the preterite uMm) , and the perf. part. 
Z X >^<a , had the thing been originally understood. As to the drop- 
ping of 9 , compare ^Su» with the ancient JSu» , iJau< a , and the 
corresponding words in Hebrew. 

In regard to XOl, J&SD}, and Afi2, there is some ques- 
tion whether they should stand here, or be classed with the 
second variety. If we regard the usage on the plain of 
Oroomiah only, it would seem that they ought to be con- 
sidered as verbs with medial 2. The present participle 
is almost always spoken in this province as if written 

2 5 aJjM, Ulltoa, and ISUtta, i. e. like JJtlAj; and the 
futures are often *3»*A> *V3 , u, bU B > x\S, JLtJQ &S , i. e. like 



63 

bt>4 *13 . On the other hand, the usage in Koordistan 
makes them regular verbs with initial 2, like »i«A2. The 

ancient root of !>J»2 is also 9tXB2. We have therefore pre- 

ii i a *■ 

ferred to class them here. It should not be unnoticed that 
when »-S»<iP Via, etc. are not used in Oroomiah as the fu- 
tures of these verbs, we have instead « j > tt > *UI , Ulftu «3 , 

etc. 

Second Variety. Middle Radical 2 or >*. 

The middle radical in this variety inclines sometimes to 
2, and sometimes, especially in Koordistan, to the sound of 
.» . (See Hoff. § 33, 3, b.) Nordheimer is probably correct in 
saying (§ 397), in regard to such verbs, that the root prop- 
erly consists of two strong immutable consonants, in which 
the fundamental idea of the verb is contained; and that 
between these a weak letter is inserted to complete the usual 
form. This falls out often, as will be seen hereafter, in the 
causative form, and always in the reduplicated form. 

For the sake of uniformity the roots are now all written 
with medial 2. 

Take for example Jtls to remain. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 
bAx ZXfcSt3 I am remaining (m.). AA d jJCjJaJI We are remaining. 

This is regular, if we consider * the middle radical. 

Preterite Tense. 

i>Vt4 I remained (m. and f.). k\j!,3 We remained. 

i a ^ i a 

Whether the second radical here be called 2 or * , it is not 

at all sounded, and instead of n\a>.& or ■■V«;>4, we write 

Axd. 

Perfect Tense. 
uOm %X*ft I have remained (m.l €[■ ft. i 3 T n,fl We have remained. 



64 

The participle, which would regularly be ZX m4 or }&* %&, 
is contracted into ZX*d, the feminine of which is &JUA. 

Future Tense. 

h it »3 <V9 I shall remain (m.). , , 

" . " ASUS IIS 1st plural. 

w3US 1\3 1st fem, ^ 

X13US nS 2nd masc. ,. 

.;',." ^OT\a.,a IUI 2nd plural. 

Jfcliu& IU9 2nd fem. 

»XZ3 ***» 3rd masc. «, « 

s ", " wJU4 Tft3 3rd plural. 

2jL3 IU9 3rd fem. 

The vowel -*- here forms a diphthong with the following 
■> , excepting in the third singular masculine. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 
*Xjo£ remain thou. jaJLAtd remain ye. 

Here the middle radical falls out, and we write as above, 
instead of tXo,7i4 or > 1 A> 4 . 

VERBS FOLLOWING THE ANALOGY OF »XiS. 

i' 

3AV, to make water. t \? i*» to sew. 

a t, ' » 

( 4f%** to curry (a horse). 

^jfcj to judge. " , 

'Jt%+* to be or become hot. 



JO 2? to make fine or small. 
// 

sla to return. 
tX}& to tread. 



k£%J» to bathe (of females). 
a 

m ', 

9 Am to look. 
SA* to venture. 



92f to increase. 

B2f to swell. 3]ik to invite. 



65 



f %9> to scratch. 
>V?A to measure. 
'piA to be or become black. 
i^,7 *T> to bow. 

9jA to be alienated. 
tXlA to be paid (an account). 

•\ to curse. 
"TAI^k to blame. 
Jtjjf to make dough. 

*»Z50 to suck (the breast). 
VlJJ» to die. 

m»m to rest 
^1* to nod. 

SXi to sting, to bite. 

iSjJtO to be or become old. 
^SlCD to ordain. 

»ZX to weed. 
>J)lX to be or become narrow. 

w»Zs to be or become cool. 
&2uS to lose the savor. 



9 13 to dawn. 
» 

9Jw to hunt or fish. 

^S^£ to fast 

kS^M to drain off (intr.). 

*l jv to listen to, to obey. 
ii^ 

>i»i»7.H to fade (as grass). 

^3JJ3 to rise. (Imp. *pQJB .) 

wU to bruise or become bruised. 

* • ^ 

910 to chisel out. 
» 

\%JB to hit 
a 

^fl^a to be high, to rise. 

tJCBJ9 to sprinkle. 

hB^9 to spit 

» « 

felX to go down (as a swelling). 

«SlX to rub. 
wPlX to long for. 
9lX to kindle. 

&J<S. to fasten (the eyes). 
^SjiS. to finish (tr. and intr.). 
9 }\ to come to one's self. 



9^9 is almost always on the plain of Oroomiah pro- 
nounced in the present as if written #t}$>2. In some dis- 
tricts it is regular. 

VOL. V. 9 



*3ji^ to be worth, as spoken, is quite anomalous. The 
present participle is VA^S; the preterite, »Vi< V ; the per- 
feet participle, Jia^; the future, ^sJy'ha, ( > "*% *tf»; the 
imperative, tSoJL. 

•£» has its future often, perhaps generally, irregular: 
Jii- «3 . In the third person singular masculine, it has 
aJ»«XV3. Its present participle is 2a*3. 

JSZa has its present participle XttHXS, and, were it not for 

its etymology, might be classed with verbs with initial 2 . Its 

future is also sometimes h03>{ *13 . 
v » » 

VERBS WITH MEDIAL X. 

Under this variety may properly come verbs with medial X . 
They differ somewhat, but not essentially, from the preced- 
ing. Take, for example, i*^»\ to thrust in. The present 
participle is j^AtVyl (a) or l ^VVyt (b). The preterite is 
iji».V>$y ; the future, ^i*» ^^y ; the imperative, g <*^\ • 
Some of these verbs have two forms of the present participle, 
marked (a & b), some only one. In Koordistan, the future 
is not <y yJ k ^ )&&, but \\f^\ *** • 

Like y ^\ f , inflect 
V\X» to sweat (a & b). 9JkA to hew (a & b). lik^Ji to tremble (6). 
yt^Sn to taste (a & 5). *P±& to shut (a). AXS to rouse (6). 

^«\ to bear (a & 6> ifltM 3 (J'&J)?* «4>X to cough (o & 6). 
A^ to fold (a). »lytodam(a). A^^^^^d 

Third Variett. 

This variety is characterized by the transposition of * , 
which is sometimes the first and sometimes the second 
radical. 



67 
Example, JSuk* to learn. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 

UBu j£u>a I am learning (mA <tbJ .lAtVI We are learning. 

It will be seen that this tense is perfectly regular, except 
that * becomes the second, instead of the first, radical. 

Preterite Tense. 

wiAv.'i I learned (in.). IiVASm We learned. 

i a ^ i a 

Here .» becomes again the first radical, and is silent. 

Perfect Tense. 

*0u 3 A*j «j I have learned (m.). t , . , 

," ^MOu ZSuA- We have learned. 

^ iaA.S.1 I have learned (f.). '' ' 

The only irregularity is that the first * is not sounded. 

Future Tense. 

t&Xl S Xia I shall learn (mA ^AW S Kia We shall learn. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

>aO>J>> Learn thou. > jB>flft\.i Learn ye. 

It will be seen that the * is not sounded here. 

Note. — In some villages, and perhaps districts, the future is spoken 
like the future of verbs with medial 2 or * : thus, i^-V «3 , etc. 
If this were generally the case, we should with propriety call this 
one of that class of verbs, its root being i5K.> , its present partici- 
ple, preterite, and perfect participle, being written like the correspond- 
ing forms of iXjLS . Indeed, there is no special objection to writing 
them so now, and considering the future irregular, as generally spo- 
ken. We should then have the preterite uJiAj , and the perfect 

4. A I II 

participle , 7 i " > ■ . These remarks apply also to the verbs which 
follow. 



i^9t* to bring forth (young). <*X* to lengthen or be long. 

u mr u 

»Jk» to hasten. Xl&* to inherit. 

W i V. i to be distressed. diC to sit. 

IJ bttLi to born. 

Fourth Variett. Third Radical 2. 
Example, 2a» to pour. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present Tense. 
+$m» J-AX3 I am pouring (m.). <*Ow 2-»A&3 We are pouring. 

This tense is regular, with the exception that, two alephs 
coming together, as in 22&9J9, according to the analogy of 
the ancient language, 2 is changed into * . 

Preterite Tense. 
uJSk&A I poured (m. and f.). k^Sft We poured. 

The radical 2, when it becomes a medial instead of a final 
letter, as in this tense, ought, according to the analogy of 

the ancient language (see Hoff., paradigm of U&„), to be 

changed into *. This, however, is not the case. The 2 

serves merely to lengthen the preceding — into — , and, 

being itself not heard, is not written. Thus, instead of 

iA^m , we have uutaa . 
< a • •• 

Perfect Tense. 

% ^w ]«M I have poured (m.). 

", ,, . " ^Ow JmtM We have poured. 

„jft«» 5^»*? I have poured (f.). ■' " 

Instead of the regular perfect participle, which would be 
2L.3S , the first and second radicals take — and form one 
syllable, the 2 being changed into *, as in the present par- 
ticiple. 



Future Tense. 

J$% ^ I will pour (m.). 

, ." , . " «W» 5R3 We will pour. 

^»»» 113 I will pour (£> -/ 

The first syllable of this tense, in the masculine singular 
and the plural, is simple, not including the second radical ; 
and the third radical 2 is dropped, except in the third per- 
son singular masculine, 2»9, where it appears as the final 
letter. In the feminine, 2 is changed into * . 

IMPEBATIVE MOOD. 

This is quite irregular, making *09tS the standard ; but 
in the singular it is exactly like the ancient. In the singu- 
lar, 2 becomes * ; and in the plural, it is dropped: 

w33 Four thou. * O£033 Pour ye. 

VERBS FOLLOWING THE ANALOGY OF 2»». 

As a number of these verbs are both of the first and sec- 
ond class, they are noted here just as in the table of regular 
verbs of the first class. 

2X3 to rave, talk wildly. ZftVY, to vomit. 

%AS to weep. ?9t£, to flow (out). 

I 1 I' % 

jUkU to wear (out) (tr. and intr.). 

JLiS to build, to count 
i< 

2 ail to create. 



• ^t 5 to be or become pure. 
*7? } and 2. 

ZttS to resemble. 1 and 2. 



2A97 to become. 

i 1 

Z*C? to be pleasant to. 



£xV, to foam up. 1 and 2. 
i 1 

7*t\^ to beg, be a beggar. 

^ | ^ and 2. beC ° me " aked ' ty t0 Crack <•** & lass > ( intr 0- 
ZUk, to lean (down). %X§ to commit adultery. 



70 

J9h» to rejoice. Jm6 to fill (tr. and intr.). 

}%** to see. 2lj0 same as Zl£l , to count. 

•• .' #• 

7 V iiii to sin. JJQXSO to trash (clothes). 

.' i 1 

7 V»< to be or become sweet }*&0 to be able. 

|Mu< to keep (intr.). 1 and 2. XXiO to wipe, 

i' i» 

U« to be supported (by). ( 

* }SA to leap. 

}Sy» to incubate. ' > 

|| , idJ> to butt 

{9y« to go to stool. ' t 

7JU to forget. 

XftV to broil (intr.). 1 and 2. 

-^ t ' 7 '' "HP to bathe. 

7>Vi to sleep. ■■ 

«■ 4.'* 7Vfl> to dart, 

f X^r to drive (an annual). < <T 

, ' * * XMUOa to be or become blind (reg.). 
7*» V to be or become hid, land 2. ■• > 

7 MP to hate. 

7 A A to be seared. 1 and 2. , * ; 

>' _, aSJCO to dip out (as water), land 2. 

?V^ to stop. ,. « 

>' j9JCB to be or become bad. 

?V>% to go out (as fire). 



,i ii. 



le*k $ to be or become covered, j^ t0 De difficult 1 and 2. 
' ~,~~ I 1 and 2. -y 

?£v£k to be or become short ^5^ to rain. 1 and 2. 

i 1 i' 

T«l»4 < to be or become covered. 

" I land2 ' )i& to search after. 

&T> t0 la P U P' )L& to separate (intr.). 1 and 2. 

7A£ to devour greedily. jjj* to be delivered. 1 and 2. 

*** to lap (reg.). ^ to buIgt out 

%—la to strike. TJtS to be lukewarm. 

jS'n to arrive. i<» to be or become broad. 



71 



4 £ mi 

Z^t* to descend. 1 and 2. Jj** to be or become drunk. 

*^i S t0 lnad2 beC ° me Clea "' *»» to pour out, run out 

2a L to rend. Z^S 5 to be ° r become loose; 

T ,. 5 ^7 ) and 2. 



Z3U3 to gather (tr. and intr.). ZSJC, to be like. 1 and 2. 

%AJB to be or become hard. %A, X to be spread. 1 and 2. 

.' i' 

^V fl S to parch (as corn) (intr.). i< 4 t0 sag- 

XSOJO to scorch (intr.). 1j»X to be or become quiet, 

i' i i' 

%UB to gain. %i*X. to faint. 1 and 2. 

%La to gripe. %Lk J ^l' become loose - * 

2^0 $ t0 (b b e r ^' t0 be broken 2ft* to drink. 

.1 $ 

4X0 to call, to read. * « 

•' Z^X to suspend. 

1^ it J to be or become thick or >' 

I hard - %ik to repeat 1 and 2. 

*• 

MkJS to be or become weary. X&b. to stick (intr.). 1 and 2. 

i* i ,» 

233 to be pleased with. 2iX to be or become wet 

iVbfes on <Ae Preceding List. 

Z*Cf is quite irregular, and, were it not for its derivation, might 
perhaps better be written 2cjA . The present participle is 2*0(49 ; 
the preterite, UkSofA ; the perfect participle, Z->OfA ; and the future, 

?VV| . The future feminine of this verb is either t \ or 

^*ha. So Hoi, %**,&&, ixk, Zxa.Zaxo.andZl?, 

all of which have -'- in the root. 

2t*!0. This is sometimes, though vulgarly, pronounced in the 
present J«mM9 , and in the preterite u >>*& » , as if from wZto 



72 

to suck. The future, or rather the present subjunctive, with %A pre- 

ceding ( ^k*&0 A* ), is generally pronounced Team sin. 

Those of the preceding verbs which have medial A, make their 

f f * 

perfect participle irregularly, as 1*0*0 from %A JO, except l*Cf, 

the peculiarities of which were noted in the first paradigm. 
Fifth VAMETr. Third Radical X. 

Root iVfrUT to hear, 
it 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 

bXL» % tS MX3 I am hearing (m.). feOw XiSJJXUJ We are hearing. 

* // I II ' I It 

The present participle is only irregular in this, that the 
third radical, being a quiescent, coalesces with the preced- 
ing vowel, and * is then inserted, which takes the final 2 *. 
We, however, often hear i VWTI , and the infinitive > l . »l\ , 
which should not be considered a vulgarity, as it is nearer 
the ancient language than the ordinary form. 

Preterite Tense. 

>AAMOC I heard (m. and (.). SSMX We heard. 

t a ^ t a 

Perfect Tense. 

uOb* / UVttT I have heard (m.). t ^ 

t", t , 4tOu jjAjBJt We have heard. 

.^* V»S>aaX I have heard (f.). ' 

The perfect participle takes — as the vowel of the first 
syllable, which includes the second radical. The X is not 
sounded, and the last syllable is jU. 

Future Tense. 

i\Klt ZU9 I shall hear (m.). 

'; ,. " «h&*« AS We shall hear. 

^VMtf, AS I shall hear (f.). ^ 



73 

The peculiarity of the future consists in this, that the 
second radical is pronounced as if doubled, the first So be- 
longing to the first syllable and the second to the second 
syllable. The X affects the adjacent vowels, but is not 
sounded separately. This peculiarity is not found through- 
out Koordistan. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

i> i Ma Hear thou. .jmVMJt Hear ye. 

Like i S i UM , conjugate 
tX§9 to bore (a hole). lidi to bubble up. 

"I II I r 

A j >3 to swallow. . > 

" ' A3 L B P to be satiated. 

h i 

> V M ^X, to assemble (intr.). land 2. . u 

" *' " tXMS to step, march. 

4. • 4' II I 

it> "VX^o shave. •. 

" • kXSLS to crack (intr.). 

» i 
$ m i. 

<X3f to fear. i\*\^ to recompense. 

7/ it i 

. ■ i 
«X99 to sow. , 

" ' wIm to dye. 

i V MU« to ferment. . , 

m " / t\\t1 to break off (tr. and intr.). 

iSifltV to sink (intr.). 1 and 2. 

n u -i net- j- ^3A- to adhere to. 

m , C to be sick. Of four radi- « / 

^^J fn^™?^' 6XCept A.»N to make a breach. 
1 ' ( in the root. „ , 

Notes on the Preceding List 
tXAf in the future feminine follows the paradigm of the fourth 
variety, thus: kXifVuj, J±.*f 'tlSt. The masculine has not the 
peculiarity of sound of ^SOOX. All the preceding verbs except 
'i "3 , and even this in some districts of Koordistan, may in the 
same way take * in the future feminine, 
rot. t. 10 



74 

The perfect participles of >. S » !> . 1 and SJX / O have sometimes been 

written ,T«V30a and 2*&OMJtB , to express more exactly the sound ; 

but there is not sufficient reason for this deviation. 

Some of these verbs with final X are both of the first and second 
class, and some of the first class only, as noted above. 

Verbs of the First Class Doubly Irregular. 

One who has made himself familiar with regular verbs of 
the first class, and the different varieties already given, will 
have little difficulty in learning the conjugation of those 
verbs which are doubly irregular. 

Some of these have both initial and final 2. 

Root 2s2 to curdle. 
i" 

jLs^S Present Participle. uAa2 Preterite. 
,< • i> 

<,.-<,.' Jit***) 

%»*a2 , J-»2 Perfect Participle. , ", " \ Future. 

-aj) 

, ' , .» \ Imperative. 

The future is sometimes m& «3 masc, m» «3 fem. 

/ix? to come, is inflected in the same way, except that the 
imperative is 2£. in the singular, and «££s4i in the plural. 
We also occasionally hear <jOuS> I's. for the imperative sin- 
gular. The ancient language has the same imperative, the 
initial 2 being dropped. 

In Salmas, Gawar, and perhaps other districts, the root of 
this word is corrupted into i-2 : present participle ? »» >*i , 
preterite **S»£, perfect participle jU» or 2*ft2, imperative 
TLA . In Tiary, X is substituted for X throughout the con- 
jugation : we thus have JUXJ3, i»j» T? , etc. Indeed, the 
substitution of X is not confined to this word : e. g. JX»3 



75 

a house, for #N*S . Moreover, in some places we hear %> X\} 
as the perfect participle, which is quite as near as any form 
to the ancient. 

Some verbs have initial * and final 2. 

Take for example Uuu to smear. 

, , " \ Present Participle. Um^jSOi i Preterite. 
or 2l»}9\ ' " 

. , . (-1*-) 

^Jdu , ?n*ffi ■ Perfect Participle. ,/' , " V Future. 



, ' V Imperative. 

Thus conjugate 1*^> to lament, and J^u to 5a&e. The pres- 
ent participle of the former is like the first form given, i. e. 
3f»»>*1; that of the latter is like either the first or the second 
form, i. e. V *»-* fol or l*2ii3. In some parts of Koordis- 
tan, lib? and ZiJ'2 are the roots, instead of 14X» and JA*'. 
Compare W*2 and 1** in the Ancient Syriac. 

Somewhat different is the root > Vy > to know. 

7>V>>*1 Present Participle. uYVT l. 7 Preterite, 

ii '' i a 

J^iCa^, ilXaJ Perfect Participle. ,' ,. " V -PWwre. 

u£a) 

, ' )■ Imperative. 

Note. — The 9 of the future is pronounced as if double (see the 

future of iV H/ttX ), and in Oroomiah is almost hardened into j^. 

Many of the Nestorians lazily pronounce ti VB to h*po£0 what do I 
" ^ a ii 



76 



know, or how do I know ? mood-yan, there being little, if any, dif- 
ference, whether the speaker is a man or a woman. This tense is 
also habitually shortened in other connections by some of the people. 

The verb i**» to live, is perhaps more regular in the mod- 
ern than in the ancient language (Hoff. § 76, Ann. 1), but 
has some peculiarities. It is thus inflected : 



Z»*»S Present Participle. 
3jp**» 9 Ziw* Perfect Participle. 






Preterite. 



Future. 



Imperative. 



Like the preceding, inflect i*JO to make a fence; 2*0 to be 
set on edge (as the teeth) ; the latter regular, except the -',-. 

The verb !?VS^ to search after, has been generally written 
in accordance with the usage in Koordistan, and is inflected 
as follows : 

?'i1V>miM Present Participle. 



%<*'*\] , ?1iV^| Perfect Participle. 




Future. 



' V Imperative. 

This, however, is very unlike the usage in Oroomiah. 
As here spoken, it is an anomalous verb of the second 
class, and is thus inflected : present participle ?ftS»^ (or 
loaoSSy); preterite nSnV ftS^ ; perf. participle ,7 > V ft\, , 

^LftVft^i ; future «j>V^ «3 , ^tO&£y i\S • imperative 

. . O v V A>«»V^ 

I #~ I* *' 



5jj-*0Tp , 2~»07» Perfect Participle. " > " V Future. 



77 

There are a few verbs of four radicals, besides those enu- 
merated with regular verbs, which in general conform to 
the verbs of the first class. 

Take for example %*G* to thirst. 

J-»C?^3 Present Participle. m^Of £ Preterite. 

^vt'z Via] 
^' 

, ' _, V Imperative. 

Like i-Wfp, inflect Z-C& to /fowne. 

As another example take J*4>3 to w>w&. 

^ J k3«3 Present Participle. uA$*!2 Preterite. 

• a i a 

5s>*m, 2*^3 Perfect Participle. " ', " [Future. 

«Jk3) 
' V Imperative. 

Thus inflect JLJkV, to bleat, ItXSk to become smooth. ItiJa to 

churn, Z*X9 fo ffraze, and Z*XX to plaster, 
i' i i< < -* 

In regard to !***», it may be remarked that, while the 

present participle, as used in Koordistan, conforms to the 

preceding paradigm, on the plain of Oroomiah we generally 

hear it thus : ?,»>S.aoC3 . 

As another example we may take 2- JJ^ to be or become 

i' it, 
weary. 



78 
Z-l^ 3 Present Participle. lAjV Preterite, 

^-^iik,., jllV Perfect Participle. "> '* " I iTtawre. 






>M 



Imperative. 



The root »j»ScV* to jwe, like its predecessor •^0^ in the 
Ancient Syriac (Hoff. § 73, Ann. 4, and § 80), is singularly 
irregular. Being in constant use, it should, however, be 
made very familiar. 

jL90]US Present Participle. uVlQp Preterite. 






k3cf- AS) 
5^30P , ZsefOb. P«-/ec< Participle. " „ , "J- intern 






Imperative. 



It should be remarked that the perfect participle resem- 
bles the perfect participles of the second class rather than 
those of the first, and the preterite is often pronounced as 

if 'written kAflcjA*. In some districts the preterite is 



t a i 



Irregular Verbs of the Second Class. 
First Variety. Four Radicals. 

Verbs of four radicals are far more common in the Mod- 
ern Syriac than in the Ancient or the Hebrew. Many of 
these, however, are produced by a reduplication of biliteral 
or triliteral roots, and are exceedingly expressive. The idea 

is often that of repetition, as in inVnV to bruise in pieces, 

i i ■ at" A 

iX!VXa to trample, iTWTVt to grope, %^%H to whirl, 



79 

> V a V' 3 to creep, and numerous others. Still oftener, per- 

haps, the idea is that of repeated sound, as in acfaoT to roar 

with laughter. A ft i O to wail, > » A »» to snore, t fV tl ^B to 
a i a i a i 

cluck. 

The second radical is included in the first syllable of the 

root, as well as of all its inflections. 

As an example, take ^*aocf to speak, 
a i 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 

»Aw ^boOWBOT 1st masculine. , , 

i' , " ' ; <*0^ JiOO«!OOr 1st plural. 

»£h* laoa«9Cr 1st fern. ' ' ' 

i* * ' 

Vu)w V»«»SOCr 2nd masc. ' , , 

l ", , * ' ', *9*C Zao«*aoor 2nd plural. 

mTLOw 3i8O»b0Cr 2nd fern. ' 

i i' i i 

Zjkt 2^9OttS0f 3rd masc. , , 

" ' ; 1»- ^»0«BCr 3rd plural. 

VL. i»Oiaocr 3rd fern. 

i 1 * » 

The present participle has -'- as the vowel of the first 
syllable, with its corresponding O in the second. 

Preterite. 
tAdOfttoOer I spoke. k&attaOOT We spoke. 

This differs from uJkB3o£ only in having one consonant 

more in the first syllable, rendering it a mixed syllable. 

Perfect. 

b4L> >bbfttlOef I have spoken (m.), , _, 

, " , " 5f*Ob» 2^9ttSOOT We have spoken. 

»£j 2&&0ft&0OOr I have spoken (f.). ■' " ' 

Future. 
b&Sttaer A9 I shall speak (m.). 4»tt»07 AS We shall speak. 

* // « * « ^* II I II 

Imperative. 
yEJttOOT Speak thou. *J9&Mb9Cf Speak ye. 



80 



i C to make to sing (as quin- 
i 3C >JtX? ine does a sick man's 
" ' <{ head), to sing. 



Like ^Miacf, inflect 
h*Xil to be bashful. A^AJ^ to foam up. 

^f 3 i to become cheap. (i*1>V > to be leprous. 

bXBdj to delay (tr. and intr.). ^t.V>A. to growl. 

6^3 to creep. ^^S to Z 1 ™' 

\Him S to enlighten, to become SfcVjBbV to whiz. 

*?*?$ light - ; 

•3JM3 to prick. **^todn«g(tr.). 

« . i UttO a^l $ *° en ^ ar g e or to be en- 

»3\ii*1 to grow fat and be antic. »^»7 larged. 

4 • i i .V»» i»4 l J t° make to wallow, to 

i J»aj»3 to confuse or be confused. „ ^TV wallow. 

aa>tl to twinkle. 

'V^" to dazzle or be dazzled. 

Bb'Vill to crown. 

cftSLBLSI to bubble up. 
it > 

m m I 

K39h3 to scatter (tr. and intr.). 

9J^S9k3 to roar. 
it i 
• * ■ ' 
9*93*3 to assail. 

i 
klLt*y3 to stir up. 

>\i\S to make bud, to bud. 

iV*<V>\^ to tumble (tr. and intr.). 
» i 

^l\ V>\. to hum, coo. 

it* i 

%%-iiL. to abhor (with k*9 ). 
t^ i * • 

hVl.V to rust (tr. and intr.). 

S 7> 






to torment or be tor- 
mented. 



to be two-sided, ride 
the fence. 



fesJ&S to make trot, to trot 

\j\j < to thin out, become 
,•; -, I sparse. 

«3<i»3 to shelter, to find shelter. 

^9J»9) to make or be bloody. 

_t 
t03*D3 to make fine or small. 
n i 

*■ i 
h333 to wound or be wounded. 
v » / 

tX333 5 *° ma ^ e P me awa y or 
f • I to pine away. 

3A33 to rock (tr. and intr.). 

3393 5 t0 ma -k e a clatter (of 
•„ ; I words). 
• i 
P933 to apply (remedies). 
v it i 

fc*A33 to become late. 



81 



tSftftCf to demolish. 
^OCIiOl to neigh. 
ftCTftCT to laugh aloud. 

f Of O to buzz. 
JtOJWO to wail. 

n 

.JUO to whisper (as the wind). 
ft 03 6 to have a diarrhea. 
JBBOJGBO to make whine, to whine. 



94UU. to strut. 

> to breathe hard. 

to make faint, be faint. 

■ ■ ' 
iA9i« to push. 

httgftj— to clasp. 
a i 

k£f 3m to push. 

*Vi ■«> »« to gnaw. 

2; A .'. 5 t0 make to gnash, to 
*fi , I gnash. 



iiiuf 
ft^&f 

ftj&lf 

fcSftf to make mighty, be mighty. 

• ftftf to make yellow, be yellow. 

. • ' 

ftf ftf to bray. 

tX^ftV* to injure, become injured. 



, . . . ni.i to snore. 

to make subject, become u i 

subject. ^j^ tQ reckon> 

to Utter, be littered (as a v « / 

> room, a field, etc.). m_~.m_L S to ma ke to rattle, to 

„ . , ■ . , J rattle, 
to become pale. 



knJuiadk to crush or be crushed, 
to make tinkle, to tinkle. »* r 

\ V ' \ to delay (tr. and intr.). 

(\^\ to hum. 
«* 4 j* 4' (to flicker or make to 



to tear off, be torn off. 
to ring (tr. and intr.). 
to swagger. 



flicker. 
frt VTi Vu to murmur. 



to batter. 

< to defile ceremonially or ' V^Vy to move (tr. and intr.). 
> be defiled. 



% ,!3lOL» to make heavy, be heavy. 
L ( to sputter, to make sput- 

TA te 



ter. 



and intr.) 
hfl M JA to arm, to be armed. 



iv..^ ( to shiver in pieces (tr. 
at. •% ' 



' < to wash away, be wash- 2j ^,»v >v j to tear in pieces, be torn 
, \ ed away. VjT ( in pieces. 

r\ 



to excite fever, have 
fever 



to throw. 



"% i% 



vol. v. 



11 



82 



>>*!**> to make appear, to appear. 

feASO to abstain from food. 
a i 

m " I 

iftyVlt to make glitter, to glitter. 



^QUhA&A to parboil, be parboiled. ^»A^.^ to gnaw. 

i V'fr'iS to let down, to sink down. 
a 11. 

m • ' 

\t\'\ to tear, be torn. 
a 11. 

kVv!> to chink (intr.). 

V « N 17, 

,XVvi to swing (tr. and intr.). ^V£ to ^ ^ 

ml II m' I 

33bVA to roll (tr. and intr.). i • . 

>» >T1 to make sprout, to sprout. 

^SaJkSO to take a fine. 
a V * 

*^ iiOYt to mock. 
a i 

i V*V >i V> to forbear, be reluctant 
>SA i» to blister. 

V // 7. I 

itft»t) to borrow or lend on usury. 
a i 

>>to%l>9 to be lazy. 

HI 

m m ' 

f !X&£9 to preach. 
a i 

>Q^V» to make pant, to pant 
S^axi Stogiggle,gurgle,tomake ". ; 
" ' ( giggle or gurgle. tiU) to hasten (tr. and intr.). 

« i a i 

<3iO%\A to wither (tr. and intr.). 
a i 

kXSX9) to gather up. 
a i 

ztrH iv ( to wrap in a vail, to wrap m , 

« ,» I one's self in a vail. AUtt to make poor, be poor. 

t 3t a. i t J > to scare away. _**_ , . ,. , . ^ „ 

» i n »<m l a9 to rest (tr. and intr.). 

VlaVlA 1 t0 crac ' c °P en ( M the " ! 

« , ( earth). J88Ltt»iSB to reprove. 

« i 

i^jJLa to make glitter, to glitter. iV^mVyt to fix a price. 
...V ..V (- gnu ff around. 

*W> to speak. "\ „ , \ journey). 

V* t lo make lame, be lame. A*£t0 to listen. 



i V> i 1 ift to toss about 
hi ii 
i 
> >t^ to tingle (as the ear). 

Hi. IT. 

m I 

* xa»* a to tear (tr. and intr.). 

117. 1% 

Aa& A to clap. 

"7. IT. 

MOA to defile, be defiled. 

V // 17. 

J AA M A to rattle (in speech). 

11% 17. 

m m I 

*\i»a to scream. 

117. 17. 

m I 

kSoatA to have mercy. 



>>»iYY> to constrain. 
iA*£&&0 to make green, to green. 



aJttiJO to build. 



A »A>« ( to give one a start (on a 
-1 »» 7( jo 



83 



M&BMSI to be or become hushed. fcA*X tomakecloudy,becloudy. 

m O.B b a to cry. uJ lik to make wise, be wise. 

t mL . , a M « 4 ' ( to make wallow, to wal- 

S ^ to wrangle. i \*t*XV -j low# ' 

gA J^g j to cause chills, to have Avv i to make ancient, be an- 
• « > ( chills. vT , 1 cient. 

«^*3kSb to make bold, be bold. T , 

^tSkAaS to whisper. 

tX&Skfi to feel after. 
a i 

\_«,« A ( to make stagger, to stag- 

« , 1 ger. 

iBLffVttlS to laugh out. 

|l lAjto lay waste, become 
^P , 1 waste. 

>i>^XS to beseech. 

tflXsXS to undo, destroy. 
a4xfl to whirl (tr. and intr.). 

« i 

u.\^S to crumb, be crumbed. 

*"»t^(to make to escape, to 
v „ , \ escape. 

aA&S to twist (tr. and intr.). 
&£\S to whisper. 



»39£9 to defile. 
// i 

t T i k>^9 to miscarry. 

!L»9kib to arrange in order. 
// * 

tCl >ytt to sprinkle. 
« i 

ynyStt to growl. 

flLmifW to proclaim the gospel. 
a i 

Vfl-y f ( to make a Mohammedan 
a « ( or become one. 

t££&!UO to grope (after). 

iJBXXSO to whistle. 
" * 

M-% to make to sob, to sob. 

m ml 

AVSkl to groan. 

to be a stranger, 
to hesitate. 



' \ | »\ g to gaze. 

, , , ... ditiH to pour or flow out 

iK mJq j to reconcile, become re- - S fc-T 
^T» , ( conciled. i^ui ' i to "lake to smart, 



to 



to visit. 



smart. 



, , .„ Aj>fl»< to sob from pain. 

V«««fll i to come down (from „ S 
' » < ( father to son). 

&VjxAD to make totfer, to totter. iVhiV H to cut up, to be cut up. 

a i ' « * / 

'p S OaJO to stun, be stunned. A tt A O to make light, be light 

a i 

XCOajEB to scream. t&JLiJi\jB to cluck. 



84 



-£ ( to cause to approach, to . M i^ m j . 

\ )( r , ( approach. »»»»* ro "»*e smart, to ram. 

*B.axfl to wrinkle, be wrinkled. bBXBJC to empty out 

^SoaJS to wrinkle, be wrinkled. . IttTdX j to e °gf t0 clatter ' t0 

»**3».fl to buffet, be buffeted. 30WSXIX to make proud, be proud. 

4J3Xt> to make or be ready. *\T>T to make spout, to spout. 



aJBXJB to caw. 
n i 

>t Pa B to gather up. 
a i 

9)9tXB to venture (intr.). 

AtUUO to rattle (as rain). 
» i 

•Jk^aAj} to crawl. 

t4&J& to brood. 

40X0> to make thin, be thin. 

tsA6k.lt to tremble violently. 



>*>\^ to guide. 
a i 

> B >»» \ X to pant for breatli. 

T>Vfc\X to disciple. 
a i 
i 

^ASBX to whine. 
a i 

\tSiS. to make tardy, be tardy. 
a i 
i 
+£d>b. to make smoky, be smoky. 
a i 
i 
JCO\i\ to sprinkle, be sprinkled. 
a i 

frl L VV jS. to chastise. 

to alter (tr. and intrA »3fcSX to stamp the foot. 
it i 

>^S>..T to alter (tr. and intr.). «Xfc$&. to search. 
a i a * 

J?m*X to blacken, become black. >tt lB X to make neatly. 

i 

to crush in pieces. tJ0\OS. to knock. 

a i 

.. , ... iv 1 j to besmear with tallow, 

to soil, be soiled. C , ( be besmeared. 

<.Xa.il t( ? shake about < tr> and «A3\ to trim a candle. 
X£""7I intr.). „ , 

■yHtXiOkX to make faint, be faint. tA^SAj stumble. ' 

-1^^4.1 to sob. kX»X to make pale, be pale. 

n i a i 

Ax&it to glide (as a snake). dlA-SA. to stitch together. 

Notes on the Preceding List. 
As «£0fr9 has a talkana over the 07, it may be considered as a 
verb of three radicals, following the paradigm of iflT>^ , second class. 



85 



9 SJ 39SI and 9Jk39h9, though having five radicals, differ so little 
ii i a i 

from the preceding model, that they need no special illustration. 

frlvVX may in some respects be considered as a verb of three 
radicals, having its perfect participle JftftVV OX, and its future 

taaJkxx*h3. 

v a i a 

VERBS OF FOUR RADICALS WITH FINAL 2. 

Take for example 2dS9bS to understand. 
•• i 

,1oO.^\S Present Participle. 

i' i i 

In Koordistan, instead of the above, we have JLoaoxS . 

i* * i 

As to the substitution of A or * for 2, see HofF. § 33, 3. 

u>S£0SOJ& Preterite. 

i ,• i 

The 2 is here dropped, but lengthens — into -,-. 

^*dSaeJ^ , llio'soA Perfect Participle. 

In this participle * is substituted for 2, and takes, in ad- 
dition to its own appropriate vowel, the vowel — . 

; " ' " \ Future. 

S i a i 
Here the 2 is dropped in the masculine singular and in the 
plural, but * is substituted for it in the feminine singular, 
just as in the perfect participle. 

, ' ! > Imperative. 

•• < ' 

Note. — This verb evidently has a relation to the ancient *paJ& f 

■ i 
but perhaps a still nearer relation to the Persian (H* . In Bootan 

we hear it thus : present participle, ?W4*f ; preterite, ■-^- % ^4 ; 

* j 2* j in 

perfect participle, X.frftn^ ; future, kMiB &3 ; S having the sound 

t v it it 

of/. 



86 



VERBS INFLECTED LIKE ?»jfl. 

, ?*t\l to paw, dig into. }\lSO to show favor (with £9 ). 

j ^VV , to clean out, become clean. jjJQttft to "despise. 
}f Of to howl. JXBOJBB to twitter, to peep. 



J9hSw» to 



paw into. 



IftVX to deceive. 



jftSLM to go round, surround. *9XS to cut up. 

.*?'>>'> to switch, be switched. ,1^X» to rinse. 
Jift^tA to bedaub, be bedaubed. Jumm to search. 

*£o£ { t0 to h ^ er ; n K ° ordistan > l^bJi to roll up or be rolled up. 

jXttiO to long after (with fSO ). ?B3bX to snap (tr. and intr.). 

■ ' ■ ' 

k.lb'Km to plaster. ^X9bX to fag out, tire out 

\X\XO to forget ZjOBSX to nourish, be nourished. 



« ' 
Note. — i XB l AM , which, is inserted in the above list, does not 

differ in pronunciation from the others, which end in 2 instead of X ; 
but the X is retained in writing out the different tenses. 

When o is the second radical, from a kind of necessity, 
one e is dropped in the preterite and perfect participle. 
Thus, if we take l»oa to beseech, the present participle is 
%OAiOi ■ the preterite, Aiftl (instead of AlMi ) ; the 
perfect participle, liiOA (for i»»OOJi); the future masculine, 
tiOA *h3 ; the future feminine, Mi*ai «3 . From what has 
been said in the Orthography, it will be evident why -'- is 
here used in the present participle, instead of -'-. 



2AOJk to chirp. 



Like lioi, inflect 
^**f ^eT t0 &0& *»"«*• 



J30£9 to acknowledge. AlOftSt! to mew. *£**£ to y e ^P* 



87 



CAUSATIVE VERBS. 



We are now prepared to understand the formation of 
Causative Verbs. Some of the simple verbs of three radi- 
cals already given may be used in a causative sense, as (j«* 

to strengthen, or to cause to become strong. Verbs of four radi- 
cals have still oftener a causative signification ; but the 
ordinary method of forming causatives is by prefixing io to 
the three radical letters, and then considering the verb as 
one of four radicals, and inflecting it accordingly. Thus, 

\*3 , when of the first class, means to go out; when of the 

second class, to put out or bring out; and i^S^ln (which is 

inflected like ^JOBCT ), to cause to come out. 

The verbs which thus form causatives are very numerous, 
and comprise the majority of those of three radicals in the 
preceding lists. The mode of formation is quite regular, 
with the exceptions hereafter to be specified ; and the mean- 
ing bears in almost all cases a close relation to the meaning 
of the first root. A few causatives have been placed in the 

list of verbs conjugated like 'pVSOOI. These are either not 
used in Oroomiah at all in their simple form, as &■**& to 
listen; or the signification of the simple form is much changed, 
as i T^Tn'a to accompany, or, better, to give a start to (a trav- 
eller), from i^|t*l to stretch out ; or the causative form, as 
generally used, is neuter : e. g. \*Xa» to appear. 

Note. — pX B b a was inserted in the list of verbs inflected like 
^OSOOI , with the idea that it was not properly a causative of any 
verb in the Modern Syriac. But it may be the causative of (.Xtf 
(a verb of the second class) to squeeze in. Compare 2m9lB in the 
Ancient Syriac, and y *ip in the Hebrew, to tear asunder, " to bite 
in malice." 

When the last radical of the ground-form is 2 , the caus- 
ative verb follows the conjugation of 2&skS instead of 



88 
'pibocl . Thus, from tftS to weep, we have Wtt to cause 

II I m I* I 

to weep ; and so of a great number of others. 

Verbs with final X do not differ in the causative form 
from verbs with final 2, except that X is retained in those 
tenses where 2 is dropped, and slightly modifies the sound. 
Thus from AJ ftX we have iVMJtaa , of which the present 
participle is JJ&AMMX & O ; the preterite, uVVaatftlw ; the 

'' ' i ' '"'#4 

perfect participle, %*±>JOJtA SO • the future, ^VwmtD JiS 

(masculine), ^ AM JUe «3 (feminine). 

There has been perhaps an unnecessary irregularity in 

regard to verbs with initial 2. Thus, from tV&2 and BO?, 
i t m i f a t a 

we have o*alib and SOlS» ; while from JUB>2, JU92, and 

»XB2, we have JAJSOiO, tXdba, and sv X fti a. As 2 is heard 
« » a i a i 

very feebly, if at all, it is best, for the sake of uniformity, 
to drop it altogether, and treat these causatives as verbs of 
three radicals, second class. The other verbs with initial 2 

m I 

have no causative form. The future of OOla* though 

a i ° 

spelled regularly, is often pronounced mfirin. 

Verbs with medial 2 of the first class sometimes drop the 
i $ 

2 entirely, as ?*S» from ?2f , in which case the causative is 

inflected like a verb of three radicals, second class. But it 

is far more common, at least in Oroomiah, for * to be sub- 

i 
stituted for 2, throughout the conjugation : e. g. *-»**», of 

which the present participle is 290wtta. Here the verb is 

i* i i i 

regularly conformed to the paradigm of /tftt»Of, and no- 
thing more therefore need be said on the subject. 

Verbs with medial X retain the X, and are conjugated 

like *«»«r. 
n i 

Verbs with initial * , when used as causatives, are quite 
irregular. A jm, iv ttLi, and iSfe*, become respectively 
A V o, tjJBia, tS&to, and are conjugated like verbs of the 



89 

second class having three radicals. »Sfc>» {to place), however, 
when it denotes to cause to sit, to locate, retains the » tr&ns- 
posed ; thus, <SU SCO . &,%>* becomes *Xa»S8 and will be 

a n I ,11 i " I $ 

noticed farther on. iMu becomes l&»jsb or lioaao , the lat- 
ter conforming nearly to the Ancient Syriac. See under 
iS9a»3 . ^3w , *j»- , *AJ , <tXi , n9u , transpose the # and 

I' I it II -V ii m / // n *■ 

become respectively t!**»9»5o , lott , w uAft B , <fa&JM and 

m i ii i ii i J»« i ^f, i 

Ax9bM, and are regular in conjugation. 

JSoas to understand, has for its causative y i aia , and is 
distinguishable from ^lxa£a to cause to cut, 6nly by a slight 
difference in pronunciation. 

OTHER I It REGULAR VERBS OP THE SECOND 

CLASS. 

VERBS WITH MEDIAL X. 
One of these, and perhaps more, is inflected as a verb of 
the second class, viz. 3tX» to revile. 

J300>Xm Present Participle. wSoJMJk* Preterite. 
^iao. Vr >w, ji vSw ftp Perfect Participle. ^ * " v future. 

, "if Imperative. 

The causative of :vX~ is > V>*M to cause to revile. 

jx^OwAS Pres. Participle. w»XX»»OiiB Preterit/;. 

al9bXk<OJ», JabXpOda Pert. Participle. ", *>•', . " > Future. 
roi. v. 12 



90 



Verbs of three Radicals: Third Radical 2. 

These are mostly inflected as verbs of the first class, but 
not all of them. As an example of the second class, we 

may take ifljW to deliver. 

, 1ft O> T k CD , Present Participle. l Afl ttffl Preterite. 

J&jbo Via ) 

%j£aJtO, ll^ftA, Perfect Participle. # v " . . " )■ Future. 



Imperative. 



t 
In Koordistan the present participle is ]^aSJ(D ; and it is 
to be understood that in all verbs resembling this, * is there 



substituted for a . 



Like lflu», inflect 



]£U^ to select, collect 
? Vj^ to uncover. 

* 

£ftft to make pure. 
»• 

%Soi to liken. 

■ ■ # 

ASIA to winnow. 
»• 

likfti to meditate, to spell. 
»• 

Xttfil to narrate, 
i' 

XML— to keep (tr.). 
i' 

%a\ to broil (tr.). 
?'* T_ to conceal. 
>Lft& to sear. 



lUA to 



ZA* 



to cover. 



]nD to weary. 

i 
%— SO to make alive. 

• * * 

JSLX to prophesy. 

i 1 

2t*X to render difficult 
2aJk. to patch. 

1^3 to divide (tr.). 
i 1 ' 

2kkS to deliver (from). 
X^£ to pray. 
X3w to strain. 



91 

XXfl to parch (tr.). ZlX to depart. 

i* »• 

Z3S to throw. 2 XX to begin, 

i' / i' 

Z&X to liken. Z»*V to tell. 

i 1 i .• 

ZAX to spread. ZSX to cause to adhere, 

i' i 1 

iVbfes ow £fo Preceding List. 

%\M is a causative from i- JX, to become weary. ISO , a caus- 
. ■* ' .. '• <«•». , '' '. . 

ative from Z**» to K««, and ?Vl» are irregular by having - in 

the perfect participle and the future feminine, thus : Z*XobO , 

i f i j it * *#*' 

Zm»0£s , Z>\ftft ; and in the future, hX^O ^-* » r-««*'ft* A3 1 

fc»Jfc3 AS . If we do not distinguish between ?*»*» in the future 
and subjunctive and ? »»!)> to strike, we shall be likely (in prayer, 
for instance), when intending to say " Lord, revive (or quicken) 
me !" to say " O Lord, strike me !" lSa in the perfect participle is 
often written as well as pronounced Zsftft. 

Verbs of three Radicals: Third Radical X. 

These verbs, when inflected as verbs of the second class, 
do not differ essentially from the paradigm of verbs with 
final 2. For example, »SJMkX. to assemble (transitive). 

it t% 

Zft- VftfrxV . Present Participle. uJkS^oai^ Preterite. 
*T"7T" M *rrr*-{Participle. ^ i L^ or ^^ y,,, j toe. 

, '? > Imperative. 

It will be noticed that X is retained throughout, and that 
the perfect participle and future feminine singular (in one 
form) take — as the second vowel. 



92 

Like kiM\ inflect tX$£o a causative from ifcfr.i to &now; ; 
t&kdhto to make smooth: »m£9 to pasture, from l*Xa to graze; 
and tiJUto to cawse to plaster, from 2*ikX to plaster. 

The irregular verb 2s2 to curdle, of the first class, has for 
its causative 2»JS», and is thus inflected : 

JoOSjiO Present Participle. w-^Sj-OAO Preterite. 
%**%*>*, Z-sJjDJD Perfect Participle. ,." ', " VjFWwe. 

, ', J > Imperative. 

So inflect ]l4,Hi» from J.AJ to Ja£e. The verb iMu to swear, 
besides the causative ft»flJa , already noticed, sometimes 
makes its causative in the same way. Thus we have XbVb , 
inflected like 2ajSD . 

The anomalous verb J-»3* to cawse to come, to imj, which 

is doubtless derived from the ancient 2.MO , may also be 

classed here. As used on the plain of Oroomiah, it is thus 

inflected : 

,7 <l,Vw Present Participle. , 7 V >, 7 ft^rt Preterite. 
,< • ■ i< i' i 

iLwjdftaa, ZljLAM Perfect Participle. 'J ', " [Future. 

, f > Imperative. 

r 

As used in Koordistan, its root is J^**, which is evi- 
dently from the Afel form of the ancient verb (Hoff. § 78, 3). 
It is thus inflected : 



93 
'' ' * ! V Present Participle. u>JiXiASO Preterite. 

iUo^Ho) ' '' ' 

,, . .. ^O A3 ) 

5s-XlAi9, i-XUO» Perfect Participle. " ', . " \ Future. 

, ' ' ', > Imperative. 

The irregular verb 1*0& to flame, has 2oiM» for its caus- 
ative, and is thus inflected : 

2-OOov^B Pres. Participle. uifcCTf^OiB Preterite. 

j£-o£oA», J-,c£o*» \^ er ^? t . , ,"','' [Future. 

• ' > • I Participle. ^^^ ^g ^ 

, ' _, . ', V Imperative. 

The irregular verb 1»AJ9 to wi'sl, has 3 S . SS 3 for its caus- 
ative, 

, 7 ft V ft t^B Present Participle. »**Jk£jO«&9 Preterite. 

,111 * i a i 

%j±XIO&0 , % tX3 &SO Perfect Participle. , "',."> Future. 



* * 



»£&» 



, ' ! >• Imperative. 

Note. — The verb of existence A~+ <Aew is, <V*A <Aer« is noi, is 
used in the Modern Syriac differently from the idiom of the Ancient. 
It will be referred to again in the Syntax. 



94 



m 

a 

a 
> 

p 
a 
o 

a 
« 

a 

a 
w 

a 

o 



m 
a 
o 



n3 

o 
a 

a 

<u 

!> 

a3 



' 2 



nrn i 



jt 

A 

Wl 



.■-3 S 

a 



j\3 jr jr ^jjjj 5 2 ! 

"«D 1» ^ ^ T -T 4* ^ M \ 



V 






a3 



S3 

o 

PJ 

•s 

<B 

"> 
O 

a 
o 

% 

DO GQ 

+a <u 

fl CO 
S CO 

CO C3 

g^ 

^ o 

.£rf> 
,2 > 

"o o 

«s *■ 

^ bo 

o 



4 : a 4 =4 * ,3 



n 



a 



a 






t$ 



1 a 4 * J I a 



•«JI -tf> *♦ »*♦ "^ 



9 9 




95 



4 



H -n t l UW 



i- 






j j j' a j" j' 



A: 4- fy v *> 



3 2J2 5 



& 



a- 






4 



\7f 
4- 



J -a -3 ^ •» ** 



H 31 



Mill 



2' !! 






4 



** 






fl 1 

4 



I 



S. 5 
3 



n 
A 



nwfw 



i- *\ a-i- *** « 



96 






^i^Tfit^tii 



4 -l 






JIJJJ' 

Hit 



*4 i 



4 3.-* * 



*s 



4 *H** /a jl-« 



,4' 4" |- 



•* VI 



1 f Pi %fl 

& | * 1 -a 






3 9 § 2 

ilid 






'A 



m*$a.mM. 



1: ti- 




« 






3 



a, 13-| 






a 

cl 



X"l 



97 



PASSIVE VOICE. 



The Passive Voice, especially as formed by the first method 
given below, is very little used in the colloquial dialect of 
the people of Oroomiah. This results probably from the 
warmth of their feelings, which instinctively prefers a direct 
mode of expression. Where we should say "You will be 
delivered," they say "(Such a person) will deliver you;" 
for "You will be beaten," we generally hear the expression 
"They will beat you;" and so in a great number of cases. 
In the mountains, the passive voice is freely used in conver- 
sation ; and, as it is employed also in our preaching and our 
books, it is desirable to become 'well acquainted with it. 
This is, however, an easy task. 

There are three methods of indicating the passive voice, 
which will be in turn considered. 

Method 1st. 
The passive voice of any verb may be formed by prefix- 
ing to its perfect participle the inflections of the root tXZS, 

in its different moods and tenses. This root properly means 
to remain ; but, when thus employed as an auxiliary, it is 
equivalent to the verb of existence. Let us take for exam- 
ample the passive voice of H»»*n to strike, the perfect parti- 
ciple of which is ^im'O , X*SO and the infinitive passive 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 

. rT* a— ( m .). , ^ *, ,>„< A We are 

&»*» ^ &L& 1st fern. ^ " Btruck - 

} *— !* » iLOu %X*& 2nd masc. ,. , , 

, " ',' tt ^ i*-A9 .^TU J»*£ 2nd plural. 

5j**-5«» t-lWO* iilS 2nd fern. 



ZL*» J^J ;xlA 3rd masc. 

^P iiL iklA 3rd fern, 
i 

roL. T. 18 



i*~*> £u iklfl 3rd plural. 



98 

"We have been accustomed to drop the a of the present 
participle of this auxiliary. 

Imperfect Tense. 

[ was struck 

m ')- ,. .. k .4 k irfl-.i •:«*-?* We were 



iLjo zbcr ^' ;x^ t wafl struck 






™ sc - **~* ooc jaa: &^ pl 2 i 



II II 

jeofail Jru^i*i&^ ~ 

&•*> Xavi &1& m r asc- ^-.ai^iki^ 3rd 

Preterite Tense. 
lL^9 Axi I was struck (m.). ^^ We were 

3^-iO Ax4 Istfem. ^ ^^ StrUck 

» I II 

J.«-J» *0^kx4 2nd masc. , . , , 

" / ' Zm»S0 >j>>ift\,t4 2nd plural. 

&»~*0 »a.VXA 2nd fern. 

I m II 

%k~SO }lx& 3rd masc. , . 

" ■', ,7 >»ilW ^Vjt3 3rd plural. 

5&.-M-S0 ZZJL& 3rd fem. '' " 

Sometimes uAoOT is used as the auxiliary, and we have 

%'h—so lAoof. etc. 

Perfect Tense. 

***•* *** **?* struck (nu). .*. -*'*•. A Wehave 



I have been 

been struck. 



5j.*-*SO ^Ow ^JUS Istfem. •' " ' '' ' 

i'.*«bO VViBW ]Xk£ 2nd masc. ,. „ 

" ' i**JO ^OXU IXftS 2nd pluraL 

5^— » Jftiu fcJU4 2nd fem. " " 

i»«ao 2^J JXhd 3rd masc. , „ 

" •' , ' UmM ifc» iSUS 3rd plural. 

^at jiki J^SU^ 3rd fem. " " 



99 



Pluperfect Tense. 

" % £2! ztT V* •** ^ H^ 

^ , *"- * , • We had been struck. 

i»*«ft> IJOC? YLOw JXhS 2nd masc. , , . 

V^ioerJhA-^t^Sndfem. < » ^^ 

J.****) ZA07 ZX*J& 3rd masc. 

V^iOCr&X^Srdfem. < - ^ ^ J 

Future Tense. 
In this tense either the future of the verb JtjS or the 
future of the verb ZftCf may be employed. The significa- 
tion in either case is nearly or quite the same. 

**~T C*~ *T struck (m.). ^^ ^j/a <*- We shall 
J^-JD >L£ *3 1st fern. *TT V* 3 "? be struck 

Z^ £1*3 2nd masc. . ^ 

" . ", . . " U- *»^ill*aUd 113 2nd plural. 

V-A8 J*1X*3 IV3 2nd fem. *' " 

ZL*bO tXZ& VlS 3rd masc. - . 

" , ", " M> udUSltS 3rd plural. 

2Jj.**J» ZSUB 113 3rd fern. '' " ' 

In the same way inflect 

zL-so yaerVis z*j»&> <«oerV\s. 

Note. — There may possibly be, at times, a difference in the significa- 
tion of these futures, arising from the signification, on the one hand, 

of tX2& to remain, and, on the other, of %0 Of to become. Thus : 
i' i' 

%X>OM kXjS tbS he will be or continue in a state of holiness. 

i ,' a 

ZXAOaO ZOO? A3 he will become sanctified. 



100 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



Here either \tA or +$OI may be used, as in the future tense. 
Thus we have, for the present, Jotlrt ^Xk3 or ?.»«.1fl ^BC7 ; 

for the imperfect, %'»~SO JU»C7 (JUS or JL1m£9 Jxidf »j»C? in 

a perfectly regular manner. 

It is to be particularly observed that, where a verb is 
used in both the first and second classes, with the same sig- 
nification, the shade of meaning in the passive will de- 
pend on which perfect participle is used in its formation. 

To illustrate : *OVi , as a verb of either the first or second 

class, means to scatter seed, to sow. But tdL»*3 ?vt A means 

it was sowed or scattered, as if by itself; while %JBf&3 ) M tS 

means it was sowed (by some individual). The signification 

is sometimes, however, such that this distinction cannot be 

kept up ; e. g. %!Q*x£ %S.X& and %SOAo4 jV».4 he was 

grieved or sorry, there being in neither case reference to the 

agent causing the sorrow. ZjxJ U B jj»jt^ and JJk3 Q >,P >a«3t^ 

I )» II I l> II 

he was received, on the other hand, must both of them indi- 
rectly refer to the agent. 

Where the same word is used in both the first and second 
classes, with different meanings, of course there is a similar 
distinction in the passive: as, iiJUAAk j v at. ^ he was lost, 
} rV\flill ?A3La he was destroyed. 

Note. — It has been sometimes supposed that )\ >>1 in the ex- 
pression 3A >*1 3j J t. ^ , is a perfect participle. But as <«&J9 is 

mil'" m' II 

of the second class, and such a participle does not belong to verbs of 
the second class, this expression should be translated, not, he was 
made blessed, but, he was a blessed individual, %> -*fif being an 
adjective. 

Note 2. — Sometimes the verb OC.ZS is used as almost or quite 
equivalent to the verb of existence, although the perfect participle of 



101 

another verb is not joined with it. Thus, 4X9 fcAu ]Xk£ / have 
remained in doubt, or / am in doubt, may be employed wherever 
U9w AX9 would be allowable, and wee versd. 

Method 2nd. 
There is a curious form of the passive, in daily use among 
the people, in which the verb /»♦ to come is employed as 
an auxiliary, and the infinitive active of another verb is 
joined with it in a passive sense. We will take for illustra- 
tion as before the root % — D o to strike. 

i' 

i**»JOJ» ^Ou» JL>*\J3 I am struck. 

?»—»> %&Q1 fcA* JLXVJLSI I was being struck. 

J »«» Yt\ w^XJ I was struck. 
a i i> 

, 1 i>«» i»\ uOu XSXl} I have been struck. 
a v a i 

3 > >i ^rt\ Jj&Cf kA-> £Jn j I had been struck. 
n ^ a i 

,1 »»»*»> »^kj TIB I shall be struck. 

The subjunctive so much resembles the indicative, that it 
need not be written out. 

Sometimes this form, especially in Koordistan, is a pas- 
sive of capability, as, for example, %'***S aS Ixl ^ if it can 

be struck, i. e. if it come into the position in which it may be 
struck. This is perhaps the primitive idea of this form. 
There is, however, another mode in Oroomiah of expressing 

the sentiment, viz.: ? >> o» Jj»0f »^, where U-Lio is used as 

we should use strikable in English, if such a word were 

allowed. So VLux %AOI ,^—ifit be takabh. 

Method 3rd. 
Instead of the form US O ^oJ 2JUd , the perfect active 
is often used in a passive sense. For the preceding, we thus 
have ^A* % * * £ & I have been struck. The explanation of this 



102 

probably is that the perfect participle is passive, as well as 
active, in its meaning, while ^oJ is merely a verb of exist- 
ence, / am .... having been struck. The pluperfect active 
is also frequently used in the same way for the pluperfect 

passive ; thus, %&cl ^Ou %***SO may signify I had struck, or 
I had been struck. 

VERBS WITH SUFFIXES. 

Although the suffix -pronouns of the Modern Syriac are 
few and simple, it requires much practice to use them readily 
and accurately in conversation. It will be desirable there- 
fore to examine the subject carefully. 

The verbal suffixes do not differ, except in one or two 
instances, from those used for nouns and prepositions. A 
list of them has been already given. It will now be shown 
how these pronouns are suffixed to the verb in its different 
inflections. 

Boot ^fJ&X) to heal, 
it 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 

,«,. feaaaaJMa \ l (m -> , am heal " 

rr.y ,'*"*' I ingthee(m.). ^^X^A i Iamheal- 

( fr. MA&aaJBol 1 l m ^ ng ^ •*? < ingyou. 

v « / ■ ' thee (r.). 

h ft^ > rffWftftftV* \ T , am healing , T . , 

rr *-w»»kw^ him u^fljBs I . im t eal - 

^craiaa»aj I ] a ™ healin s ^ ' ' "****- 

When the person speaking is a female, we have the same 
forms as above, except that »£*» is throughout substituted 
for hOu». 

w: c,o*o««{ T ; £r bea1 -^ ^^-i T in° g u rr- 



103 

Here, as before, if the nominative be feminine, wsUOu is to 
be substituted for Xflu. 



liki »JBOJBwj H ^ healiD g lik- ^Otosj 



He is heal- 
ing us. 



1±* «UASOOJM^ H f isl ! ea l ing 

>-- ^«w<uj thee(m.). ^ ^^.^J.^a.A ijHeisheal- 

ii- ™ V CTft m ^ Heishealipg ^ - ' ing you. 

liJ wC70JDOJQ*3 He is healing 

A*- un«MBa< Wm< ^Aa^^Heisheal- 

^ CTOiJOJCaa H k e fa healing ' -»»*» J ingthem. 

ii i I her. 

If tbe agent is a female, iik* is to be substituted for iSj . 

-i_a_, -i a wn» «»» A ^ We are heal- 

5jJ^ ^y*a=»^i ng thee(m.). » ;^ A ^^ ^ We are 

-A . uA^AjBia S We are heaL " ^*? . healingyou. 

Xr*7 '«"•*»« * ^ mg thee (f.). 

cUoJ CT ft^a «■■* ^ ^ e are nea *" 

^-*- w ( «*»;j in g him . ti i^,,^ m ^^Weareheal. 

_. 1 ^ i«Aw.««».w ( ( We are heal- "V ) ingthem. 

^o- WAaBA»a| inghen < 

'«' ^- ' _-i< Yeareheal- , „ 

^ «S9ft«« | ing me- ' ^ ^^^ Ye are heal- 

th-' «crft*^^ Yeareheal - '^ < ffigus ' 



O/SC W aSSOJS&a ) Ye ^ hea1 ' *^ *"" " iOASaa \ ">g them. 
_•»«»* wwi wM*f ^ lng jjer. 

jl^ «S0OJQ»3 5 They are heal- ,* ^ajaa $ They are heal " 

*^ ,""**"' ^ng me. **7 ^7 ^ ing us. 

«* j^^ij^i^ They are heal- 

, H?^ img thee (m.). ^ ' .^' £ f They are heal- 

» . ^ I mg thee (f.). 
1a^ * »»■ «%a«4 (They are heal- 

;: £ ghira - , 6j u»ojQjfl( The yT heal - 

ZiJ CTOioadQxa The 7 areheal " \ mg them. 

One who has familiarized himself with the preceding suf- 
fixes of the present tense, will have no difficulty in using 
the suffixes with the imperfect, perfect, pluperfect, and 
second future tenses. In every case the suffix is to be 
joined with the participle, and not with the auxiliary. Take 



104 

as examples %&C1 ^Ah> >■< cra ni a tog I was healing him, 

i*-> » ^>a O Jft< 8 0»a he has healed you, OOO? yJMUBBOJI #ie« 

had healed vie, ClOJOJOoa %ACI XV3 Ae m>i'# Aaw liealed her. 
> ■># I- » 

Preterite Tense. 

The regular preterite, i> Vv»ff)ft*l ) since its appropriate 
terminations so much resemble the suffix-pronouns, does 
not admit of their use except in a single case. In the third 
person singular masculine we may have olAMJBOSJie healed 
him, CI being substituted for the terminal 2 . 

When it is desirable to employ suffixes with the preterite, 
the form hMA&SI '7X0 is much used in Oroomiah. While 

the suffixes of this tense are, in the main, like those of the 
present, imperfect, pluperfect, and second future, it takes 
in many cases a sliding letter ^ , and uses for the suffixes of 
the third person singular Of, and CI' , and of the third per- 
son plural »^ and J&CI. The future tense follows this form 
of the preterite in every respect, and so too those tenses of 
the subjunctive which resemble the future in their form, 

except that, where Xaci is used, the pronoun is placed after 
it, and always takes the sliding letter ^ . 

^aimmmwhI' (m*) healed 

tf 1 * " *"f 1 thee (m.). i^U^w*; ti, ia 

' " , ', , , , , J ^aaOAaOUQtf J3JB I healed you. 

_ i*— mm.ii w mS I healed "^ . „ 7 

t ** V **** 3 '*7)thee(f.). 

e^SMiQjP "pJCt I healed him. ,$± S OJlX3 *pM ) 
, * t " f ', ., " ., ', \ I healed them 

<H.iSO.tOa *pJB I healed her. uivarHOVI *pM ) (more rarely). 

When the verb has a feminine nominative of the first 
person singular, we have, instead of the preceding form, 

riAlAXiBL3 *pJB, uAJJOKaa )OJB . etc. 

^i i mi i 

k ~ "**** '*** ( healedst me. ^T „ ^T < e dst us. 



O* Midi *fl{ S U Mm! al - ^ **»* »!■! 

ci^-^^i^he^ 1 - J**^^j ed8tthe * 



Thou heal- 
edst them 

(more rarely). 



He healed 
you. 



105 

"When the agent is a female, the form is »*A u&JOAIS *pJB , 
eto. 

iA ^dJCft!3l *0JB He healed me. iJ> ^&A3 y pJll 
i n i ^ i it i ' us ' 

_, A V w m ^± i_,iS He healed 

^^^theefm.). ^^ w^ ^i 

..«, I* >- .%»£ ^ij He healed •*?•"■ ^T 3 **7< 

' ^ »y *"»|thee(f.). 

Ovi < 9Uto9 w A J He healed ' -^ ^^ ,» 

9$ Wa *J> £° hea,ed «£ *uia *i 

w i I uer - II I 

The form is the same as the preceding, when the nomina- 
tive is the third person singular feminine, liaMS being sub- 
stituted for ^3Lto3 . When the verb is in the plural, whether 
it be of the first, second, or third person, its suffixes are 
similar to those of the second and third persons singular ; 

e. g. o£ AJOJBU 5X0 we healed him, S> *£fe£OA9 1&B 
i' ^ .J i t i v < < i 

ye healed us, uAJ wJMUBCJ *pJB they healed thee (f.). 

Where S is employed as a connecting letter, the suffix is 
generally written separately from the verb, though this is 
not essential. 

There is a very common form of the preterite, in which 
the pronoun, instead of being suffixed, as in the preceding 
examples, to the verb, is embraced within it, and precedes 
the terminal letters. The perfect participle of any verb 
being known, the pronoun is to be suffixed to this, after the 

final 2 has been dropped, and the terminations »*-k , 4ftoA , 

vJX* , etc., added to form the different persons. After x-^- 

we have simply w, <jO, etc. 

The pronouns are as follows, and are evidently fragments 
of the separable personal pronouns. 

4,7— me. A~ us. 

X— thee (m.). 
XL- thee (f.). 
*— her. +i— them. 

The pronouns for the third person singular masculine 
and the second person plural are wanting; but this gives 



14 



106 

rise to no practical difficulty, as the idea may always be ex- 
pressed by fc ^H te t l *pM with the appropriate suffixes. From 

$ 11 t 

JiMBftfl, its termination being dropped, we have MMOS. 
Adding to this the pronoun of the first person, with the 
terminations given above, we then have : 



A&maaa \ Thou < m,) healedst 

m H I C 



rae - ^&U««m S You healed 

7hou 

me. 



Thou (f.) healedst *- . H ' , t me, 
me. 

% \ M UC B OJ I He healed me 



> ^jjfljMOa i They healed 

U.MUGB03 She healed me. " ' ' me< 

By a similar process, we have : 

lA'fcUMBOa I healed thee (m.). kS **UflU»OJ3 \ We healed 

, a i v r ~ i, i I thee. 

J^ JOOUGDOS He healed thee. , . . mL L , , 

' ft > « * ff W0 1 \ Thev , healed 

j£ MOUC0O3 She healed thee. *~" " ' * Aee - 

II t 

.AVlMUQBOS I healed thee (fA A taMMtSI J We healed 

ii> AMU003 He healed thee. , , « , ml , , , 

' : ' ^ 4 ha*»oaj The y healed 

2A <\MUPA3 She healed thee. ^^ ' ' * thee * 

AaaCDOa I healed her. < ^MU»ftS | We^healed 

^ oAjMuooa J Thou ( m -) heal * 

^T^ ~< edsther. ^ ^^^ ..t You healed 

k ~££ 0a3 <Thou(f.)heal- •*»"*»"^f her . 
1J.-T-T —j edsther. 

^MUtDO.3 He healed her. ... ™ , , , 

T^ - aik AflUPfta J The y healed 

t^aeJDfta She healed her. *" ' < her- 

x? . , 7 I edstus. aaftSLajajpaa S 

.a^AMJP ftfl i Thou i{ - ] hea1 ' • • ' ' ' 

, ' . , , I edst us. 

3.S tWUfPftTI He healed us. , . , 

jaAaajBBfta She healed us. 



You healed 



They healed 



107 

I healed them. ^V.lBmftl \ W £J 



«,a\^ua&9 J Thou ( m -) heal " 

7 , 7 l edstthem. ^.^.^m,, ! You healed 

, ( edst them. 

JVifriffftoa He healed them. ,. , , _, , , , 

, , .^bjDOS They healed 

iXJftOoa She healed them. ' * toem - 

GENERAL REMARKS ON THE SUFFIXES OF VERBS. 

It should be understood that all the suffixes given above 
may be used in precisely the same manner with verbs of 
both classes, whether regular or irregular. Some of these 
forms, however, are not in universal use among the peo- 
ple. For instance, in Tekhoma, instead of the expressions 

hOw utCyaaaOJOia, wOu 9IO&OOJ&3, we hear UiS wOw jYl l VB! > *1 , 

^ II I ^ II I (• * II (' 

CIS ytu .TwrvWI . Nor do any verbs there admit of the 

suffixes k*OfO and Of O . The form tflttHM 'pJB is never used 

i i v « i 

in the interior districts of Koordistan. In its place we may 
hear the form of the preterite last given, which includes 
the pronoun within itself; or, in case the idea could not 
be expressed by that, as " I healed you (pi.)," expressions 

such as ^gAft.Sl uVinWAa would take its place. 

m II I II I 

There are other local peculiarities in the use of the suf- 
fixes, such as fc*WO»AfU» they saw him, on which it is unne- 
cessary to dwell. The usage in our books has of late years 
been quite uniform. It may, however, be remarked that 
the suffixes u^bj, d ft.S j, etc., are found much oftener in 
the written than in the spoken Syriac of Oroomiah. 

RELATION OF THE MODERN TO THE ANCIENT 

VERB. 

Before dismissing the Verb, it will be interesting to refer 
briefly to the structure of the verb in the ancient language, 
and trace, if possible, some of the changes it has undergone. 



108 

And, first of all, it is obvious that regular verbs of three 
radicals of the first class bear a strong analogy in form and 
signification to the conjugation Peal. The imperative is in 
both precisely the same, except that in the modern *-^ is 
almost universally added to the plural. We do, however, 

hear in one district, Nochea, O A> MJ t hear ye, OX come ye. 
The perfect participle of the modern is also the same with 
the passive participle of the ancient, except that it always 
takes the termination 2', in accordance with the general usage 
of the modern. Sometimes the ancient participle is used in 
an active sense ; e. g. Ai B T , >J »3 J, etc. So, much oftener, 
the modern. Sometimes the ancient participle unites both 
significations in the same verb, as in the case of 9um*2. 
So ordinarily the modern. 

It also seems easy to see how the modern infinitive is de- 
rived from the ancient, viz. i V\rVw , ^ being substituted 
for jo, or, rather, to being dropped, the usual 2 'being added, 
and the -'-, as a necessary consequence, being changed into 
-*-. We thus have jKSLftV 

As to the preterite, when we find C& *pJB in the ancient, 

i* • 

meaning "he rose to himself," i. e. he rose, who can doubt 

that this is nothing more nor less than XitAOJB ? So OIJ* &f} 

I* * i* i ii 

in the ancient is equivalent to Aj># 2 in the modern, OfJt >j> S j 

to )S.&A , CJ^V hfilxd to l S »a V4 , and so on. Our mode, 

however, of spelling the preterite, more correctly represents 
the present pronunciation. In regard to the general idiom, 
see Hoff. § 123, 6, and Nordh. § 868. 

As to the future, it is very plainly derived from the pres- 
ent participle of the ancient language. Any one who will 
examine Hoff. § 57, 2, and compare the forms there given 
with the modern, will be satisfied at once. The present sub- 
junctive has of course the same origin. No trace remains 
of the ancient future. 



109 

As to the particle VlS, prefixed to the future of all verbs, 

it is barely possible that it is identical with «^«"^, bidi, which 
is employed in the same way in the Armenian verb. But 

it is far more probable that it is a fragment of i±3 to wish. 
In some parts of Koordistan the people use J4»3 for *m ; 
e. g. Jxio^a l±J3 I wish to sing, literally, that I may sing. 
But in Tal we find a mode of speaking which seems to be 
decisive as to the origin of feS , and also goes to show that 
it should have been written ajj . Thus : 

m '' ' 

»aA»f!J ^»9 I will sing (m.). „ , , 

." : ,"<.'• <**09 ? ^Aa 1st plural. 

.SOOf? ^Sa 1st fem. / ^•' 

Vl.aJ»$a Xi.S,a 2nd masc. .^A-aaBf a _0^*ijS 2nd pi. masc. 

uVla^oya w&&9 2nd fem. ^-^-3^8f9 ^&*Sh3 2nd. pi. fem. 

O^Ofp iS.3 3rd masc. f 

j. " ; A t*9£»fa ytik9 or u>a«9 3rd plural. 

$»*»*? USX 3rd fem. ' ' ~ 

In the same way the verb to wish is used as an auxiliary in 
Persian, in forming the future, as <Xii ^3- . In English also, 
will and wish are in many cases identical ; e. g. What will 
you ? which may mean what do you wish t So will in other 
languages: vouloir, volo, (iovXopai, which mean either to 
will or to wish. Compare also the modern Greek future 

Gtlut yQ&yei, MXu) sheet, etc., / will write, I will be. So 
ii i 

too, from the ancient aOk«»&» we have the modern aOw»!o , 
' i ' i ' " i 

and from the ancient A j w ■» , the modern I'VN.oto . 

HI II I 

As to the present participle, the question may fairly be 
raised, whether the prefix 9 is not really a preposition, the 
present participle being in fact a verbal noun. If this idea 

be correct, mOw XniASl may be literally translated lam in 

(the act of) finishing ; *0-» 2-^aZS i~ am in (the act of) eating. 

The verb ^«\ to laugh, which uses both forms ?V»AS and 

,7>»y*1 in the present, the latter being clearly a noun, seems 

to throw light on this point. 



110 

On examining the second class of verbs of three radicals, 
we see a resemblance to the conjugation Pae'l. Take, for 

m ' m '' 

example, the verb ^»Sk3 (modern <hsv3) to bless. In the an- 
cient, the imperative is 1t*2t, and the plural 0>A9b9 : in the 

» « I m ( " ' ' " ' 

modern, <t&9 , »^.. a . S . The infinitive in the ancient is 

«. '"" • • . ', '.*. 

oaaJ ama • in the modern, ^acvaaa or i&OSVS, the first form 

being no doubt the more ancient one. Here the resem- 
blance in sound is very striking, and a transposition of the 
O will make the written forms not dissimilar. 

As to the present participle, e. g. %2tOaJ3LiO , this may be 

derived from the infinitive of Pae'l, and can be from nothing 
else. It is therefore to be considered primitively an infini- 
tive, though now used as a participle. The perfect participle 
is evidently from the participle of Pael. Thus, the ancient 

is }aadu» , jLaaLsaa ; the modern, ^aaoitto , iLasoAto . 

ml mil ml * » I 

O has been inserted here, but the sound is not materially 
changed. The same remark applies to the preterite, which 
has a derivation similar to that of the preterite of the first 

class. Compare the ancient uA <«9k9 with the modern 

. . i ' a i 

i tA ttaaa . As to the future, a single remark may be made. 

Since -'- is the distinguishing vowel of Pae'l, it is not strange 
that this should be often preferred to — in the modern. 

And so we find it, e. g. t^&X, and many other verbs of 
the second class. The -J- is also naturally preferred in the 
present participle. 

Verbs of the second class often bear the same relation to 
verbs of the first class that Pael does to Peal, neuter verbs 
of the first class becoming transitive in the second class, as 
has been already shown (Hoff. § 59). 

The causative verbs, formed by prefixing da to the root, 

are evidently connected, if not identical, with the participle 

of Afel, or, if any one prefers, with the conjugation of Mafel. 

•' • * 

Thus, from the ancient tOXS , we have JfaJtta ; and from 

, ', ' .ml"'' 

the modern h0a>S, we have also JSSkUSo . So too, from an- 

m I I " m I " '. m\ L I 

cient 90w»&> modern »a*»Ao • from ancient «* « ■»» , mod- 
, / 1 1 u i a i 

em >H,V»*D . 



Ill 

While the signification of any particular verb in the an- 
cient may not correspond to that of the same verb in the 
modern, the general usage in regard to Afel and the modern 
causative verb ia the same. For instance, the Nestorians 
sometimes simply change the intransitive into a transitive. 

m '' 

Thus, in the modern, from the intransitive #a»3 to dry, we 
have f SbSUo to dry, i. e. to make dry. Sometimes they change 
the transitive verb into a causative, with an accusative of 
the person and another of the thing; thus, from >X. *3 U> 
to put on (clothes), we have JU Ha^B to cause to put on: 
JjkoV, CTt^ Jt aa Jo put clothes upon him. Sometimes these 
forms are used in an intransitive sense, as JWj^M to freeze, 
u«*ste to rest; which, though they admit of a causative sig- 
nification, are oftener intransitive. Compare Hoff. § 60. 

We see also in the Modern Syriac traces of several of the 
rarer conjugations. For example, the reduplication of a 

single letter of the root ; as am, from 1>A ; JL iA,il , from 

4 • '' 4 • 4' • 4? " ' * • " • 

>^i>n; > !T\S\ | from **■*,; or the falling away of one 

radical, and the reduplication of the other two ; as (Palpel) 

kJOXXip, from t02a; At4t , from kd?X; or the addition 

11 t 11 11 1 n t 

of 2 to the root (in the ancient <J) ; as (Pali) 2dS9j& , from 
^>9lS; 299b«*, from SIm; 2 aA— , from &X*» ; or the addi- 
tion of »^to the root; as (Palen) »>3a (ancient uiM) ; 

II m I t m I 

&&A, from iS&&; »90P, from iaoja ; or the prefixing 
of X; as (Shafel) > ! k S» »» X , from ASJ . ; or the prefixing 
of to; as (Safel) a\>*B, from &Jk,a ; SOUJO, probably 
from 3 b3U»; or the prefixing of A.; as (Tafel) a aJUk, prob- 

" ■ ' 4 « ' ^4' <» 4 " ' 

ably from 9k3\ (aOliX^n*); or, in a few cases, verbs of 

t ^ I t mil ' ' ' ' 

five radicals from verbs of three radicals, as in Hebrew, by 
reduplication; as 9S S f O , from t^.A9. 



112 



ARTICLE. 



The Modern Syriac has properly no definite article ; but 
the demonstrative pronouns ©Of masc, »*Cf fern., and ul2 
comm. pi. are often used as we use the definite article in 
English. It need hardly be remarked that this is also the 
usage of the ancient language. Compare the Hebrew arti- 
cle ft, which is no doubt a fragment of the pronoun j^n 
(Nordh. § 648). Ordinary usage prefixes these pronouns to 
the noun, and hardly admits of their following it. 

The numeral 1*» masc, }'^» fem., is also employed as an 
indefinite article, in accordance with early usage. Compare 
the Chaldee "[ft and the occasional use in Hebrew of TJlfct . 

On the plain of Oroomiah, %L is prefixed to nouns of both 
genders. 

NOUNS. 

The Nestorians formerly made no distinction between 
nouns and adjectives ; but, as there are many and obvious 
reasons for treating them separately, the general practice of 
grammarians will be followed. 

GENDER. 

The noun is of two genders, masculine and feminine, often 
not distinguishable by their termination. Thus, ?t »i ^ , a 
miller is masculine, and J**X time is feminine, though both 
have the same termination ii . Only one rule of much im- 
portance can be given for the gender of nouns as distinguish- 
ed by their form, viz. that those which receive the ending }b. 
are feminine. This rule is nearly or quite a universal one. 
5{P»3 a house, fcJUM B a fist, ^OJM death, and Jjjx »2 a gelding, 
which are masculine, are not to be considered as exceptions ; 
for in these words X is a part of the root, and not of the 



113 

termination. The final syllable of the masculine noun is 
often changed into lb., or more rarely %* , to form the fem- 
inine ; e. g. ffxa u < a donkey, jJV M fly* a she-donkey ; iXO O J O 
a horse, % JOoJO a mare ; i*4kN a fox, % \\b a she-fox, 
etc. 2oo*« a serpent has for its feminine JirfOOOm, some- 
what irregularly. 

In a few nouns, the vowels are modified in the feminine ; 
e. g. Z a VA a dog, fej v a a bitch; i\% a tooth, %AA a 
little tooth, as of a watch- wheel, etc. 

Some nouns ending in 2 are feminine ; e. g. l*J>l a mill, 

%iX a hen-house, ivi a kind of cradle, 2»o2 a manger, jMJk 
i' i' » , i' i " i' i " <■ , 

a recess. 230AX a /ore?. Also the names of females, as %*&, 

;','''', * 

2h, },u>, is-, etc. This rule has frequent exceptions, and 

is given with some little hesitation. 

A separate word is also used in some cases for the femin- 
ine ; e. g. ,7 VI 8 a male sparrow, %bh&M a female sparrow ; 
2s&XD plural (m. and f.) ; i3i» a raafe woK Is"*** a «^e- 
wo/'/'; utt Vy tl a male cat, ^V^ a she-cat ; JiO ~ a drake, 
«>»ao2 a e?«c&; jXa a maZe buffalo, %X J& h ^ a female buffalo. 

Gender distinguished by signification. — The names of males, 
of nations, as Israel, Judah, etc., of rivers, mountains, and 
months, of artizans, traders, and professional persons, are 
masculine. So too, as in Hebrew, a multitude of material- 
nouns, beginning with 2 a^ 3 a body, such as those denoting 

gold, silver, copper, and all the metals, excepting lead ; wood, 
stone (sometimes feminine), wool, flesh, grass, dirt, glass, 
cotton, fire, lime, paper, spice, gall-nuts, copperas ; also 
chair, table, book, lock, key, bread, etc. 

On the other hand, all names of females, whether belong- 
ing to the human race, or not ; relations of woman, such as 
mother, wife, etc. ; the names of villages, cities, provinces, 
countries, and islands, are feminine. The names of trees 

vol. T. 15 



114 

and fruits are partly masculine and partly feminine. Nouns 
of capacity are generally feminine, but exceptions are not 
infrequent. Abstract nouns are also in the majority of cases 

feminine, beginning with l*»OS spirit, and take for the most 

part their appropriate termination +&■ or ^Si». When 

an article has two sizes, if the word denoting the larger is 

masculine, that denoting the smaller or inferior is naturally 

feminine ; e. g. the earthen vessels denoted respectively by 

iiLaai^and jLi-aaJC,; ZiA and jajoa*. ; %io±b. and 
ii iii ». ' i 

foi ia > X ; the copper vessels m\ and JAAMJ ; 10O&UGB a 

Jox, and u « Afl a little box, etc. ,1i»S.ltt> and ^.i>A.fO are 

both feminine, but the latter does not necessarily denote a 

small knife. The rule has, however, probably exceptions. 

The rule in Hebrew that "members of the body by na- 
ture double are feminine," has in Modern Syriac some ex- 
ceptions, although the words used to express elbow, knee, 
heel, ear, hand, foot, thigh, shoulder-blade, eye, cheek, etc., 
are evidence of its existence. 

Some nouns are used by the people of one district as mas- 
culine, and by those of another as feminine : as loo? the air, 
or the weather. In the plural, there is generally no distinc- 
tion of genders. 

The above rules and suggestions may be of some use to 
the learner, and are the result, however unsatisfactory they 
may be, of full and careful investigation. But it should be 
understood that no foreigner can speak the language cor- 
rectly, without a thorough study of the subject for himself. 

NUMBER. 

There are two numbers, as in English, the singular and 
the plural. The plural, in the case of most nouns, is 
formed by changing — , which is ordinarily the vowel of 

S9 mm $ 

the last syllable, into — , as !***& apart, %HXJ3> parts, and 
placing over the word the two square dots now called ZJJfluB) , 
but in the ancient language oftener uA93 . In a similar 



115 

way, many nouns which do not in the singular terminate in 

2 form their plural by adding 2 ; e. g. VlMO a people, plu- 

*'•• •' ' ". ■ 

ral V^ • These nouns are mostly of foreign origin, 
i' # » 

Nouns ending in 2k form their plurals by changing that 
termination into 2xi , and more rarely into 2XO or 2XX . 
Thus, feaoV^ fruit, fc»lftVi^ fruits; %A\ ^ a cave, 
2Xfc5i^ caves ; liS&M a lip, 2\uO lips ; 1'tSAS a woman, 

flu II |* II ml 

2XX3k3 women. In some cases, where the plural is formed 
•' * ' * 

by adding 2X* , the original X is retained, and especially 

if it forms a part of the root. We thus have, from %JL\ a 
face, JaJbnS , and not 2XAS ; from J&*3 a house, ]^on9 ; 
from 2X*» a sister, IfiaiS^, . Yet, in vulgar usage, X is 
sometimes dropped from 5>*<sa» , the plural of 2XS» a vil- 
lage. 2x»a a yard, forms its plural irregularly, thus, 2XlSk . 
So ^a a bride, 2xik» ; ^AX a week, 2&XX ; 2X9J> a 
burden, 2X»A. 2X* an ear retains the X, and has for its 

plural 5&-*V» . The class forming the plural in 2X* is very 
numerous, and comprises the greater part of the feminine 
nouns in 2X , and perhaps all in %A . JjjoatflJBI testimony 

2 mm 5 ' ' 

has generally 2XaSCJXB , but admits a regular plural, 
i' 

In Koordistan, the plural termination of nouns of which 

the singular ends in 2X is 5s— , Jjjb , or 2XX , in accordance 

with the usage of the ancient language. We thus have 

5s*oliu», JjriJaX,, etc. 
« • i a 

The plural termination %J* is by no means confined to nouns 

of which the singular ends in 2X . If a word terminate in 

2 f the 2 may be dropped and 5>* added ; e. g. WUk a heart, 

1\ A!XA ; 2 sq)a a river, jdjtviojA . If the word terminate 
t a i i* i 

in 2,, the 2 is dropped as before, and — is changed into -i- • 



116 

e.g. 2l©2 a manger, /5ld9'So2; ISOOJO a horse, %/MJOOXO . 
%AA a recess has either 2XOOA or IkM . If the word 
terminate in a consonant, this takes — , and then the term- 
ination is added; e. g. wioil^a pool, Jj-OJkoi^; VvfllV an 
army, %Jt%AM>* . But it is to be noted that ItttJaX a 
mercy does not take this -*-, but makes its plural %£KX13A . 

A very prevalent, but vulgar, pronunciation of plurals in 
2\*, 2X0, or 2XA, is to change the sound of 2X final into 
that of long e. Thus, the plural of 2XB0JGB is pronounced 
soQsawae; of ft 1 * 8 ) mawae, etc. 

A class of nouns by no means inconsiderable form the 
plural by changing the final 2 ' of the singular into 2X ; e. g. 
)AAl a heel, %A*l; i*A02 a road, %J£ol ; jfluJk a 
cfowod, /SMuik. 

Another class change the singular termination 2 into 24 ; 
or, in case the singular does not end in 2 , add 2* to it. 
Examples of the first are 2j»BL< a field, ,fixflU> ; Zo**» a 
vision, %i*%» : of the other, k\a,a9 reaZ estate, i*l>iS*a.lr> ; 

Still another small class is characterized by the doubling 
in the plural of the consonant which precedes the final 2 ; 
e. g. j£oAx a skirt, ii^ftAx ; ZijOjS a nostril, l&JCiaA ; 
jT»V1 a knee, j'V^Ttl . 

U i* II , , 

Some few nouns are reducible to no rule ; e. g. i\OJS 

a daughter, 5sA3 ; %AX a year, %IX ; XiOX3 a son, 2&aj£J ; 
»* i* i' a i i> 

%S.3 an egg, X&l; 2'VtV, a husband, 2*3> iftV^ or 2nT*lV ; 

)• i» (• » # i* # i» ■ / 

jjAii'yw a cjify, tji i >>*» ; 2X9kX a church, 2AAX- . Some 
have Turkish plurals, with the Syriac termination added ; 
e. g. 25^x an island, 2 vv> X . So sometimes 2a> a master, 
23^2. 



117 

Some nouns have two or three plurals ; as, &** a verb, 

.I « i" a ~ a ,< i' i' 

It is noticeable, in regard to a number of these, that the sig- 

t i 
nification changes with the form of the plural ; e. g. 3a> *tl\ 

»• * i mm I ' * ' 

a grape, }!X\\ grapes (by the quantity), 3fr» au . V individual 
grapes ; %+L^** a grain of wheat, X\—> wheat (by the quan- 
tity), 1&>^i*" grains of wheat. So Jj^Op a shoe, 2jO~ , 
jl^aOp; ffia Mua bead, la^Mu* , ^ '****— ; %-MJXA aboot, 

«' «.> II ,1 ,1 II ,' II ,i I IX 

mm I f mm ' « • ' ..* '.mm ' 

iaaa>a , k*aoa>a ; JJAaaa a gram, va , %Uaajk& . 

Some nouns are used only in the plural ; e. g. J»* wafer, 
!»*, Zi/e, JHl»a mercy, etc. Some, such as names of metals, 
do not admit of any plural. 

The plurals of most nouns must be learned by practice, 

as, with the exception of those in Jjjft , no certain rule can 

be given for ascertaining what form the plural assumes. 
The design has been in the preceding examples to give the 
plurals in most common use ; but, as every native we con- 
sult thinks, of course, the custom in his own village is the 
prevalent one, it is difficult to arrive at certainty. In this, 
and a great number of other cases, the forty pupils of our 
Seminary, who are from places widely separated from each 
other, have been questioned. 

CASE. CONSTRUCT AND EMPHATIC STATE. 

The termination of most nouns is not affected by a change 
of case. Their different relations are generally expressed 
by prepositions, as in English and many other languages. 

The construct state, a remnant of the ancient language, 
is also found in the Modern Syriac. Some forms, as, for 

instance, u£S302 uOS the sons, i. e. people, of Oroomiah, are 

in constant use. So, too, with the nouns ending in i* , 

in certain districts ; e. g. ,78rk»i\ kifiu a baker of bread, for 

, 7m .» \ a % \ ». & > . Moreover, to a limited extent, the first 



118 

noun changes final 2 into ** when in the construct 
state. "We thus have »^b JnXO the bow of our Lord, the 
rainbow, for •££•& laJfifl ; lfit» w»Vli <Ae ear 0/ a ooa^, for 

'.',',' II H I ' 

2jb*A ^4 . The ideas also conveyed by a large number of 
our adjectives are expressed by 2a£a , in the construct state, 
prefixed to a noun. Thus, 29k*S liMo lord or possessor of 
usefulness; faMX^S. 2a>SO lord of wonder, i. e. wonderful; 
?1rt>\ 2a£o lord of price, or valuable. Compare the usage of 
Anc. Syriac with I -Mo , >>5>9 , etc. 2a£s is sometimes omit- 
ted; e.g. Jj»rf J^oaf xLao! the road is (lord of) fear ; 
2-k»i !lMu4w 2bf2 this is (lord of) price, i. e. dear. 

As the emphatic state in Anc. Syriac gradually lost its 
significance (Hoff §109, 2), so in the Modern it has disap- 
peared altogether ; or, rather, most nouns derived from the 
Ancient have assumed the emphatic form as their only form, 
thus virtually annihilating it. Thus, we have now only 

IvSf , %'fta>Va» , etc. So, too, the pi urals %ibf and %JB&± 3 , 

ml I I i i mm L I * m ' »' ' 

the latter being in Koordistan ^ JA Vin . 

DERIVATION OF NOUNS. 

The great majority of purely Syriac nouns in the modern 
language are derived from the ancient form of the verb, and 
have continued in use from early times, without any material 

change. Such cases as the modern Jj>f aj£ for the ancient 

Li ' " 

J&fXS, need no explanation. As this subject of deriva- 
tion has been fully discussed by Hoffman, §§ 87, 88, it will 
be sufficient, here, to speak of it as affecting directly the 
signification of nouns. 

Derivation from Nouns and Adjectives. 

1. Patrial Nouns. — These are formed from names of dis- 
tricts, countries, etc., by changing the termination into %* 
or i. '' ; or, in case the word ends in a consonant, by adding 



119 

one of these terminations ; Z*i is the most common of them. 
Examples are ilia OX,, an inhabitant of Gawar, from ioik,; 
, 7 .> V*n tti « X an inhabitant of Tehhoma, from Jioo-wN. ; jUUGOOS 
a Russian, from iXBOS ; iL.x>Jy an inhabitant of Tiary, from 
2**^ ; 2-agaef a Hindoo, from »acf , or, better, the ancient 
•a*C7. See the same mode of formation in the ancient 
language (Hoff. § 89, 2). 

2. Diminutive Nouns. — These are formed by changing the 
termination of the noun into 1*0 , as in the ancient language. 
Thus, from J^L. a boy, we have JaoXJ a Utile boy; from 2X0 
a priest, XxaJUB (a term of some disrespect) a priestling ; 
from %3M an old man, U H Xtt a grandfather (literally, a lit- 
tie old man) ; from 1X3 a father, llOJB a K#fe father. So 
J^aoilU* a &'#Ze swfer, JsAoVlAa a K#fe tw/e. 2iOu»2 and 
iioaa , which in Anc. Syriac denote, respectively, a fo'ftfe 
brother, and a frMe son, have now lost their signification, and 
are the most common terms for brother and son. The di- 
minutive terminations ?JB9ft , 2&OJBBO , %i*a,a , seem now to 
have become obsolete. 

3. Abstract Nouns. — These are formed in a great number 
of cases from concrete nouns by changing the termination 
into &A ; e. g. from 2aofA a witness, %MafJO testimony ; 
oan«Bo2 an artificer, &A9k&tff>o2 mechanical skill ; from 
>SU»Cf a physician, fe a.M u aoy sMZ m medicine, or the prac- 
tice of medicine. Sometimes the termination is changed into 
V^* > or, where the word ends in a consonant, this is added. 
Thus, from ^MX9 an enemy, % ft t i . Yl L X a enmity; from JAJ<U» 

?■ * * • 

a relative, fc A t ia J L . relationship. iSSOJS forms its deriva- 

' " ••* '*'•» 

tive m correspondence with P>a«B, viz. ^auaaaCLO. 



120 

Note. — Sometimes these abstracts are derived from other parts of 
speech ; e. g. from %SO& how much, % ftinWfr ; from i^ObOftS 
opposite, %ift >o Baa . 

f f J 

This general mode of deriving abstract nouns is probably 
admissible in a much greater number of words in the Mod- 
ern than in the Ancient Syriac, and is of great value for the 
introduction of new terms. 

In a very few cases, nouns of this termination are not 
abstract. Thus, V**** a loom. Compare the same word 
in the ancient language, denoting a shop. 

Adjectives are changed in a similar manner into abstract 
nouns. Thus, from foo^great, we have %M&k,greatness ; 
from 29&J0 courageous, j^A^HO courage; from JS8* high, 

i mi ' ' ' 

^ . OJo a height, etc. 

Verbal Nouns. 

A noun expressing the agent is in many cases formed 
from regular verbs of three radicals, whether of the first or 
second class, transitive or intransitive, by giving the first 

radical -^, or -'- when the root has -'- and adding %L ' for 

the termination. Take, for example, the transitive verb 

tt&Sa of the first class, meaning, to hold. From this we 

have JjJS.39 a holder, or one who holds. Take the transi- 

tive verb kS&X, of the second class, denoting to tempt. By 

the same mode of formation we have ZvSSbX, a tempter. 

When the verb is not transitive, the derived word partakes 

rather of the nature of an adjective than of a noun ; e. g. from 

Ska*3 to be or become lean, we have JA&JWJI apt to become lean. 

«" $ iff 

From <£°? to sleep, comes ?. vV» a one who sleeps. This may 

be used in construction with or without a noun ; e. g. 

JjASOf %xil X* sleeping man! or, without a noun to 

agree with it, IJAJO OX, X lVW ? a sleeper in the grave. 



121 

When a noun is derived from a verb used in both the first 
and second classes with different significations, the connec- 
tion only can determine the meaning of the derivative. Thus, 
> A «» , when conjugated according to the first class, means 
to squeeze, to escape ; and according to the second class, to save. 
The derivative Z*i*>«* may mean either a squeezer, one who 
escapes, or a deliverer. 

In the ancient language, derivatives of this form and 
termination have often an abstract signification, as 2i9h9l 
destruction; but this is rarely, if ever, the case in the modern. 
Zi-SbX, from IsS. to rain, is, however, sometimes used as 
equivalent to 1VS^V> rain; e.g. 3s*X 2C?2 &*2 X i^sX, Jas 
there is much rain this year. There may be other examples 
of this kind. 

When the verb is not a regular one, the derivative is in 

some cases slightly different from the forms given above. 

In verbs with medial 2 or * , as »XZs , we have * for the 

second radical, and the derived noun is XtxJA. s2s has 
* •* 9 . . . "" 

2ia2» in Koordistan. In verbs with medial X , the deriva- 

tive may be either regular, as Ziiik.iL, from t^^, orirreg- 

* J Sit " 

ular, as ZiuXJL. . In verbs with final 2 , - takes the place 
of 2, and the derivative is the same in form, whether the 
verb be of the first or of the second class. Thus from 2»» we 
have Zi*a?, and from ZAA, second class, Zi u du p . Verbs 
with final X are generally regular in forming the derivative, 
when of the first class ; but when of the second class, as 
tJk&Oukt to assemble, the derivative retains the — . We thus 
have Z j«V » X - The derivative of the irregular verb 1±\ 
or ZftV\ may be regular, but as spoken is , *- 4 - "S^ 
^S*a90T and similar verbs are very regular ; e. g. %iio9tocl . 
7*nV4 and verbs which are inflected like it take * ; e. g. 

vol. v. 16 



122 

1'jJjoaik ; lo&lio makes iiLa&zt , 2*2* makes 2iu2So , 
9*2* makes 2no2* , >Xttso makes 2Jxflb». 

" ' II I It I II I 

It should be mentioned that these nouns, nearly or quite 
all, form a feminine in Is. ; e. g. 2»-Xd , %i A it . The dis- 
tinction may be kept up in the plural. For instance, H'.VO 
«fc wAo rearf, j»> V »3 L fl females who read. But this is not 
the common usage. 

Care must be taken not to confound .VwVfl a vjorker, 
with ?v »» \^ work ; %J 6JbJ b one who commands, with )£xJBOJ& 
a commandment; IxBiJa one who saves, with iLoio^ salva- 
tion; % \$\ < a learner, with liSAflu* learning ; %L&Ji* a 

* $ i ' 
burner, or one who burns, with Zi3»CL> fuel, etc. 

The noun expressing the agent is occasionally formed by 
giving -?- to each radical and adding a terminal 2. Thus, 
from a£9f to sing, is formed lUibf a singer; from i^aJk, to 



braid, 2-^9^ a braider ; from ? t**» to reap, 2»£*» a reaper; 
from ft i ^ »» to c%, 2a J Sw a digger. These nouns do not al- 
low ', with their first radical, as sometimes in the Ancient 
Syriac (Hoff. § 87, 11). They differ from those terminating 
in 2* by denoting the habitual action or condition of the 
agent. Thus 2»9»* j may mean, simply, one who sings on a 
particular occasion ; while 2a£of denotes one who makes 
singing to some extent his business. Many verbs allow 
either form of derivative. 

Sometimes the noun denoting the agent is formed by in- 
serting 6 between the second and third radicals, and giving 
the first and last radicals — , with a terminal 2 . Thus we 
have, from \\»H to kill, )\(t\a a murderer ; ?nn\)4 a 
slapjack, from u*J j y fl to be broad; iOOXS a saviour, from 
hdxS to save; ZAOXO a crower, a cock, from 2x0 to call. 



123 

No one verb, so far as recollected, admits of both the 
forms last given, although we find in Anc. Syriac 2aJS9f and 
2sa&f . This indeed is unnecessary, as, if both forms ex- 
isted, each would be the synonym of the other. 

These two kinds of derivatives in the modern language 
never have an abstract signification, and Hoffman, § 87, 12, 
probably is mistaken in saying that they have in the ancient, 

quoting JJBQJB& , etc., in proof of it. We, however, translate 
uC?oL.c&2 by ©fOO^S** in Acts 7 : 10, as there is here 
little, if any, practical difference between distressers and dis- 
tresses. The form with O does not, in the modern, take — 
with its first radical ; nor is there any such distinction as in 
the ancient between Iao\_> a father, and 2»OJsj a child. 

Following the general analogy of the ancient language 
(Hoff. 87, 3), the modern forms many abstracts, from regu- 
lar verbs of the first class, by giving the second radical — 
and adding 2 ' for the masculine and lb. for the feminine 
termination. Thus, from Am to split, we have ,?"^>a , 
JS-Afri A splitting; from ^jfcS to cut, V»>&, j$So'X& cutting ; 
from J j JB B to plunder, %2AM , foJU UPB , plundering. Some 
verbs use either of these forms indifferently; as jti&X, 
l^JJJUS. perishing, destruction, from J3L»A. to perish; but one 
or the other is generally preferred. Thus, from &A& to 
fight, we have 1Sj»3 fighting, but very rarely 2&3Ukd; from 
ASHL^to marry, 2'sA^, marrying, but not so often ZkixixV. . 

It is to be noted that, while the signification of the mascu- 
line and feminine forms, standing by themselves, is nearly or 
quite the same, their construction with other words is some- 
what different. Thus, &CIX llsi %JB and **»» 3&-Mx 10 
convey the same idea, viz., for drinking water; and yet 
JJXiX and 5&-»"X cannot be interchanged in these expres- 
sions without doing violence to the idiom of the language. 



124 

In all cases the masculine form is the same with the infin- 
itive after it has lost its prefix. Thus we have, from Av .i 
to learn, %%*A ; from > VM L 1 to hear, %tX ba& etc. A care- 

ful examination of the various uses of this derivative, which 
will be explained in the Syntax, leads us to suppose that it 
is properly the infinitive itself. 

Note. — This form is evidently traceable to the ancient infinitive. 
Schultens and some other grammarians speak of the ancient infinitive 
as taking this form (Hoft% p. 172, foot-note 2), which, if true, may 
throw light on the question. Moreover, this form is used in trans- 
lating such expressions as <ui&l i Vfl ^B (modern ,7\»H1 , t\ » Hl ), 
where ijJakiO is of course the infinitive. The infinitive is used in a 

t H 

way similar to the so-called verbal nouns in Turkish and Persian, 
which languages may be supposed to have exerted some, though 
perhaps slight, influence in moulding the Modern Syriac verb ; e. g. 

«£*&2 utMAl for drinking (Turkish) ; ^^ J4 ^ji for doing 

business (Persian). This will be farther discussed in the Syntax. 

From verbs of the second class, an abstract noun is formed, 
which, when regular, takes -£- (or -f- when the root has -|-) 
on the first radical, and 4- on the second radical (unless * fol- 
lows, when the vowel is — ), with the termination 2A. The 
derivative is of course feminine ; e. g. from hfc&X to de- 
stroy is formed fc .BL A X the act of destroying ; while, as above, 
3fr„ttL^X , from tJd-HV to perish, signifies the consequences of 
the act, i. e. destruction. From lAihS to save, to complete, is 
formed 2N0&B the act of completing or saving; while Jj«flakS, 
from J33bS to finish, denotes simply the end. From /fl*S90f 
we have" JjiolttBW ; from ***£, ^*Sa5k^; from 3bX^ , 

ika^*.; from ZiLfcj, 5^*3J»; from ^Mki^ to assemble (tr.), 

'LSjoii,; from 2»2a>, 2&-S2*; fromMAj, 5&*lfco; from 
t% »• t > »• ' > 

2ov^9 , 5s-»0>^» • inOP also, in this, conforms to verbs 

i' ' ' " ,i i / j 

of the second class, and makes JjASOfr* . 



125 



NOUNS FROM FOREIGN LANGUAGES. 

So many words have been introduced into Modern Syriao 
from the Turkish and Persian, the latter being often intro- 
duced through the Koordish, that at least an allusion should 
be made to them. Among these are nouns with the Turk- 
ish termination uA (, ^s*), denoting the agent or worker; e. g. 

ukA30£9S a blacksmith, from SAMS iron; uAMJlOXS a shoe- 
maker, from JJJOJLS a shoe; »aa.V a mediator, from liS, 
an interval; itV.iO.VS a combatant, from wAX9 a contest. 

So, too, with the Persian termination SO (.la) ; e. g. BAWD 02 

^ , t , • * * * ' 

an artificer, from SiJNJCOOZ a master workman ; aJk30X a j?en- 

#en<, from JJIOX. repentance ; 3J>OVioii. v a criminal, from slia 

a cnrae. Both these classes are employed as if genuine 

Syriac nouns, and may form abstracts in %A . Thus, we 

have 55-Ob*i>aai9!» <Ae business of a blacksmith ; ^ 03 > 'V 30X 

repentance, etc. 

We find also occasionally the Persian termination 99 ( .b), 

denoting the keeper or possessor ; e. g. 99jifc*# a treasurer, 

from UlU or %%*%L treasure; 9 9A MX a wise mati, from 

>XflLX wisdom ; a v»yil > a merciful man, from ^SSkA mercy. 

As in Persian and Turkish, the termination »£UGD) (qU*«) 
signifies pfoce. Thus, ^Wlifo Arabia; +&MOOAVI India; 

', i m > j. " I II ' 

.AA&VixS Europe, or the place of the Franks. 

So too we find the Persian termination «? (..A>), signify- 
ing a vessel; as ^ >M\ . H a pen-case, ^Su»A a tea-pot, +S%OCUB 
a coffee-pot, etc. 

There are other terminations more rarely heard, as in 

9b*K,9f a goldsmith; 3o50X*0? a n'cA man; >».a a qarden- 

er; ft- VX i (Turkish) a native, from 9>» a place. 

Perhaps it is not strange that in some instances the pre- 
ceding terminations should be connected with purely Syriac 



126 

words, as they are sufficiently numerous in the spoken lan- 
guage to create a habit of annexing them without discrim- 
ination. The following is an example : t>>1mV^ a miller, 
instead of ,Ti»»^i . 

The Persian words b not, and ^j without, when prefixed 
to nouns and adjectives derived from that language, retain 
their original signification; e.g. J U X— 11 not well, unwell; 

9C7 i3 boundless. 
• i' 

Note 1. — It will be seen that, in some of the preceding termina- 
tions, 2 has been dropped, as not being sounded in Syriac. ^ has 
also generally been written 13 rather than **3 . 

Note 2. — While many words taken from the Persian, Turkish, 
and perhaps other languages, have been barbarously mangled, some 
changes are made in them in accordance with the genius of the 
Syriac. Such are : 1st. The lengthening of the penult, which has 

always the accent ; e.g. ^jgJ» grace, Syriac k JB&X . 2nd. The 
adding of 2 ' as a termination ; e. g. JJtAX a picture, from the Per- 
sian JoCii . 3rd. The euphonic changes of a vowel in consequence 
of this termination ; e. g. 1&MB3 a melon- field, instead of «^ABOh9. 
4th. The substitution of £ for the /- sound wherever it occurs. 

Note 3. — Notwithstanding the multitude of foreign words intro- 
duced into Modern Syriac (of which many more are nouns than 
verbs, as is the case in the ancient language, and as we should 
naturally expect), it is worthy of remark that the language has pre- 
served in a good degree its identity, and its own grammatical struc- 
ture. There are indeed cases where, for instance, the Turkish per- 
fect participle is dragged bodily into a Syriac sentence. Thus, 

Jj>OOf tXttVil he became injured. So, too, the Persian k^a^mJ 

there is not, which the Nestorians use to express annihilation ; e. g. 

J^OCT iSJCtt*4 he became annihilated, or he vanished. These liber- 

ties, however, are not very common ; and it may safely be affirmed 
that the Modern Syriac has in this respect fared better than the An- 
cient did at one period, from the influx of Greek idioms. We never 
find such a mingling of languages, to take an example from Sir 
William Jones, as " The true lex is recta ratio, conformable naturae, 
which, by commanding, vocet ad officium, by forbidding, a fraude 
deterreat." 



127 

Note 4. — We have been obliged to introduce a number of words 
from the English. We, however, first draw on the Modern Syriac, 
so far as in the current meaning of its words, or by accommodation, 
it will serve our purpose. In case we meet with difficulty there, we 
go to the Ancient, which has been very useful in furnishing us with 
scientific and other terms ; next, to the Persian or Turkish, the 
former having the preference, as being by far the more cultivated of 
the two ; and, last of all, to our own language. If this is not always 
the rule, it always ought to be. 

COMPOSITION OF NOUNS. 

The Modern Syriac, like the Ancient and the Hebrew, 
does not favor the extensive use of compound words. The 
influence which the study of the Greek by the Nestorians 
had on their language has long since passed away; and 
though some of the compounds formed in imitation of the 
Greek are still retained, there is no tendency to increase the 
number. As examples of the compound nouns now in use 

may be mentioned, J S> t&io V> ^ ivory ; %!)J3tsA2A an echo, lit- 

erally the daughter of the voice; 2^>3»iV9iJI a thimble, literally 

the daughter of the finger ; 2<\3^90t& black-faced, i.e. guilty; 

j&SIZ&u— white-faced, i. e. innocent. Compound nouns and 

adjectives have also been introduced somewhat from other 

languages ; e. g. J^ttXSI bad color; bCIlM a boundary; and 

(•*!Bf a-»f a cellar ; all of which are from the Persian. 

ADJECTIVES. 

Adjectives undergo a change of termination, correspond- 
ing with the change of gender and number. 

GENDER. 

Adjectives which are purely Syriac, and indeed nearly all 
which end in 2', form the feminine singular by changing this 
termination into Its. ; e. g. 2 9uȣjt beautiful, the feminine of 
which is 2a, 5mA x ; 2soXf small, feminine 2k»OJk.f . 



128 

A few adjectives ending in 2 form their feminine by 
changing! into 2 . Thus, we have I'aA, feminine 2**; 

290tA blind, feminine 2>0A ; 13k kA dumb, feminine ?J»A«\ : 

< ( i . . ,■ i 

•* • ' * ' f * ' 

2»a£s bold, feminine 2»*i9 ; ]£0u»9 energetic, fern. lABu»f . 
* fit i* i 

See what is said of J-*i2 , etc., where the gender of nouns 
is treated of. 

The masculine and feminine plural are the same. 

NUMBER. 

The plural of adjectives is generally formed, like that of 
regular nouns, by changing the vowel — of the last syllable 
into -7-, and writing the two dots called s'amee above the 
word. 

There are some adjectives which do not admit of varia- 
tion, either as regards gender or number; such as uuJa^ 
good, i!^U9 late, fOft straight, £lX6 necessary or proper, 
etc. These are usually borrowed from other languages, and 
do not end in 2 '. 

CASE. 

Adjectives in Modern Syriac undergo no change of case. 

COMPARISON. 

Adjectives are not compared by a change of termination, 
as in English, Persian, and many other languages. To ex- 
press in Modern Syriac the idea: "This is larger than that," 

we use the phrase Jj*» 2aoJk^ocTft kio loll this from that is 

great. " That is smaller than this," is expressed by the words 

iSJ 2aaX # 2c7i? ►*> OW, the literal translation of which is 

that from this is small; \po being used like than in English, 

as in other Shemitish languages. 

A comparison is also frequently made by prefixing <StS> 

or JLOd to the adjective, when the idea is that of excess ; as 

KAlM kOL* ,1'lS.ti'i it fl>*1 U2 I am stronger than thou. So 

^ I II It I I 



129 

kBiiy and a***-, in Anc. Syr., and "^^i' , rarely in Hebrew. 

The superlative degree is expressed in several different 
methods : 

1. By the article prefixed, when the connection shows 
what is intended. Thus, in speaking of a family, we may 

say IS* OCT 2aoXf OCT he is the small one, i. e. the small- 
est. Compare the Hebrew (Nordh. § 790). In the Ancient 
Syriac, even the article or pronoun may be dispensed with. 
See 1 Sam. 16 : 11, Gen. 42 : 13. So also rarely in the Mod- 
ern, as Matt. 22 : 36. 

2. By the use of «>«£* , »a»a , or u£&a ; e. g. Off u&a ^tt 

)uL> u*&~ he is the best of them, literally, from all of them he 

is good. So for uukA we may substitute i*A , or for Aa ^9 , 

uiiso ; e. g. £»*» imSm OCT «*&&) from them he is good. This, 

it will be seen, is properly the comparative form. See an- 
cient usage in Matt. 13 : 32. 

3. The superlative is sometimes formed, as in the cognate 
languages, when a word is repeated and put into what we 

may call the genitive plural ; e. g. XxpoJI iXOVB Holy of 

i ' »» ' ' ' t *t mm ilm 

holies; Z»JttX uttX heaven of heavens ; ^ AV ,sa 2X> (anc. 
>»a>.3.X 5V3X) servant of servants ; ? SA'na IfvVla (ancient 
, ?">>'» 5^*0) King of Icings. 

4. A kind of superlative is formed by adding 'pA or 2SS 

to the positive ; e. g. IflUO *p.> or 3«BL»» 13* very minute. 

i at. i 

Sometimes both are used together, to increase the intensity ; 
e. g. %O k iO J3S 'Jli exceedingly minute. 

DERIVATION OF ADJECTIVES. 

1. Adjectives are formed by changing the final 2'of nouns 
into J*', or, when they do not end in 2', by adding 1» ; 
e. g. JlV«3 bright, from 2»CV3 %fa; li*» watery, from 1«S8 
water ; IUwm powerful, from Zj>»*. jxwer ; 2&SOf mighty, 

VOL. V. 17 



130 

from i93f might; Xx'fa'x dusty, from fok dust. This class 
of adjectives is very numerous. 

2. They are formed by changing the termination 2 into 
2 or 1»4 ; e. g. from ,H*T •peace, i* i +X peaceful; from , * > IV\T 
heaven, JilillIT heavenly ; from 1X»2 eetr^i, J i lV al earthly. 

3. They are formed by changing the termination of 
adjectives into %*i. Thus, from XB O*>W red, we have 
UiJBOMJtO ruddy ; from 2JOOA 6foc&, tuaaftft blackish. 

4. Diminutives, which are often terms of endearment, are 
formed from adjectives in the same way as from nouns ; e. g. 
ZiaaoXf , from 2»ftXf small; jAOaAx, used as a noun, 
Kttfc beauty, from ZauAx beautiful ; Z*oJJL>», from W*-» 
minute, etc. 

5. A great number of perfect participles, belonging to 

intransitive verbs of the first class, are used as adjectives in 

both genders and numbers : jJB a uAxa decayed, from > XttA <9 

to c^ca^ / 3»V5bfr> s«,7c, from IXM» to sicken, be sick ; %»3M 

" $ i* ' $ " 

thick, stubborn, from 1X0 to be thick, stubborn; 2*M pure, from 

lai to fe or become pure; ?>V*» sweet from Jj>*» to oe or 
become sweet. So is it in Anc. Syr. to a more limited extent 
(Hoff.§87,10). 

Sometimes the adjective is distinguished from the partici- 
ple by taking -^- over its first radical; e. g. 2a>»^3 lean, 
from \\ii to oe or become lean ; while the participle is 2a>>^3 ; 
ZMuttfl pleasant, from ^JLfttS to oe pleasing to ; the parti- 
ciple is 7W»ffl>*1 ; li> «i>aa> so/?, from 4A* to 6e or •become soft; 

participle ia*£i ; JVi^'TI idle or vain, from iV^ii^ to 6e 
or become idle or vam; participle ?Vi^i1. Compare, in 
Anc. Syr., , 7 —n S a and , 7 <«» S > . 



181 

In both these classes of verbal adjectives, the signification 

sometimes differs from that of the root ; e. g. ? *«■> ! , which 

often means shw, from k*»A* to rest, be quiet. 

6. Adjectives denoting quality are formed from verbs, 
just as one class of nouns denoting the agent, by inserting 

o between the second and third radicals and giving — to 
the first and last ; e. g. 3 flttVi apt to ham, from » A\ » ' » to 
learn; ?\y ft >»a> swift, from <Vy i»a fc> run; Zaoxa passion- 
ate, from i3U to be or become angry; 2~ ft)Ou> sowr, from 
ttM u to &e or become sour; 2a©oa skittish, from »0«* to be or 
become skittish. 

The same word is frequently used both as a noun and an 
adjective ; but this gives rise to no new forms, and it is easy 
to know in a particular case whether the word is used as an 
adjective, by the connection. 

NUMERALS. 

1. Cardinals. — These are so nearly like the cardinals of 
the ancient language, that they may be readily recognised. 
A list of them is given below, as they are used in Oroo- 
miah, and printed in our books. 



4&m# %*0 one. fXCftVVM eleven. %*+ h»9dQ&X twenty-one. 

t II I i H 

*', m ' ■ ml m 

w3X two. 9UQ&X3X twelve. w^X ulAX twenty-two. 

t a i 

]\\i three. 9J&XX&X thirteen. uuJtX thirty. 

* t * *i * 



JJkaiii four. 

* 


flJQMkJahZ fourteen. 


uJ^932 forty. 


IXwmmwmmf fiVe. 


flJBtkSLMU. fifteen. 


uJUOU. fifty. 


%Xl six. 


9JtbkXXLX2 sixteen. 
* i it 


w*VX2 sixty. 


^AiSUL RPVPT1 


m ' ' ' 


>«V3tf seventy. 

1 m 1 

; 
u>US\ eighty. 


* t 

1*1^9 X eight. 


m I $ 

%IQaV\*10X eighteen. 


^Amw nine. 


■ ' 5 


u.a>^ ninety. 

1 % II 

21SO one hundred. 


lajoaX ten. 


w*\ttlVi twenty. 



132 

2 jb a u aX two hundred. ll^nVlT seven hundred. 

Ilia j\\) three hundred. 2JSO >IiSb k V eight hundred. 

1 7 iSfl A i3al four hundred. 2JiO ?*■ v nine hundred, 

i > r « 

22^9 ^Xi!WU« five hundred. *> Ax? one thousand. 

IJlO JjJt2 six hundred. 

Note. — In the mountains of Koordistan the cardinals still more 
closely resemble those anciently used. From one to ten inclusive 
they nave both the masculine and feminine genders; and in some of 
them, the same apparent anomaly exists as in the Ancient Syriac 
and the Hebrew (Horf. § 99, 1, and Nordh. § 611), of masculine 
numerals joined with feminine nouns, and feminine numerals with 
masculine nouns. A few are given as a specimen : 



Fern. 


Masc. 


Fem. 


Masc. 


29w» 


z~ 


1$ « 


**i 


1* " 


Jib. 


AOXl 


m 1 


i tt 


*** 




%+UO\ 


JU9U. 




auoxa* 


2aJCttX 



The expressions JitX\S %L, Jv^/I 3-n», JiJSaJa 3-n», etc., 
like wftlisawl, 5sJ?h3X»#, etc., in Anc. Syr., denote, re- 

^ I* m I I m m f f 

spectively, double, triple, quadruple, etc. So we have also 
2&CT wAX <w«ce as much; 2»C7 , 7>^| iAree times as much. 
J*b t*> %L , 2&L hio ll» , £iij»2 >So Z~ . etc., denote the 
fractions one AaZ£ one 2/w'«£, one fourth, etc. The words 5j— kOX , 
i*-l©» , etc., seem to have become obsolete. 

The Modern Syriac uses the Persian word 2oj^,(»LiT) time, 
to express once, twice, thrice, etc. Thus, 2©ji^l*», 2oJLX\ Jib, 
2ciX, ? VV , just as we find Clf in the Ancient Syriac. 
Sometimes the word VMl a foot, is used ; e. g. 7±JBl %+, , 
VJoijjb. So in Hebrew Q^IP}- So, too, X&JO (j~) 



133 

a journey: e.g. »VaJoa> umJs** ObsJCD lOli, this time (lite- 
rally journey) I slept well. The Persian word X&v-> (oi) is 
sometimes used in the same way. 

Note. — It has been supposed that the above mentioned use of the 
word foot in these languages is derived from the beat of the foot in 
music. This is probably a mistake. It is applied to travelling, and 
not to other things. Thus, we may say " I came two feet," i. e. two 
times; but not "I read two feet." So in the Turkish, they say "I 

came two roads," with the same signification. aJaJCP, as noted 
above, is used in a more extended sense. 

The cardinals also take suffixes ; as, for example, «j?ax 
or .VuoaA. both of us; ^JkOoaX, ,0*ao*UoiiV both of 

I it II " m II m II II 

you; h-OSX, JkUOSX both of them ; JjfUftS>^ all three of 

us ; j^&VXte tlWy all three of you ; yntftV^ all three of 
them. Similar forms are used up to 2'auCaX , inclusive, and 
are nearly the same in Oroomiah and Koordistan. It may 
be remarked here that all of us is expressed by Jm or 
,^Ufc-V*& ; all of you, by v < V>ft . S > ft , ^OAO^uaA^ , etc. 

Distributives, as in Anc. Syr., are formed by a repetition 
of the cardinal numbers ; e. g. *J£b. JX\ two by two, etc., 
though they are now often connected with 3, as, t-a'iVn *&&.. 
So in Hebrew (Nordh. § 947). 

2. Ordinals. — The original termination, which, added to 
the cardinal, made it an ordinal, has been lost in Oroomiah, 
with a single exception. This is Z-akfl masc, %>a»>M fem., 
denoting first. Sometimes we use others, as in the gram, 
term ]Ln**&. idOj.33 third person; but they are taken 
from the ancient rather than from the current usage. The 
other ordinals are formed by prefixing p to the cardinal. 
Thus, i£\a j$& the third village; IXSa X S %!kJ>jL^fhe tenth 
line. This was also used in the ancient language: Matt. 
16 : 21. 



134 



The names of the days of the week are as follows : 

$ t i $ * 

taULOu* Sunday. lltlf AitWn Thursday. 

* i* ' 

VXZttSX Monday. &30ikX Friday. 

i3Xl&y Tuesday. j^AX Saturday. 
(iaiatlaii) XSUL&&3&2 Wednesday. 



The names of 



In Koordistan, Tuesday is XSLXoTl v^ , . 
the other days are the same. 

ADVERBS. 

The ancient termination TCLtl of adverbs is still occasion- 

ally retained in our books, and is heard more or less in 
Koordistan, but is not at all used in common conversation 
in Oroomiah. Many of the adverbs and adverbial expres- 
sions given below are identical with those in the Ancient 
Syriac, while many others are of more recent origin, or 
borrowed from other languages. An attempt is made to 
classify them ; but such an attempt must always be some- 
what unsatisfactory, as the same adverb in one connection 
may be an adverb of place, in another, of time, etc. 

M. signifies that the adverb is used only in the mountains ; 
P., that it is of Persian, T., that it is of Turkish, and K., that 
it is of Koordish, origin ; A., that it is from the Ancient Sy- 
riac ; Ar., that it is from the Arabic. As might be expected, 
many of these have been modified and corrupted. 

1. Adverbs of Place and Order. 

jLAwll where ? where. m»X&2 ) below, beneath. 

>3wjA V- a. whither? whither, h— »\)\ \ downwards. 
, a n 1 

jA ■?** whence ? whence. 2&9m*S a. behind. 

i J • 

JA2] here. SnU a. backwards. 

W I 

lAjJt -A. hither, here. kuCk\ a. within. 

2JkX*> hence. iiSk, 2c7aJ> a. this way. 



135 



.t'tV, OCU± a. that way. 

ST>*%> a. without. 
i i 

lAQjfliV ] up, above. 

lAtt A Oi V A upwards. 

1\\i%A a. in the midst 

%3iOJO a. near. 

*pJB a. before. 

/P L BLa a. forwards. 



7^*MLd a. first 

« V m * 

^.till VtA a. headlong. 




• * * * 

2cpoX 



there, thither- 
• a. thither, 
yonder. 



Iftf 


now. 


jia2 iSer 


until now. 


ilaJJo 


henceforth. 




henceforth. 


1 v « 


before now. 



Om&2 a. to-day. 

L* 1 



2. Adverbs of Time, 

atasue 

aVia ^o 

2 a or ato 

2a or aViaso 



after. 

after. 

•a. after. 

afterwards. 

afterwards. 

last year, next year. 
f i i 

V^tl I then. 7X3b»3 in the evening. 

?V i jS a j from that time. 2a^Vj quickly, 

^j^en, there- 2? ^ ^ j* long ag0 . 

?S»A ai a. to-night. bOw oa behold me here. 

i* i ^ a * m 

k^0u2 J when? when. t£iaa p. late. 

bMu2 Acf how long ? ZViUta aa p. immediately. 

Zikx »**-2"| 5s»*a m. now. 

■. t ' , '• >a. at what time? 
or A1XX t*l*2J k»aef k.m. slowly. 

i #i* 

(a« vulgarly spoken) 



136 



feOf p. never, ever. 
J»Of a. until. 

l^OT p \ now, while as 
( yet 

5s.i»oer? first. 

IXSDCff p. always. 
# 

«xer a -J while ' while 

,■ ' ( as yet 

T«4v J w . i at that time, 
***"*'*«»' A- < then. 

2x O there he is. 
a little (time). 
, 7 S i i» 3IV3 presently. 

2oTLSk s iJOk3» Jj» I a. & p. sometimes. 

iCVX^Z-Ml**! sometimes. 

^n3bM>9 a. at last 
i 

XMtft a -1 ^ ow °fl ;en > as 
' ( often. 

2o^i^A. & ,{£°£ ? 

_i j when, while, 
*7 I etc. 




29EV30 again. 

:' " U. 

tXS9tJ0 I again. 

ajnjttS h. again. 

woftAJUaa a. suddenly. 

«jj\ffl*V> v. &t. suddenly. 

3>»l a. slowly. 

2e&,33» A -* p -{ D1 o£ imeS ' 

Jij»OJB a. J to -morrow, yes- 
,. • i ' / terday. 

&■»>*■» a. 

*pJBHo 

I V ■ 



( to-morrow 
| (morning). 

a. before, 
before, 
before, 
before now. 



5jj>J«XO a. at first 



5s-.SBktt3 at first 
ZdOtA m. a little (while). forfJBLfl 2cf25 klO before now. 



Zx»cj» 



at dawn. 



Ui J yesterday, 
, „ ( to-morrow. 



3. Adverbs of Manner and Quality. 

X&J&l a. especially. »f\ ><2 only. 

%> a " it. i 

]? Vn02 so much. 9t*»2 p. finally, in a word. 

7"VT>o2 t. topsy-turvy. UXw2 a. more, again. 

' ' '' .- r 

k£»o2 a. also. Zl3w2 m. more, again. 

i i* J 

i\ja\2 t. (handbyhand)quickly. A-2 a. as, like as, 



137 



intiVll t. only. 

i* < . 

lla ■$ ( wnen one ls ca lled) 
*~ ( here I am. 
-j-^ ( then, now then, 
, p> ( therefore. 

«X3 , A A S p. more. 

AXZ3 p. doubtless. 

3$>Ad.0Xlik£J t. scarcely. 

,?*V>3 p. perhaps. 
i 

iXjkS k.m. freely. 
%BOS p. enough. 



1 



ajua.a 



p. together. 



' " ' how ? like as. 
fOa t. evenly, correctly. 

XVC0O33 p. truly. 

2CT a. yes ( k»>2 ). 

dS&SOl p. in vain. 

OOOiSCT p. quietly, gently. 
# » 

2aon 
* * . * 



so, thus. 

so much. 

so, thus. 

so much. 
■ certainly (vul- 



^flbf p. also, 
i 

2^107 k.m. so many. 

a 
; ; i 
yutSJBBOT p. easily. 

2>03C7 k.m. in vain, freely. 

a / 

SO? p. exactly. 
i 

Ji>*\Of so, thus. 
■ * 

2? Of p. more. 
JdBb*»f k.m. certainly. 
^SaEkM.3 a. at last. 
^&L>9Lw2 a. at last 

2aXm| together. 
2sta.«k!0 1 together. 
m»30m» t. freely, in vain. 



l3w 



#* 



a little, 
a very little. 
2J,7 >■»< p. in short. 

J.StiftliiM let it not be so. 
£9.W» a. badly. 

2oiaa^\r m. why? 

(») a3a\, a. would that. 

, ( yes (to a question 
*"* ( put negatively). 



s , . i i certainly ^vui- ,■ t p">> in-gu-nvcjj 

^ , , p ' / garly XlS&Oft. hfc H L p. certainly, truly. 

feCf p. at all, not at all. ?lS»t p. to wit, namely. 



18 



138 



az£a»- K 


. quite, completely. 




not. 


*» 


quite, completely. 




( how much, how 
' ( many ? 
, no, not. 




let it be so. 


^ p - 


truly. 


oI^p. 


unless. 


b&X*Op0 A. 


verily. 


*V^ 


. how ? how. 


J^i-o^so 


( together (vulgar 
J 3 1..&S11 \ 



2*1*1 quietly. 
*9fiiOhMi*& J very quietly. 

', m 

A-3JCB a. badly, ill. 
map k. well. 



' aaxoi wh y ? 

2-*0>£ Ar. hard. 
1 

jXAJB m. quite. 
* 

TUB Ar. never, not at all. 
* 

JSOOJO'.iO) peradventure. 

« •: 
29 ft a. much. 

XlCfS p. with ease. 

^rtibxl p. perfectly. 

»C7*T. 2-w p. a. after a sort 

JjLaXV t. would that. 

2»0&1"| truly. 
' I a 
/rm^O$lS!3j in truth. 

t£SU»&S p. about, nearly. 
^ a 1 



Remarks. 



The preceding list of adverbs and adverbial expressions might no 
doubt be extended, especially by noting down adjectives used in an 

adverbial sense, such as ?\ftVO lightly, laoJ3 L heavily, etc. On 
the other hand, there are no doubt words in the preceding list which 
are not adverbs, and which are classed here, partly for convenience, 
and partly because other grammarians have placed them here. In- 
deed, without a most careful attention to derivation, one can hardly 
arrive at certainty on this point. We should not criticise a Latin 
grammarian for calling utinam an adverb, but we should hardly 
consider the corresponding would that as an adverb. The ancient 

>fa»< (o^n) is no doubt a verb, and yet, as at present used, partakes 
more of the nature of an adverb. It is spoken, as given above, 
,7 Sift! 1 1 or ZjJQ > i» . 



in 
is in some 



139 

As to the derivation of these adverbs, it is by no means certain 
that they are all referred to the right source, and it would occupy 
much space if each one were to be discussed individually ; a few 
only will be alluded to. 

In the modern lang., we find %Al , ? *»,? \ ; in the ancient, ?>> . 

m i m , m 

In Koordistan, we often hear Z*W ? i>7 \ just here ; with which com- 

pare JiOT OCT (is ipse), etc., in the ancient (Hoff. § 45, Annot. 5). 

Again, in the modern, we find S3 J XA ; in the ancient, \*t\ ; 

the modern, aAMX ; in the ancient, A>J> . J-a'2 i 

parts of Koordistan pronounced 2cV-?'2, which probably throws 

light on its derivation. Ow92, ?S.A a'2 may be JiOOo, w»2, etc., 

w32 being used with masculine as well as feminine nouns, as stated 

previously. JV- 2 is no doubt 2bA,u»Cf , a mongrel word, although 

2cjV, is now pretty well naturalized in Syriac. In the modern, we 

find k*X*2 ; in the ancient, l*X\SoI . In the modern we find ,lXal«3l ; 

* -' t • * " ii 

in the ancient, ZXSaa Tl*3 . We also now hear occasionally 

IXSoa Tl»S. 
i' i' 

•^>-oa and Z**»b might perhaps better be classed with verbs 

than adverbs. ».<V ? is regularly inflected in all the persons 

and in both numbers, like ^A - I am - Thus, XLOjaa here thou 

art; 2X*Op ftere they are. Sometimes Z^ZJ> is joined with it ; e. g. 

i^lA ZiwOS here he is. £a**0 , referring always to distant ob- 

jects, can be used only in the third person ; e. g. ii>-0 there she is; 
*'* ^ m * * . '* i 

2J»»0 there they are. ^acf is probably a corruption of 2ac? , and 

2aCT in its turn of t-»a2, 2a C7 this. ,tH90>.d is probably from 
^fciflb.P to happen. tlD , etymologically speaking, should be written 
with J^ ; but as the t is aspirated in some districts, it seems most 
proper to use X . 

It will of course be understood that these adverbs may many of 
them be combined to form a new adverbial expression. Thus, tACf 
until, and 2dw2 where, when combined (la»*2 t^CT), denote until 
where, i. e. how far ? 



140 

The Nestorians have bo adverbs for almost, too much, too far, etc. 

Almost is expressed by a circumlocution. Thus, if we wish to say 

"he almost died," we use the phrase lOO? XllS9» ?Vt^ JS »> > , lit- 

erally, a little remained that he should die. So if we wish to say 

" too much," we say dUkO lik** \SO ZdOf more than is necessary 

or 'proper. Next, whether an adjective or adverb, is expressed indi- 
rectly, some additional words being supplied to give definiteness to 
the meaning. In hearing a class recite, if we wish to call on the 

next, we say %ViL*l OCT that other. Next week is 2-»*l2» ai3LX 

the coming week. Last week is 2a>a\a J^SUt the week that (just) 

passed. In the same way we can express last month, last year, etc. ; 

i 
though for the latter there is the word ll^O*3 . 

»* * * 
Some of these adverbs in common conversation are abbreviated, 

as is the case with words in all languages. Thus, Jj*» JA»*2 where 
is he ? becomes i^- %S* . l\itiSl\ !*?'£» henceforth (literally, 
from now to after it) becomes la t\ A \ ajta . So too, ,7> i/hff 
la*U3L> thenceforth (literally, from then to after it). These might 
with propriety be written with final CI . 

A word of explanation is necessary in regard to the adverbial ex- 
pressions a3fl*t\ and /CL£Xj> . SXV3 and 'pJtt are properly prepo- 
sitions, and have the suffix-pronouns connected with them. Thus, 
to express the idea "I am going backwards," we should say 
i >a«JLA ».<*-» X-*f i3 > literally, / am going towards after me, i. e. 
backwards. So we say ^A3XU3Ut »^b» W*f J3 / am going towards 
after you. The usage is the same in regard to "pJB . It is only 
when the nominative and the suffix-pronoun refer to the same per- 
son, that the expression can be called adverbial. Compare the use 

of ^tfitad and SXA9 in the ancient language. (See John 18 : 0, 

■ i a 

Lam. 1 : 8, Jer. 1 : 24, etc.). Instead of using the suffixes, we have 

sometimes written JfrjftS and 2afru& ; and these are heard more 

or less among the people. 

Xa}J> sometimes takes suffixes, as in the phrase &CI )L»9>Yl 

wWOAj^ he got wet until his here, i. e. up to a place indicated by 

the hand. So does ISOS ; e. g. UOS03 enough for you. 
i f i i 



141 



PREPOSITIONS. 

It will be sufficient in this sketch of Modern Syriac gram- 
mar to give a list of the most common prepositions, and 
expressions equivalent to the prepositions of other lan- 
guages. They are as follows : 



I against, oppos- 
' ( ed to. 
5 from (pronounced 

( ham). 



(?) JaV, a. in the midst of. 
(Ij/nAV^M. beside. 

? A. Of. 

2»»? a. without. 
(?) JJLSA beside, by the side of. 

(?) JLouOaa 

* 7 

J*©? a. until. 

_ i ■» 5 

(9)UOS1m a. around. 

?>Tb| M. for. 
J* A. tO. 

h» towards. 
tflA towards, up to, near. 

iftoSiiN towards, up to, near. 

lft iV . m Uway from (French 
„ t . ( d'avec). 
(?) ^OAXS a. p. over against. ^ Jh^ a. under. 

a " a (»)] ^JaVa'c^A. to the other side. 

... , >a. after. v « it 

vT-l kSO a. from (vulg. urith). 

t?*h P - except (?) ^i»» Ar. instead of. 

ftl. a. inside of. 0^» p. except. 



<^>2l according to. 

,'U. 

&IW J according to. 

• 4.' * 
; iV) ((equivalent to 9b*SB, 

" " ' not much used). 

(a)JSJL.fai a. around. 

tS a. in, by means of, etc. 

9k*S in, by, etc. 

(?) u9 %»3~\ a. along by. 

OV32 0>32 j m. along by. 
w it 

%3 p. without. 

Tl.0.31 about, con- 
' ^.a. cerning. 
(?) *\, - ■ \A3 J for the sake of. 

, ^ between, in the 

v!k»3 a. 5 midst of, includ- 
( ing. 



j in regard to, 
\ c< 



i%) jopia 

v - ' ( concerning. 

(?) \ i NtVV 3 t. among. 



142 

(9)ji&,£0] (A)Z390JB a. near. 

* ' {-a. instead of. ' , 

W ?*} i pJU^ before. 

* t t >*• 

(9) JUl ffl p. on account of. *pJB kSDj away from. 

JkX] on, upon, etc. (9) JC9 a. about, in regard to. 

^BtSw a. with. hiO 3b»Vi. l except 

kbO AftNtxV a. above. XVAwX a. under. 

V m II 

(9) Z^iJ>A^(3) a. in the middle of.ZUOu»X ^SO a. away from under. 

ill for. 

Bernarks. 

3,9, and ^ never, as in the ancient language (e. g. , 7VHT 9 , 
V i lM\ , etc.), take a vowel. Several prepositions are frequently 
joined together, especially if one of them is ^S9 • These prepositions, 
in accordance with the analogy of the ancient language, receive 
suffixes, and are also followed by the separable pronouns, as in the 
expression OC?9 k& w9lOO>3 / asked from (of) him. 

A number of the prepositions, when joined with nouns, require 9 , 
^ , or ^9> after them, and may be considered in such cases as hav- 
ing a doubtful claim to a place among prepositions. When they 
take suffixes, however, these are dispensed with ; e. g. ,? Vlftd 
>AaJ33xS he rose against us; ,.&X$OJl'y JtOh099 ,T vSaiB he 

rose against Simon. In the last example, 9 is required. Those 
prepositions which occasionally thus employ 9 , \ , or (S9 , have 
one of these placed after them in a parenthesis in the above list. 
IlAS is connected with its suffix by w9 as sliding letters ; e. g. 
bl»9 nA9 on our account. So JBX9 and ■ < fr 1 ^^- , by j> ; e. g. 
rift '■fft lv ^ towards thee. 

hSn, AX , etc., are often pronounced ullit, minit, etc. The 

V m I 

following is probably the explanation of it. The Ancient Syriac 



143 

idiom has been retained in the spoken language, though not intro- 
duced into our books, by which the preposition takes a suffix and 
a also ; e. g. 2.ttJk.a fffiHO quickly pronounced will be minit umma; 

AwOJt >a CjaTUJI will be barit eshoo, etc. These remarks apply to 

i * ^ 
quite a number of the prepositions. 

uS %tS and 0^92 0(92 are no doubt reduplications of the pre- 
ii a a 

position «9. Thus, we have in the ancient language, e. g., 

i i 

Besides t*9 2*9, wc have in the modern such expressions as 
i i 

m I $ I f m I I l i I 

G10.$0.i. %So£* alone/ with her, 29h*&V, >J»^ , 7V\ along upon the 

mill' ' l I 

1} I mi it - f ii 

wall, X^OOa ftV,? ft i s along in the valley. With these compare 

,ii 
the ancient AftX.i ^3>X ftM^ along with Jesus ; and similar ex- 

i i i' i 
pressions. Compare also Hoff. § 123, 5, a, b. 

nA9 is possibly formed from 3 and a , as we still find in Koor- 

distan an ancient form 9£o29t9 in regard to what he said, equiva- 

' " • " 

lent to the form used in Oroomiah, 2a£o2 XOS. If this supposi- 

<- . ■' " ' 

tion be correct, nJbS should be written ftO>9 . 

\»3 in Ancient Syriac is u4*S , Xti*3 , or TU3 . t> ft n\1 

. ,i . , f i i i • • • i' i i 

and t^OtBaa , like 1V*2 , may be partly Syriac and partly Persian, 

the prepositions 9J3 and 9* being prefixed to , 7 >*tft B of the An- 

A i ' ' ■ i 

cient Syriac. 

%J0 takes its suffixes in so many ways, that they are worthy of 

special notice. Thus, to express in Modern Syriac for me, we may 

say u>2>0 , hkwdJJB , Afl , iSX\JO and wa^aJJS . So, for thee, 
i i i m i i ii m 

^ala , ^JOw-S HO , ^jO^JS , ^bcUB , *,©a-a %a . The same 

peculiarity is found in all persons and both numbers. In Koor- 

distan, the people say mWv, , fcftviijy , ete. ; in Bootan, 

uJkA , ^oJiJk ; near Mosul, wJftX , <^>\\ . 



144 



a^2 p. if. 

t3o2 a. also. 

^>2 a. as. 
IL>1 but 
%-ii a. but(awwi). 

U A. if. 

i^UAJj fnot ' un - 

» ( less. 
kS2 a. although. 

ul3Ar.T.5 but ' but 
< . ^yet 



CONJUNCTIONS. 

t-»C>£J a. in that, because. ?iftlUrffti r or. 

70^3 nevertheless. k* either. 

' S 

«Ah9 p. then, therefore. Xaaaa p. because. 

< <• i » 

fthat, in order that; ji^^ (yet, but 
ft a. ■( (sometimes because, "*^; J yet 



[as John 4 : 22), 
iaa a. that not, lest. 

2ft t. also. 

^SC? p. also. 

O a. and. 

29 k. also. 



k!D a. than. 
p. because. 
.(Vffl t. although. 

91* \ 



for that, m 
order that 



INTERJECTIONS. 

It should be understood that these interjections are not 
all classical, and that some of them may be called vulgar. 
But they are most of them in every-day use, and it is well 
to be acquainted with them. 



22 why, pretty well! 


*X2 hush ! 


^S Of push on ! 


cftnotl! Oh! 


1 

0^3 well done! 


1 
uObM tush! 


t 

9f02 alas ! 


4< ' .' < ( bless, God ! 
,7Vft9.3.|(Ar.);(vu1gar- 


%L O! 


1 


' ' ( ly, well done/). 


, „ [OLord! 
«9ft ll ar J ( e e " era "y 

' f rious inter- 
, ^ rogative). 


wOl woe is me ! 


2^ ( push on ! 
} ( away ! up ! 


m#OZ alas ! 


t 1 


2o? 2ft away with you! 


ftS»a well done ! 


u»*#02 huzzah, hurrah ! 
t 


irijjft ah me ! 


tXBOkXO silence ! 


w2 O! 

t 


* 

JA wonderful ! 


1 

oy» poii! 


u*0V-*2 halloo ! 
' * 4 


lOI behold! 


3*3 pshaw! 


0*1 >Z Oh strange ! 
f * 


wZC? ho ! 


iftjX woe ! 


to ,1»Q>. » 2 woe is me ! 




1' 



145 



SYNTAX. 

It is by no means proposed here to reduce to a complete 
system the Syntax of the Modern Syriac ; but merely to 
direct attention to some of its principal features. It may 
be stated, in general, that the relations in which words stand 
to each other are extremely simple, and present no serious 
obstacle to the acquisition of the language. The Nestorians 
rarely use long or involved sentences ; and, indeed, the de- 
ficiency of their language in particles, compared with our 
own, almost precludes their doing so. While the structure 
of the language is thus unfitted for philosophical or mathe- 
matical precision, it is in many respects an excellent lan- 
guage for the business of every-day life, and we have no 
reason to complain that, as spoken by educated natives, it 
greatly lacks either dignity or force. It may also be added, 
that, considering the scantiness of its vocabulary, we are 
obliged to use circumlocutions less than would be expected. 

THE ARTICLE. 

It should be understood, as has been already intimated, 
that there is no emphatic state of nouns in the Modern 
Syriap, supplying in some degree the place of a definite 
article. Indeed, multitudes of nouns have taken the em- 
phatic state as their ordinary form, and there is a strong 

tendency to suffix 2 ' to all nouns which are derived from 

other languages ; e. g. Turkish [?] ^S, Modern Syriac }m 

a buffalo ; Persian *o^~lo , Modern Syriac J&«toJO curdled 

milk; Arabic ^yX*^, Modern Syriac i^ASaHo poor. 

In general, the pronouns OCf , wC7 and u»»2 are used for 
the definite article, but with far less latitude than n in He- 
brew. They are also omitted in multitudes of cases where 
the is employed in English ; e. g. i OOOI Vab. 5s-Sbs ZXi2 
were (the) men of (the) village there f ,7'Wfln'B IvX^ uil\ two 
times in (the) day ; uAlSaJk. l«AOS» ^Ibu2 when (the) world 

VOL. T. 19 



146 

tempi me ; £ A4AM J Si >,7*n whence came you ? 5j.i-»aJ» ^0 

/rowi (the) c% ; S 1&0JGB XUOu uC|ftL\tt4 Aave p brought 
i' i n i ^ i ' 

him out (the) Aorse ? 

Even in cases where the article in English denotes pre- 
eminence, as the sun, the shy, the world, etc., the Syriac 
omits it. 

The definite article may be prefixed to an adjective, when 
separated in construction from its noun, or referring to a 
noun understood. This is quite a common idiom. For 

example, o»»»2 1AX2 la AX, ftCf the great (man) came to-day. 

In such cases the adjective is really used as a noun. In the 
ordinary construction of a qualifying adjective, it never 
takes the article, whether the noun it qualifies has one or 
not. Such expressions as in Hebrew rDIBil VIXH > 
nb<?n Y^^n could not be admitted. 

Note. — It need hardly perhaps be remarked ttiat an adjective 
used as a predicate never takes the article. This is of course founded 
on the general principles of language, the predicate adjective being 
abstract and in some degree indefinite. Thus, in Hebrew, Greek and 
English it does not take the article ; in Anc. Syriac it does not take 
the emphatic state (HofT. § 118, 2) ; in German, Greek, etc. it is not 
necessarily inflected to agree, with its noun. This is also true to some 
extent in Modern Syriac. Thus, we may say, for " These men are 

free," either lL» 2|tf2 %Xli Zl2 or ZL »f 2 ZXlI Zi2 ; in the latter 

7' t> i» i i »» »* t 

case the adjective being in the singular. 

The suffix-pronoun sometimes in a manner supplies the 

place of the definite article in English ; e. g. 5^*3 CJA* all 

of it (the) house, the whole house, while Jj*3 t*A denotes any 

house, every house. So in Anc. Syr. (Hoff. § 123, 4). See both 

constructions in Eom. 3 : 19, Zsba^ Jk2k and IMaX CP»& . 

The indefinite article 1*» , 2a— is prefixed less frequently 
than our indefinite article, but more frequently than in the 
ancient language (Hoif. §109, 4). Take the following as an 
example of its use : Vl. V aaX, aiV, Zm B lB l'3t*2 Z~ a man rose 
in the meeting. In the following example it would naturally 



147 

be omitted : i %+AOXS &OJtJU» %Xil did you see (a i. e. any) 
man on the way f Sometimes the employment or omission 
of it is optional ; e. s. £iOSf VO JX9O.X0 iL Xj * »£ a &9 he 
brought a horse to sell, literally, for selling, or iXBO J BP jA t jAfra 

Sometimes w9l^9 a thing is annexed to another noun 
with much the force of an indefinite article ; for example, 
i <pA^**# wShida X 'ZVA did you see a d gf w e should sup- 
pose this to mean did you see a dog or any thing of the kind? 
but the natives translate it as above. 

In accordance with English usage, general nouns denot- 
ing material, such as wood, silver, etc., abstract nouns, and 

nouns with a suffix pronoun, as i-\*3 my house, do not take 

the indefinite article. 

RELATION OF NOUNS TO NOUNS. 

The usages of the Modern Syriac in regard to apposition, 
the government of one noun by another, etc., are so simple 
that it is unnecessary to dwell on them. Two or three pe- 
culiarities only will be noticed. 

The noun tx^, side sometimes follows another noun in 
construction, to denote direction ; e. g. ZsV, jfri^aoA to the 
city-side, i. e. in the direction of the city ; so Z*^, JjJ-aAa (.bo 
from the vicinity of the city. The word is also used figura- 
tively ; e. g. 1SX, J. W L... .S ^bo in respect to bread. 

There is an elliptical mode of speaking in common use, 

which will be understood by one or two examples. Thus, 

, 7\!t *< IXii 5j«*3, literally, a house, a man went, i. e. one 

from each house ; eti> Cf^l , ? ft l>S > B jUl a boy, a pen he has, 

i. e. each one has one. 

It has been already mentioned that the construct state is 
still employed to some extent, though the tendency is to 
dispense with it altogether, and use 9 in its stead, as we use 



148 

the preposition of in English. This a is omitted in expres- 
sions such as %Xxl SOftV wSOSe what kind (of) man, not only 
acftV , but the general form, corresponding with the idiom 
of the Persian and Turkish. Though educated Nestorians 
generally speak with grammatical correctness, it may be 
worth while to note as an exception the almost universal 
use of u»vS as if it were the singular and not the plural ; 
e. g. Z>- 3j>V"? .*v3 OCT he is a son (i. e. inhabitant) of 

Degala. 

Nouns, as well as other words, are often repeated : (a.) to 
denote distribution or variety ; e. g. 2»0f.V 2»C?.V kinds, 
hinds, i. e. different kinds ; i^»a Hy*a colors, colors, i. e. dif- 
ferent colors ; so with numerals : 2c&„ 1*# I** one, one time, 
i. e. now and then ; so adverbs: Z* » * ?*»l slowly, slowly, i. e. 
little by little ; (£.) to give intensity ; e. g. 7^'fr^fl jVyA y H 
fragments, fragments, i. e., as we should say, a thousand frag- 
ments ; ISIS ysfi exceedingly, ,7 > >,< ,7> i» very fo'Wfe indeed; (c.) 
to supply the place of each, each one ; e. g. iXii ZXi2 maw, 

man, i. e. each man. This last usage is rather borrowed 
from the ancient language than commonly heard, but we 
allow it a place in our books. In regard to the general 
idiom, compare the Ancient Syriac (Hoff. §112, 2), and the 
Hebrew (Nordh. § 823). 

There is also a curious, though perhaps vulgar, repetition 
of nouns, which is common to the Persian, Turkish, Arme- 
nian, and perhaps other languages of the East. In the 
repetition Ha is substituted for the first letter of the word, 
if it begin with a consonant, or to is prefixed, if it begin 
with a vowel. The idea is thus generalized ; e. g. from 

*Ja»wJC dirt, we have 5s"**So 5&*** dirt and every thing of that 

sort; from 2-OL.? minute, iBUSo 2-dw? every little thing, 

e. g. JLSa^a IJbLso }iL» ^ i,a..,k Vufaaa l£ do not 
esteem, (literally, put a price on) the trifles of the world. 



149 



ADJECTIVES. 



A qualifying adjective in Modern Syriac, in the great ma- 
jority of instances, as in Ancient Syriac (Hoff. §118, 1), and 
in Hebrew (Nordh. § 770), follows its noun ; e. g. JJMD Xxkl 
old man, jnbk*&X J &LtXS O beautiful city. The same rule 
holds where two or more epithets are joined to one noun : 
2SD>0 ZaoJk, 5ft"*^ l+* a large and high house. Also when the 
noun has a suffix, as Jjj—OJJ wCJOXSwixX his firm law. So 
in the ancient language (Hoff. § 122, 3). 

A few adjectives more naturally precede their nouns; 
e. g. 13a , uuhSg , Jxa , etc., the latter being called an ad- 
jective, though in reality a noun (Nord. § 725, 1). Thus, 
%AfOO £ Q ia» many horses, ]nv»X u>J&~ a good tree. In 

these cases ?3a ]$jOJ Q & J CO and «m>3m jliL.2 would be also 

i 1 i i i i 

allowable. 

An adjective may be placed before its noun to give in- 
creased emphasis ; e. g. iSJa I aoV, W» a very great stone. 
Another mode of giving emphasis, is to place the adjective 
at the head of the clause, and, after a brief pause, to repeat 

it; e. g. J&J ix*a :ZX*3 jL: :*i: fe&L :%&&L quick 

i* i i i ,i * 

to learn, he is quick to learn; but wiclced, he is wicked. 

A qualifying adjective in the modern language cannot be 
separated, as in the ancient (Hoff. § 118, Annot. 2), from its 
noun by words such as iSo^ey , ^»9t , etc. 

An adjective used as a predicate is also almost always 

placed after the noun or pronoun to which it refers ; e. g. 

ii- aoJoVvSaa jJdl OCT that man is rich, 2^ 2»&aoJ» ZiouA 
i' i i i ,i i , 

the bread is sour. The ancient language generally places the 
adjective before its substantive in such a case (Hoff. § 118, 2). 
So the Hebrew (Nordh. § 772). An inversion of the ordinary 



150 

construction may, however, be employed for emphasis ; e. g. 
OC7 }L %3O+J 0a O ]33 very agreeable is he, <pO&*S Jjw , 1 S » i *\*1 
blessed is your house. 

In regard to the demonstrative adjective pronouns, when 
used to qualify nouns, they are always placed before their 

$ t I j f mm t ', 

nouns; e. g. ISUkA 2 ©72 this dog, l\mXt» 1*1 these donkeys, 

%3US %Xil lof%j* to this wicked man. When the construction 

is different, we have followed the idiom of the Ancient 
Syriac or the Hebrew (Hoff. § 118, and Nordh. § 884). 

Cardinals also uniformly precede their nouns ; in which 
respect the Modern Syriac is unlike the Ancient (Hoff. § 117, 
1). In the latter language they sometimes precede, some- 
times follow. The Modern resembles more the Hebrew 
(Nordh. § 935) and English. In this also we have at times 
changed the idiom, as Gen. 11 : 1. Such expressions as 

2>iy o« 9m* m&S in the ancient language would not now 

be at all allowable. 

SUBJECT NOMINATIVE AND VEEB. 

In general, the verb agrees with its subject nominative in 
number and person. There are, however, constructions ad 
sensum, as in the Ancient Syriac and most other languages, 
the mere grammatical form being neglected (Hoff. § 137). 

When the subject nominative is of different persons, the 
rule found in Latin, Greek, and other languages, has place, 
that the first person is preferred to the second, and the sec- 
ond to the third. Thus, *£f 2 «■• %\\a nil you and I will 
go, ^AOmiXl OOfO till you and he came. 

Verbs are often used impersonally, and then the feminine 
gender is employed, as a representative of the neuter gender 
in other languages; e. g. ?>T>\ l\±£0 uS\ it drew (i. e. 
it occupied) two hours, Jx iak** it is bad, i. e. a bad thing, 
aaS jikXaf JLa it is a fear to you, i.e. you are afraid (note, 
that Z»A'?t is a vulgar and anomalous form of J*X»f), 



151 

^ jXJwSf it was a fear to us, i. e. we were afraid. If the 
origin of the preterite tense has been correctly explained in 
the Etymology, we have in this example a curious redupli- 
cation, as will be seen by spelling JJk^aj with final W , 

The feminine is in such cases always preferred ; and yet, 
when translating from Anc. Syr., which uses the mascu- 
line as well as the feminine verb impersonally (Hoff. § 138, 
3), we have sometimes followed that, rather than the spoken 
language ; e. g. Matt. 13 : 40. See the same use of the fem- 
inine verb as an impersonal in Hebrew (Nordh. § 737, 2). 
Indeed, this disrespectful use of the feminine gender for an 
indefinite thing, results from the ideas of Orientals. 

Note. — aloCJ 2^ , in which case the verb is used impersonally 

and in the masculine, is hardly an exception to the general rule, as 
it has almost lost its power as a verb, like if—gif=give, in English. 

In this connection may be mentioned such expressions 
as iau> k*^ JJkOOT there became to me a heart, \~* ?JkX2 

■ ' 
wCf flM ii flV) there came on us his pity, i. e. pity for him; 

where the verb seems first to be used impersonally, and 
then a masculine nominative to come in as an after-thought. 
This change of construction is not without its force, and 
may be at times preferable to the regular form. 

The nominative absolute is very common in Modern 
Syriac, sometimes used emphatically, and sometimes without 

any such design ; e. g. }lw }uUm OCT : ?«»>1 > n Christ, he is 
mighty, ^ftA 2 K 'S J kJs. X3 wOTOX*2 : MAS your father, his 

hand will guide you, u*f 2 *V3 067 «So2 : tSfltASw 2ef2 this 
a a i ■ i 

Jacob, he also will go. In these cases, it is emphatic ; but it 

can hardly be considered so in the following example : 

2b 07 laJxufcX mm»so2 : Jj^oaof* the rivers, their course would 
a i t I* i 

change, which is simply saying, 'the course of the rivers 

would change.' See the same idiom in Anc. Syr. (Hoff. § 119), 

in Hebrew (Nordh. § 866, 1, b.), and in other languages. 



152 

On the other hand, the nominative is omitted altogether, 
when regarded as indefinite ; as, for example, when Zxii or 
%Xil might be supplied. This usage, not uncommon in the 
Ancient Syriac (Hoff. § 138, 4), is far more common in the 
Modern, and is a substitute, as mentioned in the Etymology, 
for the passive verb ; e. g. ^j> uM^f lik men oppress us, 
i. e. we are oppressed. 

PREDICATE NOMINATIVE. 

The proper place for the predicate nominative, with its 
qualifying words, is between the subject nominative and its 
verb ; e. g. Jjk- ;nftaJk Js-AwJX J>A*oa drunkenness is 
great folly. The rule, however, is variable. We may say, 
with a kind of emphasis, ^V>p\ Js-Oa»jX AX- %>0u>O» ; 
the change of the usual construction, as in other cases, giv- 
ing more force to the words. 

VERB loejf TO BE. 

This is rarely omitted, the Modern Syriac differing in this 
respect from the Ancient Syriac (Hoff. § 146, 3), and the 
Hebrew (Nordh. § 701, 1, b.). Yet we at times find such ex- 
amples as the following, some of them perhaps transferred 
by us from the ancient language, and others in universal 

use : i » aa xn » iAS our father that in heaven, Z»SOJL XUXmXA 

that under heaven, Eph. 6 : 12, 2ojA£2i fc «a>3U,\ (let there 

be) glory to God, <^A-autt3 OW he (is) calling you, 2xB **>V, 

(it is) necessary to read. 

Note. — The verb of existence is not omitted with the correspond- 
ing words ^u> and OUk^O , nor always with tV. SkiL . A person, 
in assenting to a remark, often says 4hofk3U» your word, for 



153 



OBJECT OF THE VEBB. 

The objective is often denoted, as in the Anc. Syr., by ^ 
prefixed (vulgarly «j«Aw), and especially when intended to 
be definite ; e. g. %3til OCfaA uJkfLM I saw (to) that man. 
But in a sentence like the following : frO. \ — i frflla VBt^ X— 

' I 11%. I " 

did you find a purse? it is neither needed nor allowed. In 
common conversation it is also often dropped, for the sake 
of brevity, where we should expect to hear it. Like I"IX in 

Hebrew (Nordh. § 835), iw does not seem to be so much a 
sign of the accusative, as to be used for directing special 
attention to any subject. 

^ may also denote, as in Anc. Syr. (Hoff. § 114, 1), 
the same relation as the dative in Western languages ; 

e. g. t»i< \ iViuLw >* \a>itX I did service to the Khan : 
IXAaU. OCT o£k \acfi give to him that apple. In this last 
example, wC70iVti for him would be perhaps more common. 
The idea may also be expressed without any preposition, as 
in Anc. Syr. (Hoff. §122, 1) : ^ClAJSB %L J*3oro>- he gave me 
a watch. 

Some verbs, as e. g. those of naming, clothing, anoint- 
ing, asking, commanding, feeding, teaching, telling, filling, 
etc., are often followed by two objects, of which one gene- 
rally, though not always, signifies a person. The noun denot- 
ing a person may have ^ prefixed, but the other noun very 

rarely takes it, if at all ; e. g. ZV^X. £-1 oo£ fla tiA tt A B 

lie put clothes on that boy; 9t*0> CJi3J3 xl3 u40aJ3 loll this 

i i» a a i * 

my son I will call him David; JSP9A 0& fe&Ax *13 ?Vrt »> 

I f m it I 

the field we will make it a vineyard. The ancient language 

has very nearly the same usage (Hoff. § 141, 4, 5). 

It may be well to remark that in many cases, where in 
English and other Western languages an object is viewed 
as direct, in Syriac it is regarded as indirect, and vice versd. 

VOL. V. 20 



154 

This leads to the employment or omission of prepositions, in 
a way very different from the usages of our own language ; 
e. g. J*& J4JJS0 AftMM you filled the vessel (with) water; 
where the Syriac also admits of 9 or £• ; ixax (.bo 2a o2 
he entered from (by) the door; wCTOiWJ ^jiaON we told for him; 
k*a 2x0? he touched on us; AJkHo %Mo It&l J. if God 

show favor from (to) you ; ^ uJ &J & l «13 they will ascend 
(above) us; wX-2 ^bo jJkfl LX i he hissed from my hand, i. e. he 
kissed my hand. The modern language is, however, no 
more unlike the English in these respects than the ancient. 

PRONOUNS. 

The nominatives J*2, Csil, etc., are not generally ex- 
pressed before the verb, unless for the sake of specification 
or emphasis, as the terminations of the verb prevent all 
ambiguity in regard to number and person. When empha- 
sis is required, these pronouns are oftener placed after the 

verb than before it : e. g. i j&i « X2LX u90M what am I to 
do, I? SA*2 <|OmO\ did you tell, you? Sometimes the pro- 
noun both precedes and follows : ^L*2 tSe2 4Mf 2 tb3 ^u»2 
we will go, we too. 

The pronoun, used as a subject nominative, and indeed 
any nominative, is occasionally separated by an intermediate 
clause from its verb ; e. g. »j*\>« : <}*aJ*AJ» 'pJO kSo : u&l 

^ 1' ill*' ^ m I 

they, before you came, saw. The Modern Syriac, however, 
generally favors the simplest construction. 

The pronoun is often employed as an absolute nomina- 
tive, in the same manner as nouns ; e. g., with the imper- 
sonal verb of existence, uJ» taA %il or jsl <.*\ (s*± I there 

11 11 

is not to me, i. e. I have not ; *V8>a^ <^oA 3.-OC7 1^ : n*2 you, 
there will not be to you opportunity ; Zv» 239 wW l>M l «a : OCT 



155 

he, his mercies are many ; ^ »Mi>A %£ z ^u»2 Z'i-2 but we, 
they blame us. See Matt. 26 : 11, and compare the ancient 
version. See also Hoff. § 121, 1. 

It is to be noted that the very common idiom of the an- 
cient language and the Hebrew, by which the pronoun takes 
the place of the substantive verb, finds no favor in the Mod- 
ern Syr., in Oroomiah at least, though it is said to be heard 

sometimes in Koordistan (Hoff. § 121, 2). Nor is ft'ef used 
pleonastically in the modern as in the ancient language 
(Hoff. § 123, 1) ; e. g. Vl»W fostf^ oe?>li? , 1 Tim. 5 : 9. 
The governing noun in the modern as well as in the an- 
cient language (Hoff. § 122, 2), may take the suffix which 
seems more properly to belong to the noun which it gov- 
erns; e. g. % y A X*3a ^Bu»ao2 your way of evil, or ;U»ao2 

^anASiJS ; 2 3^33 ^onAtt your death of the body, or 

^flSJ^S? 2&-&3B . The latter forms are the more common. 

It is a universal practice to use pleonastically the suffix 

pronoun, followed immediately by the noun to which it 

refers. Thus, 5&A-* **" u > V* <U« I saw her, the woman ; 

mm ',' 4 it $ ' I It/ 

JXl2 ua2 E > i >f»o a we drove them away, the men. Com- 
pare the ancient CU?2 ciJt M JL , and many similar expres- 
sions (Hoff. § 123, 3). The idea seems to be the same, 
whether the pronoun is used or not. In Hebrew, this ha'S 
been considered an emphatic suffix (Nordh. § 866, 2, a), but 
we do not so regard it as used by the Nestorians. 

On the other hand, the suffix is entirely omitted when 

the meaning is sufficiently plain without it ; e. g. i^X2 

i-A-O j\.ich\a he came and told (it) for me. 
i i' i' / v 

The suffixes are in some cases used as reflexives ; e. g. 
13*^ i*» lonvyn ^f2 i\3 I will go and ask for me (for 
myself) a booh. See an example in both Ancient and Mod- 
ern Syriac, John 4 : 8. 



156 

As the relative particle a undergoes no inflection, many 
ideas, which we express directly in English, must in Mod- 
ern Syriac be expressed by a circumlocution. A few exam- 
Eles will be given below. Examples of the same kind may 
e found in Hoff. § 125, Nordh. Chap. IX. and Eosen. Arab. 
Gramm. Syntax, xcviii. 

1. Whom.-iS J*s*ihf 'jusa ^aoao^i Acockl uOu }ii 

"I am Joseph your brother, that ye sold me," Gen. 45 : 4; 

i-WOJCDla lA&ittaoora %xil Z^J ikl this is the man that I 
i i a i i' 

spoke about him. 

2. Which. — lad eraSUgM l *. \y 1*. a garden that he 

had planted it; h»efO*9 H J mJkfl a Zajbs the spade that I 
worked with it. 

8. Whose.— &1&JB »aS.w iaa 2iaaJLa iJaa» <fe iVes- 
torians of the mountains, that (men) plunder their cattle. 

4. Pfoce where. — CfooJC, i>mT> %^9 a village that I un- 
packed (encamped or halted) in it; JSOA. >Lacrj~»a Ib^^a 1*» 
a pface <Aa< he was there. 

5. Whither. — ucyooSL <rii A J >3 U »a . TwHfr the vineyard that 

i ^i a • 

you went into it. 

6. Hither. — 1*1^ pLt jA&aa la en %L an ox that we 
brought hither. 

7. Whence.— uVICUiO XX^bX^ J\x<\ * UiOJB a well that 

i a i» i « » 

<Aey were drawn from it. 

8. When.—ia&l *oJ #OX 2aJa woro*3» Jjbol* %L a day 
<Aa< m it I was lord of business, i. e. busy. 

In some of the preceding cases, a may express the idea 
without the pronoun or adverb following. Thus, for "a 
day," etc., we may say 1*W ^ft-» 1 , ^ 0, 1 Zaasa U)Om I**, 
there being an ellipsis of wffft»3 . 



157 

As in the ancient language (Hoff. § 125, 1, Annot.), it may 
denote the objective case of the relative. For instance, 
2ft«a h» yw i\a every thing that he may see. 

The relative a may often be rendered definite, as in 
Ancient Syriac (Hoff. § 125, 3) and Hebrew, by wiaao a 

t 4 f m I II 

thing, ^ottsof a word, JJU2 a man, OCf he, etc., prefixed : 
JiXa uM» n nvfr a jJa do not forget the thing that he tells ; 

)uw i!*nj3a OCfaJk >Li> \T >iii ^ l XUk* Z-V wow cfo no< know him 
wAo is coming. 

In Hebrew (Nordh. § 907), as in English, and in Ancient 
Syriac to a very limited extent (Hoff. § 125, 4), the relative 
may be omitted ; e. g. a house (which) he built two years ago. 
But a seems to be never omitted in Modern Syriac, except 
when used as a conjunction. 

It may be well to give a few examples to illustrate the 
use of the interrogative and indefinite pronouns, and the 
position they occupy in the sentence. "We may say either 

i 2^ uSftia loll , or i 2CT2 iiki wa«» , what is this f 

i iiki udia ^3 Ivtl, or ! iLaci 2erl J& u.Jio , wAo is this 

woman? iVuC wAio^iCtiZ, or, instead, iVvil VuL* uOio, or 

simply !*fcLOu uUo , wAo «r< tfiow? '■ ^ wjAoa 2 a OX 2o?l , 

or ! 2orl ii^ uaaoa ftoA., or < faox 2cy2 ^ uoaoa , 

wAose ox w #ws ? 

The interrogative pronouns may be used, as in Ancient 
Syriac (Hoff. §45, 2, Annot. 4) and Hebrew (Nordh. § 921), 
as indefinite pronouns. For example, in the expressions : 

j\- mS2o ? . i »a> i\ >3 bdOu X^a J cfo noi feow; w;7io Ae is. 
i* i i i v a I* * 

M**# »Vo <tO«i i V>^ 9 nS OC1 he will inform you who went, 
i> a t / i a i a </ & / 

IJbtOI uOmtl %^%~ J-a he did not see which (of the two) it was. 
i i i' i' v ' 

Very often Z*a2 without the article is used where we 

should use, in English, any one, as in the Anc. Syr. (Hoff. 



158 

% 127, 4) : I %So A\ %Xil Xal is there any one in the village ? 
Sometimes ixil may be omitted, and yet the idea be clearly 
and idiomatically expressed ; as OCf» ^>2 A*2k %mixiO ftX, 

in the school there is not like him (his like). %Xil is also now 
and then used to denote each one; as, Xxii „i&£9b&3 
wC?0^io»» they scattered, man (each man) to his village. So 
in the ancient language (Hoff. § 127, 3). But generally, 
when thus used, it is repeated, as already mentioned. 

MOODS AND TENSES OF VERBS. 

Though the ordinary signification of the different moods 
and tenses was given in the Etymology, some additional 
remarks are necessary to illustrate their use. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. — This is sometimes used : 1. As a perfect ; 
e. g. Ji* ?>V| Z»JJ* }lw 3^ 5 L tta he is reading here three 

years. 2. As a future ; e. g. ,1 »<\ > %— 9«3 <fexL* likf 13 we 

are going after a month. So in Gen. 6 : 17, where, in the 
modern language, we have the present tense, and in the 
ancient the active participle. 

Imperfect Tense. — This is sometimes used: 1. As a present; 

e. g. m>CT Xf&Attoa Jic7 um9w A AS it was (is) better that 
you should preach. 2. As a future; e.g. fcaoJuJ %&G1 J^fJS 
he was going (intending to go) in the morning; the implication 
being that he is now prevented. 3. As an imperfect sub- 
junc. ; e. g. lain VuLi ,7*>»iVitl : JjOO? VlAOT 2JXJ.2 uwJ4 r ^2 if 

II m I ii i -V // 

you should he a good man, you were (would be) blessed. 4. As a 
pluperf. subjunc. ; e. g. ZX**# >Li»ef Xluttff »j, iftC? imSm tXAS 
if was (would have been) Jester, i^yow Aac? <?one. 

Preterite Tense. — 1. Used as a present ; e. g., a man in dis- 
tress says n tj ftla I died, i. e. I am dead; uVMiu I choked, 



159 

i. e. I am choked, or I am drowned. A boy in recitation, if 

confused, will say »V\ ?A , tl\ X it lost on me, i. e. I have 

lost it. Ask a man how his business is to-day, and he may 

reply MXj£ iaftoybw it remained (remains) just so. Persons 

.''"■''.. . I ' v'- 

coming to make a petition will tell us frft iYV u>9(ff *-*3? 

we poured (i. e. we now place) our hope on you. Compare 
Anc. Syr. (Hoff. § 129, 4, b, c). Compare also Ps. 1 : 1, in the 
Ancient and the Modern. The expression in the Ancient, 
mSOX low Wk? ^a , Matt. 12 : 80, may be considered equiva- 
lent either to a present indicative or to a present subjunctive. 
So Deut. 1 : 39, Z»SooJ oX^ *^? that did not (do not) know. 

2. Used as a perfect; e. g. 2»»»2 Z^X2 he came now, i. e. he has 

i I* (* 

just arrived. This is the common mode of speaking. So too, 
. IvV aaiX ]L» <*W» OCT !>-> ?> > *\*1 blessed is he that never 
heard (meaning, that has never heard). 3. Used as a pluper- 
fect; e.g. JaoojttoW £» J^xra^a ^ou2 when he (had) finish- 
ed from speaking (Hoff. § 129, 3). 4. Used as a future ; e. g. 
^AX i U\ : ItoSOaO fcOaMa »j if you died to-morrow, you 
perished (compare with the use of the first verb Hoff. § 129, 
8, c, and of the second verb, same section, 7) ; : *UA90f ,4 

l m ', I f 4 . I f ^ II II I II 

^Jftj Afl 'pM J~»a2 907 jtoftt if you believe, Christ just now, 
i. e. at this moment, received (will receive) you. This is no 
doubt an emphatic future. Compare Nordh. § 966, 1, c. 5. 
Used as a subjunctive present ; e. g. lAOef >L» »J if it did 
not become, i. e. if it does not meet the case, equivalent to 
Z-oo? 1^ »J (see the ancient usage, Mark 12 : 25, as follows : 
5s**> |£o o.MLOft 9w>V,)bs , in which case the translation might 
have been literal) ; '**^y» Vl9 ikVSI jlal ^lA^Vd ^2 
if you went out (set out) now, perhaps you will reach ; 
w ^ a oa o JaY3 ^2 : 2c£2 ftVttl ^* %XA S O M B lam qrop- 

I 1.11 t t It I II A I i IS J. 



160 

ing after God, if perhaps I found (him). Compare the ancient 
usage in Ecc. 6 : 6, l%— li> fenSyft , where i%~ expresses 
the idea of contingency. 6. Used as a subjunctive imper- 
fect ; e. g. £? 1 S tOj : )±Mloo\ & Z^oX %sJo although 
the business did not finish (should not end), I shall go ; 
lad? ZVdOw MCI ^ M\> , nS as. ^2 if you destroyed (should 
destroy) us, you were (would be) just. 

The preterite seems never to be used in the modern lan- 
guage for an imperative, as in the ancient (Hofif. § 129, 6). It 
will not be thought strange that it is employed in such a 
variety of ways in the spoken Syriac, when we consider what 
an important tense it was in the structure of the old verb. 
Many of the idioms mentioned above give force and vivacity 
to the language. We are thus allowed to speak of events 
and actions which are present or future though definite, or 
future and contingent, as if they had actually transpired and 
were recorded in the past. On this account the preterite is 
often used in Hebrew in the language of prophecy. See also 
examples of its use in conditional clauses (Nordh. § 991, 1). 

The other forms of the preterite given in the Etymology, 

^flxs "pM , £i£3>0J& , etc., have substantially the same 

meaning as the regular preterite, and may be used in the 
same way. The first named of these is ordinarily employed 
only when euphony requires it. See Etj^mology. 

Perfect Tense. — This is used : 1. for the present ; e. g. 

2^» iaJjtVrf he has sat, i. e. is sitting ; is** Xt A O he has wept 

i. e. (often) is weeping. This usage seems to be confined to a 

small number of verbs. 2. for the preterite ; e. g. <M>" J-»X2 

2> \\ s Lio we have come (we came) long ago. This is the 

usual mode of speaking. Compare what is said of the pre- 
terite No. 2. 3. for the perfect passive. See Etymology, 
Passive Voice. Ambiguity may sometimes arise, as to the 
question whether the verb is used in an active or passive 
sive sense ; but the context generally determines. We may 

translate, e. g., Jj»* , lafc » > > either he is asleep, he has slept, or 
he has been asleep; %1~> 2>*X3f they have sown, or they are sown. 



161 

Pluperfect Tense. — This is sometimes used : 1. for the im- 

perfect ; e. g. JjBW %*ASt he was weeping, low 1 3 L »& * he was 

sitting. 2. for the passive imperfect. This is very common. 
See Etymology. 

Future Tense. — Whatever is peculiar in the use of this tense 
will be noticed under the Present Subjunctive. The second 
future is not very much used, a form of expression being 
chosen which renders it unnecessary; e. g., where in English 
we might say "before you come, I shall have arrived," a 

Nestorian would be likely to say ^A->? *P>B ^* (V*" «3 

I shall arrive before you. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense.' — It should be distinctly borne in mind that 
what has been called in the Etymology the present subjunc- 
tive, is nothing more nor less than the ancient present par- 
ticiple, with fragmentary pronouns suffixed. The old future 
having disappeared, this present participle, with JiS pre- 
fixed, becomes a future in Mod. Syr. ; with 1^ prefixed, 
it becomes a future, or a generic present, expressed nega- 
tively; with VJB (ancient ^^JO) prefixed, it becomes a 
preterite; with lA or <->i prefixed, it becomes a generic 

present ; and without a prefix, it inclines to retain its 
original present signification. Eemembering these facts, 
and the further fact that both in Ancient Syriac and in 
Hebrew, the future was much used as a subjunctive or 
conditional (Hoff. §130, 4; JSTordh. § 993), we shall not be 
surprised to find these different meanings shading into each 
other in the Modern Syriac. The following examples will 
illustrate the very different uses of this tense. Question, 

i (.if 2 am I going ? or may I go ? Answer, *v2£f 2 : 207 yes, 

you are to go, or you may go. The question may thus be 
either a simple interrogatory, or a permission asked ; and the 
answer is to be understood accordingly. If the answer is 
"you are to go," it is really a mild imperative. Compare 
our English "you may go and do so and so;" when we 
mean "you must go." This mode of speaking is very com- 

TOL. V. 21 



162 

mon, and in prayer is often interchanged with the imperative 
in the same sentence ; e. e. \to>\\ V&Xa lb. : Ic&l lL 

Lord, come and abide with us I Compare in Anc. Syr. 

1 Kings 8 : 30. Comp. also the interchange of the future 
and imperative in Hebrew. 

im *va B let him find, i. e. allow him to find, or he is to find. 
In this case, and very often to the third person, singular and 
plural, iXAm or tflO JUt may be prefixed ; e. g. ulfl iX A w 
let them read, where as above we may have the idea of per- 
mitting them to read, or of directing them, the circumstances 
and the connection determining what is intended. fe&UiV 

let me tell you; <<*3kSX do what can we do? i »jV*&9 ?JL*ftX. 
M-» uygftK may I die a youth, it is true (may I die young, 
if it be not true) — compare the Latin " ne sim salvus," may 
I perish ! 

The present subjunctive may be used to express a suppo- 
sition, particularly if ^Vft'a a parable, a supposition, is pre- 
fixed ; e. g. wC?ftSftX ^*SoX : ^VHftlrt supposition: he fin- 
ishes his business, or let him finish, or grant that he finish, or 
if he finish. Compare the Latin " vendat sedes vir bonus," 
suppose, etc. So, too, without the word \AJSBib ; e. g. 
" ViV^ i* " AXUBOM «M » » %-* suppose you do not ham 
your lesson, you will not go out. We may in this case say, if 
we choose, that »^ is omitted, as in Hebrew (Nordh. § 991, 
3, a). The imperfect subjunctive allows the same idiom. 

The present subjunctive is used in prohibition, where the 
Ancient Syriac, the Hebrew, and the English would naturally 
use the future ; e. g. VlSaX, Jj> thou shalt not steal; YtJhV,? !■* 
thou shalt not lie. «3tlik, U* would mean thou wilt not steal, 
or you are not in the habit of stealing, and nSvV. «3 )-» would 
be an emphatic way of saying the same thing. See in Ety- 



163 

mology a notice of this last form. This distinction it is im- 
portant to observe ; otherwise we may be led into ludicrous 
blunders. Thus, a man speaking to me about his son in 

my employ, says ^&A Aȣ let him not be hungry ; to whom I 

reply, (Aa U> he will not be hungry (I will do well for him) 

or he does not go hungry. 

Note. — With the use of ZA and 1^ in this tense compare iib 

and bit of the Hebrew, oi and /«j of the Greek, and mow and ne of 
the Latin. It is evident, however, that the resemblance is only a 
general one, and in the indicative does not hold at all. 

It is to be remarked that we are not limited to the sub- 
junctive present for expressing prohibitions, as those using 
the Ancient Syriac (Hoff. § 130, 4, c.) and Hebrew (Nordh. 
§ 1006) were limited to the future. The imperative may be 

freely employed for that purpose, as £JOiV, jj£ do not steal, 

mJ>»» Zj> do not go down, etc. 

The present subjunctive may be used also in entreaty ; 
e. g. lOkVa 2j> I beg you not to lie; JiiSf %± I beg you not 
to sell, etc. Sometimes it is difficult to tell whether it is a 
command or an entreaty, as, e. g., if I call to a man pursued 
by a bull, jTUkA Jji do not stop. 

In familiar conversation the *)fl3 of the future is often 
omitted, and then the form becomes that of the present sub- 
junctive; e. g. ^fi : ^f2*XuAk3 if you wish (that) I go, I 

(will) go. So Gen. 42 : 36, i JfnSjtiJL u.aaU.U^O and (will) 

you take Benjamin? So, too, %St or w2 is often omitted; 

e. g. J-^OP & 1^ J*-2 : Jki» ^3 I wish (that) I may 
read, but it is not happening (coming about). Here a general 
desire is expressed to learn. With this we may compare 
the ancient present participle, which is also used for a ge- 
neric present (Hoff. § 135, 3), as in Ecc. 2 : 14, where we must 

translate the ancient Jifli by tSji 1* . So H***o2, Is. 3 : 2 • 
and many other cases. Moreover, the anc. present participle 



164 

is used for the future (Hoff. § 135, 3), which will account for 

such cases as that given above, viz. h>#2 : J^f 2 N*^a ,^2. 
i 
J*4d and perhaps some other verbs, in their ordinary use, 

retain the force of the ancient participle ; e. g. ^>V*t tia'2 aw 

exactly now I wish, where the idea is limited to the present 
moment. 

The present subjunctive is occasionally used for a preter- 
ite indicative, as was the present participle (Hoff. § 135, 3, b) 

from which it sprung; e. g. aA>'2 A »A X >0 and Jesus saying 
(said) ; w&aal they said. In these cases, the modern usage is 
almost a transcript of the ancient, bJXtl being written for 
aA»2, and «-aJ»2 for tJteal. 

It is not strange that these different idioms lead to ambi- 
guity, which no acquaintance with the language will fully 
remove ; e. g. OiV*irt ^Lst l&l * ^U) may be translated 

"our sweet voices let us all raise," or " we do all raise," or 
"we will all raise." The perplexity thus caused, however, 
is as nothing, compared with the puzzling expressions we 
often find in Hebrew. 

The usages are so simple in regard to what has been 
called the second present subjunctive, that no remarks need 
be made about them. 

In a multitude of instances, the indicative or subjunctive 
may either of them be used to express an idea ; but the 
subjunctive will express it as more contingent, as is true of 

the German and other languages ; e. g. Zacfa u Atfw dA 

i» i a 

every thing that there may he, for which we may substitute 
iS«a »&&*> ia, or Vu2a w&d&a ^ . So %oai %a& ^2, 

|l l' I II I I II i' m i it 

or 1*- ,lJJ,l> ^ if he be here, ox if he is here. 
i> • i a 

Imperfect Tense. — This is often used as an imperfect in- 
dicative, in accordance with the use of the ancient present 
participle, joined with loof , from which it took its origin ; 
e. a. JjftPf • aAJao %aci aa»w tXBJt >Q and Jesus was walk- 

° II I H I 

ing about and preaching. 



105 

It is also used, as the imperfect subjunctive in Latin, for 
the pluperfect ; and this is the common idiom in regard to 
a verb which follows a conditional clause, and which, in 
our language, would be in the pluperfect. We thus may say 

%oci A\% %* : tAAiem locT i\jBC7 ^2 if you had told me, I 

should not be (have been) angry ; : VVM t t %aoj Xaoj ^i 
%aCI 7"2 3^SCV2 if he had heard, certainly he would (would 
have) come ; implying that he did not hear nor come. 

This tense is also used with a negative, to imply what ought 
not to be ; e. g. iktStX loot 1*k jAa waj£» \L VuL 2xJXa* 

I m i' i' I II II I m 

you have done a thing that should not be done. See Lev. 4 : 13, 
27, and compare the Ancient Syriac. 

Perfect and, Pluperfect Tenses. — It is unnecessary to say any 
thing further of these tenses than that they are not much 
used in common conversation, the Nestorians preferring to 
state their idea in another and more simple form, which they 
can in most cases readily do. When they are used, they 
correspond in general to the same tenses in the Latin. 

«3 has sometimes been prefixed to the tenses of the sub- 
junctive in our books ; but this is not in accordance with 
general usage in Oroomiah, and has of late been nearly or 
quite dropped. 

SUBJUNCTIVE AFTER PARTICLES. 

Much that might be said under this head has been virtu- 
ally anticipated in the numerous examples given in the pre- 
ceding pages. The principal particles which may take the 

subjunctive are : »J , J& ^2 , aXJ. , a , j£a , a XXt , a t&ou2, 

u ft i V i 

a-» , a J& , a %sJo , a jaoJL , a ^i\ , a tier , etc. 

i ^ it i » t ' i i 

So that is expressed by a %Stt\OI • when, by a XixX y0 , 

as well as by ^ttu2 ; lest, by a %ttCI Hi , i. e. let it not be that. 

m .i i. 
As to the use of »>2 and 9tV,2 , the question whether they 

are to be followed by the subjunctive or indicative present, 

depends on the degree of contingency in each individual case, 



166 

in the speaker or writer's mind; e. a. XS090JB %*i>Ma u*ol ^2, 
or, instead, JSOSOJJ kAw X> Xtl i *1 ^ , if I am reading to-morrow. 
«J , with the imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive, implies 
the non-existence of the action or state of the verb ; e. g. 
Xoci YlXaSo ^2 if you should sicken (implying that you are 
not sick now), jiXJO %OC! ItBC? » 2 if you had come up (as 

I M U 

you have not). 

As to the use of S> , it is important to observe that, like 
ut in Latin, it is employed in a multitude of cases to denote 
the purpose, object, or result of the preceding clause, where 
in English and Hebrew (Nordh. § 1030) we should have the 

infinitive : JMO JO lg.it l» a wOfOxVB uAS. tell for him that he 

water the horse ; lie? 2**»a ,7va«< he went that he might see; 

CiA imm'V^ba TUDCff ^JjiVtW. <Aey a>ew trouble that they 
■* ' * . '. ' " 

mi^Ai /swd Aim (tried to find). Observe that it is immaterial, 

in this last, and many similar cases, whether we use the pres- 
ent or the imperfect subjunctive, each being alike contin- 
gent. The present would, however, be generally preferred as 
briefer and equally expressive, a is very often omitted after 

« t» i a a i (i * ii i «*. 

iXSkX,, etc. For example, i Tl A V* A>S>*1 do you wish (that) 
learn ? 2xi.iL, TU3XIA XjL. ^O ii is necessary (that) 



yow may 



,t 



you write quickly, uJtbS, u*S i ViAl kfl Via he will beg on (of) 

them (that) iAey flee. Compare the omission of S in the an- 
cient language (Hoff. §130, 4, y; §149, 3, 5; §134, 3, a), 
and also of ut in the Latin. The correspondence between the 
signification of verbs in that language which dispense with 
ut, and those in the Modern Syriac which are not followed 
by » , is quite striking. 

Sometimes a clause is interposed between » and the verb 
to which it refers ; e. g. : 
oi)UM -JU& : udBla waJ 2jo»»oc!>? : Zxsl n*2» -i»a 

^LmJOM which literally reads I wish that those men that I 
have spoken about them be poured into prison. 



167 

S» %JB for that (iva) is in general used like J , but can only 
denote the purpose or object, not tbe result. It is not com- 
monly used in Koordistan, where 9 supplies its place. 

There is the same distinction between the words 
^g9 ^du2 and ^0L» JjaoA^ft ^Mu2 that there is in Eng- 
lish between the expressions " when I pray" and " when I 
am praying." 

The remaining particles need no illustration. £9oJ^ and 
Jj>3\ are identical in meaning, the former being used more 
in Koordistan, and the latter in Oroomiah. They corres- 
pond to the ancient i£onX2 and uU as used with the 
future. 

Where several tenses of the same kind are connected by 
the conjunction O, if the first is preceded by «3, the oth- 
ers may omit it. So if % St is prefixed to the first, it is un- 
derstood with all. The same is often, but not always, true 
in regard to those tenses which terminate in JjftCf ; e. g. 
f>ASOO %atn Hf I %£ he was in the habit of going and preach- 
ing, where laei need not be repeated after f !xa»So . So in 
the ancient language. So in the English " I will go, and 
(will) call them, and (will) have a talk." 

INFINITIVE. 

The absolute infinitive, joined with the finite verb, is used 
in the Modern as well as in the Ancient Syriac (HofF. § 133), 
and the Hebrew (Nordh. § 1017), to give intensity to the 
idea ; e. g. John 9 : 9, where the ancient is libi Z anyo , and 
the modern 1*- l*aa*£J Xi Zo ^ iO he is very much like, he 
strongly resembles. Sometimes the infinitive is used in a man- 
ner different from the preceding. For example, iJ VVfraiX liL 
did he not hear? To this, the answer maybe as follows: 



168 

Z-ViS.2 %H %*tsl %i~>l : , 7VV iMLi X ,T»Vi»»X hearing he heard, 

5w£ coming he did not come. "We have often prefixed bo to 
this infinitive, in accordance with early usage, and indeed 
present usage among the mountains ; but it is not heard in 
Oroomiah. 

The infinitive with ^ is occasionally employed in the 
Mod. Syr., though the subjunctive with a and a %k is gene- 
rally preferred. The following are examples of its use : 
2&a3f& wAAM VlA there is nothing to sell; %%f lik 2a-2 As? 

we poured hand to go, i. e. we set out ; i JilVafttS <u&jtX2 

did you come to hear ? In these examples, a with the sub- 
junctive may also be employed, according to usage in Oroo- 
miah. In some parts of Koordistan, however, ^ is used 
much more than here in Oroomiah, and especially when, 
as in these cases, it has no object expressed after it. Thus, 

they say i XllaaxS <yftJ»X2 , but, with an object following, 

i yUfh&Zo nikMXa fea»>X2, did you come to hear preaching? 

In Oroomiah, in many cases, where we should expect ^ , 
some other preposition is used with the infinitive. For ex- 
ample, in the sentences above we may substitute %h with 
equal propriety. 

As in the ancient lang., ^9 may be used before the infini- 
tive for the purpose of comparison (Hoff. § 134, 2); but in the 
common usage without any S . Thus, for «*^ n9)UB %xl 
2sJU^ ^aoi^aAa pa , in Buth 1 : 12, we may translate 

Za.,av\ i*b«T ►bo, or use, if we prefer, the subjunctive 

j%1\\ ^.ocfa po . So too, for the clause in Gen. 11 : 8, 

5L.9JS i v a U M ^ a £0 osM, we may write l&.i.»>f» ilia **> . 

m 1 m ft t K m * t N m 

So we say % Jb^* %&t*JkL hbo + $S\ x they ceased from pray- 

ing; JXaJk. «S9Cff po ^VPa>^ we finished from trouble-draw- 
ing, i. e. from being in trouble, or from taking pains ; 



169 

%60A\ (A> uA &Xa£s X^» 2-S yow cannot hinder me from 
telling. 

The infinitive is used in other connections without a pre- 
position ; e. g. JjoJSo }ii U Ae weni to iriny, where in Koor- 
distan they would say "MjUxa . 

Here may properly be classed such cases as the following: 
, ? > ^ ) > B Hi Jjivi while not yet arriving, i. e. while the person 
had not yet arrived ; %>%*• "P* ^tfl not at all seeing, the con- 
text determining who did not see. So also with suffixes : 
wC70m4m U* ?Jk(7? while not seeing him. The place of these 
may of course always be filled by the finite verb. 

>j>, tl\ X i2kCT % OJt*5tt uJOBoSbV &23 they will increase in 
i ii i a i a J 

wickedness until their perishing (Nordheimer, § 1030, 3) ; 
iXaf 9b9A Z*Xaf /&£ ^o Se^>re $e sowing of the seed (Nordh. 

§1030, 4, a); ilL, U* fesottaQTO 9u£4 2aaX are mfliw 
' i' i i i a • 

tlwught (thinking) awe? speaking one (the same) ? (Nordh. 
§ 1013, I. 1). So t*&£ & IftOAJttOO 2&£u» a%ir^ an^ 
watering (fields) / ao no< understand (Nordh. § 1013, n. 1) ; 
loaf i»a-a jiaJka a< tfie feme of sun-rising (Nordh. § 1030, 
2, a) ; iuf ^.2 2Sx» w9£&9 fcA f^ere is nothing (so) 5a<? as 
committing adultery (N. § 1030, 2, b); 2-oik ,7>»«i£f> < *IA3 

■^P i't. i i < 

for the purpose of making bricks (Nordh. § 1030, 6, a). 

Some of the above may perhaps be regarded by others as 
participles, the 9 of verbs of the first class being dropped ; 
or simply as nouns. But it seems preferable, if etymology 
alone, or the analogy of the Turkish and Persian, as previ- 
ously noticed, is taken into account, to call them infinitives. 
However, it matters little ; for what is the infinitive but a 
noun, expressing the abstract idea of the verb, without ref- 
erence to tense or number or person ? The references above 
show that there is a striking similarity between these ex- 
amples and those adduced by Nordheimer to show the use of 
the infinitive in Hebrew. They might be farther multiplie'd. 

vol. v. 22 



170 



PARTICIPLE. 



A participle, when repeated, sometimes denotes the repeti- 
tion of the action, or its continuance; e. g. 2»©5>*A 2&A9bUfc 
rolling, rolling, i. e. continuing to roll. Participles are often 
thus used adverbially, to qualify a verb which follows ; e. g. 
tfcOb— i 7\n»\l > 1^ i> A'J running, running, go, i. e. as fast as 

you can ; ZA&i ,7 SmiSjI ?S»w.^fll laughing, laughing, he came, 
i. e. full of glee. 

Participles are sometimes used in the place of the infini- 
tive, as in the ancient language (Hoff. § 134, 3, b), after verbs 
denoting to begin; e. g. jJ ^ L xO ^O^SOX they began plucking. 

$btt is not commonly prefixed to the participle in the 
Modern as in the Ancient Syriac (Hoff. § 135, 5), and indeed 
never in Oroomiah, although we occasionally employ it thus 
in our books. 

For such expressions as fc i t l fl >* > S ^ > , 2oj-H3 waAa , 

etc., the Mod. Syr. uses the nouns terminating in 2* '; e. g. 
V**3? J*>*£ , ic&i* 2*5&A . We retain, however, 

ZiSJLa AAU and its plural, for want of any suitable term in 
the modern for hypocrite. 

VERB OF EXISTENCE. 

A-»2 and A»A are both used, as in the Anc. Syr., to express 
the idea of possession, and that constantly ; e. g. uJk A»2 / 
have, *A^ &*l thou hast, etc., literally, there is to me, "est 
mihi." When we refer to indefinite past time, titai is to be 
inserted ; as hS lOCI \*± there was not to us. In order to 
express future possession, we employ the future of the verb 
X/ttn ; e. g. ^** u*OW «a ij'of %S& much money will be to 



171 

thee. So it is used for the conditional: OJJk i-ftOT »^ if there 
he to her, i. e. if she have. 

It may be mentioned in this connection that such forms 
as the ancient u^>2 lam, wOfO&jJ* it is not he, are not at 
all allowable in the modern language. Nor are *U2 and 
&»^ joined with participles; as ^»X»2 JAX. 

ADVERBS. 

Adverbs in the Mod. Syr., as in the Ancient (Hoff. § 147, 
2), are often repeated, like other parts of speech, to denote 
intensity. Examples have already been given. 

Care should be taken not to confound Z*a*#2 , used as an 
adjective, with the same word used as an adverb. Thus, 
/>1Xm2 /Bia^S upp oiib means bring the other girl, while 
the expression lia-#2 j&i&l ucA "2*9 means bring the girl 
again. 

Two negatives are very often used in Modern Syriac to 
increase the force of the negative ; e. g. kA*** %H uMD <«CT 
we saw nothing ; , V *^> > *3 ►£« L^ <«C7 / do not at all know; 

il T. II II »' ' a 

A*A <jCf there is none at all. This differs from ancient 
usage (Hoff. § 147, 4), but corresponds to that of the Turk- 
ish and the Persian. As an example of the latter take 
OUaj ^4J> j*s>- g^2> he sees nothing. 

When there are several negative propositions in the same 
sentence, each verb should properly have its own negative ; 
e. g. » j»Vy| i V S UkO ^CA^D Z-i they did not rise and go 
out. Still, if the second verb be not at all emphatic, the 
second 2-W may be omitted. 

PREPOSITIONS. 

The most important peculiarities of these have been noted 
in the Etymology. They are used very much like the cor- 
responding prepositions in the ancient language. 



172 

The phrases uO^J > tA*9 , qjfti^ ^o\,»3, etc., which 
are in common use, deserve notice. We may literally trans- 
late them: between, me to myself, between thee to thyself, i. e. with- 
out any advice or help from others. Compare the ancient 

C> xAi\ i-»eytti i > M . The modern \i*l also conforms in 

i* i i ii i* . i i 

other respects to the ancient u>&*9; e. g. ancient OPO k*i<a, 

modern Cf^2o 6&!v3, between thee and him. >V*3. how- 

ever, in the modern lang. is more usually repeated ; thus, 

5 jft\ i> !B O i> V »3 between me and thee. See both construc- 
^*t ,t i i' 

tions with l p3 in Hebrew (Nordh. § 1041, 1, a, b). It may 
also be remarked that a>9 sometimes means including; e. g. 
uSift Ju>3 including all of them; /&AA30 Xxil >S»>3 includ- 
ing men and women. 

CONJUNCTIONS. 

In the Modern Syriac m is often omitted ; e. g. 

%Xii 7V\i m**1 ftoo (or) <Aree men. So in Anc. Syr. (Hoff. 

§ 149, 1, b). So in the Turkish. On the other hand, it is often 

repeated at the head of successive clauses ; e. g. 1*2 ^* xl*2 ^> 

either I or you. Compare o2 o2 in Ancient Syriac. 

In the same way we repeat tdo2. a»f o 1A0I %>\so 1A0I 

i iii i * * 

both the king and vizir (Hoff. § 149, 2). So with ^BW , which 

corresponds to ȣlo2 , and is more used by the people. 

Sometimes O is omitted ; very often, indeed, in common 

conversation, a is also vulgarly substituted for o in such 

expressions as u*2» ftt* \ Iwaz and they, i. e. Iwaz and his 

companions. 

PHEASES. 

It will be useful to learners, and not without interest to 
those who would compare the Modern Syriac with its cog- 
nate dialects, to give a small collection of the peculiar 



173 

idioms and phrases with which the language abounds. 
Many have indeed already been given in the examples used 
to illustrate the Syntax. Those which follow are noted 
down as they occur, without any attempt at system. 

}J»ao2S Af 2 113 uff OiS o t his business will go upon the 
road, i. e. will prosper; uw*io2 A>X OOCT JJ30XX, they were 
looking on my road, i. e. awaiting my arrival ; wlUJ 22Ut (,i.ncj- 

we gave heart for them, i. e. comforted them ; %XQ*JB iASili\3 OCJ 

' 4 ^ *' ' " " 
he will eat sticks, i. e. be beaten ; ^oL* uA al late care, i. e. took 

pains, or had trouble; 3\ftT o'op l'x*l ^oJ ]Ja>9 lam 
pouring (putting) hand to that business, i. e. I am beginning. 
This idiom is even used as follows : J*o*i90j-V 2x*2 2^a» 
he poured hand to speak. \&bo 29w2 U& X13 Ae wra'S <Aro«> ojf 
7wsno3 yrom us, i. e. will withdraw countenance or support ; 
1*J>? JX» iAe AeaoJ o/ <Ae nesi, applied to the oldest child ; 
2-»aol3 ^ftXai $ey ^K to <Ae roooJ, i. e. they set out ; 

toC? ft\V j> XjJJ2 iaX 7*1 1 > V OnA every sAeep on Aw own legs, 
i. e. every man on his own responsibility; u*C7Q> >?N , ^V *rr 

tfc arrived to his hand, i. e. it reached him ; k*0joa»»l3 ?>Ai 
tijfeW to Am AanoJ, at times used for what comes accidentally. 
Sometimes we say yX»l\ i^>Aa jS # m>^ not fall to my 
hand, i. e. I cannot (do so and so). JVTxV 13» it drew 
much, i. e. it took much time; J^ %&SOOA he is black-faced, 
i. e. he is guilty or disgraced; jiJ %hsL» he is white-faced, 
L e. he is innocent; iSJ X-ftJJ uOfAI) his head is hard, 
i. e. he is obstinate; zS»OX OOfa 1*JB J»o2 ^j^» J^ /can- 
7io< enter before that business, i. e. I cannot undertake it • 
^jASds t*ao7 »£» 2 '\ 3 A3 Jam cfoingr hope from you, i. e. I ex- 
ercise hope in regard to you ; oora ^o i^,iS>H iik wCTaxi 
, 7SO i T Ais AeaoJ cfoes not go out from that business, i. e. he doe's 



174 

not understand it, is unable to accomplish it ; wCfOuJS «y£io Z^ 
I cannot with him, i. e. cope with ; Zi»- ^>\yV> >3t>to i the fruit 
has arrived, i. e. is ripe ; wefoVlis 2>tlV t» . , ^**flV ZaVlW 
Ae dYa" <Ams from the root of his ear, i. e. from necessity ; 
^SaJs JA ktOTOJtOOf Aw understanding does not cut, i. e. he 
does not understand ; Jxil o'e)A jjfljjjc uM ^owr peace on 
$a£ man, i. e. salute him kindly ; Z-bai ,7S\\4 Ae wen< owt 

i. e. he turned out, a drunkard ; jUmJUaa 2*^> m»M **13 J 
w»7Z sin'fe ooc& on Christ, i. e. I will take refuge in, I will go to 
for support ; JjL* q jA flua yowr pleasure it is, i. e. let it be 

as you please ; ii'fcXf Aor 23>a\, po from great to small, 
i. e. all ; 23L»X i U — lftN to strike flattery, i. e. to flatter ; 
wOTOnS oJV„ <qA>MH I 2/ow rose in his face, i. e. rose against, 
were opposed to him; »» J ^\ Tv ' V^'w it reached my soul, i. e. I 
was driven to extremity ; ZiL» ^aiUm^o ;5ixfl the cold has 
smitten you, i. e. you have taken cold ; ^-» uJk— »» sweeten us, 
i. a forgive us; liil OCT* ^» ^*nt lS I do not break from 
that man, i. e. I do not cower before him ; % * **Xl& |U our 

heart opened, i. e. we became happy ; ? N » jA ^ OOLA your 
heart remained, i. e. you were not hearty (in the business), 
or you were displeased ; i*^ 2sl*2 )BJ& it is before the hand, 

i. e. at hand ; JUL* fcJ U aa uff ftO'V' Ms breath is ridden, 
i. e. is quick, as of a dying man ; ?N^Hfi uCfaa S his heart 
burned, often in the sense of compassionating another, as, 
my heart burned for him. So the Nestorians speak of the 
heart as boiling, cooling, freezing, etc. The meaning of 
these figures is obvious, ia-* Z-« Vli> wCT aA aa J Aw &nees 

are stopped, i. e. he is wearied out ; IS** ^nao±lu CfaJaJ92 



175 

her foot is heavy, i. e. she is pregnant ; u»oe£ Jj£A* tiJeZZ to 
my understanding, i. e. I comprehended; ^fu&oibac] iAjuj 

coo& yowr words, i. e. speak with deliberation ; M* M«3t3 i XD OJB P 

i 1 < i 1 < 

<Ae Aor.se is cooked, i. e. he is hardened to heat and cold, etc. ; 

1*A JS»A 1*2 $ese how many years, i. e. these many years ; 

Z i*W Oi.> I'Xt&i. %L a ten days, i. e. ten days ; AAA fr B t^X 
on your neck, i. e. the responsibility is on you. So the phrase 
" on your head." /&^* iw**# a seer of face, i. e. a time- 
server ; XUUt 2Jtw 2aLo2 he has entered upon years, i. e. he is 
growing or has grown old ; JAmJBB %1~> l +t+J O St they are strik- 
ing swimming, i. e. they are swimming ; 2aJ&0£ ^4 w sanc- 
tify the table, i. e. ask a blessing; 5^0*40 W ^» VLoJ ?S^>S>4 
yow have gone out from your mind, i. e. as we say, you are out 
of your head ; yOltuoe^ <2&ma iik ^jOaOCJ your wnefer- 
standing do not put on his understanding, i. e. do not compare 
yours with his. 

SALUTATIONS. 

A few of the more common will be given below. It will 
be seen that some of them are rather Oriental than peculiar 
to the Nestorians. 

One who first speaks to another says q fcflA JlnXr peace 

to thee, to which the reply is ^ki>Vl2 lu x rt in peace thou hast 

come, or, simply, , 7i » X 3 . On taking leave, one says 

k*a*, < an 5fcA*» (of uncertain derivation), equivalent to 

good-bye. Instead of this, we also hear Zi*X9 iXAJ& remain 

I * 

in peace. At evening, a common salutation is , **V ^JUoai 
(may) your evening (be) blessed. After a death or some 
calamity has befallen a house, a visitor says to the inmate 
Vft i f O. 'a %AOl ^AX3 may your head be comfortable, or com- 
forted. When a man puts on a new coat, his friend says to 



176 

him ffi a nVl i-OC/ may it be blessed. On receiving a favor, 
one replies jJHUiBfl tVocf, where 7 *K>>JQa*rt seems to be 
nearly equivalent to ,*>> Af may you be happy or blessed. 
After dinner, the guest says to his host ^» $**Ko 2cft3>2 
may God increase you. If one enters a field, he says to the 
laborer TuikAJB ^Aisej^ 2©%i2 may 6W groe yow strength. 
At the commencement of a feast or a wedding, the invited 
person says ?*V>S*I %ACI ^»»XX may yowr _/eas< (or wed- 
ding) be blessed. If a host wishes to be specially polite, he 
says to his guest ^ttAlVl i> \ > V iX9 the head of my eyes, 
you have come. If one inquires about another's circumstan- 
ces, the reply often is M* uu3^ *\ooii ^AZl^OA \SOfrom 
your wealth (or bounty) my condition is good. Sometimes he 
says "from the bounty of God and yours." An inferior, 
when asked by a superior about his health, often gives no 
reply except ^oJkji your servant. A person wishing to 
abase himself before another, says ^OaaxAJ ) +$OI may I 
be your sacrifice. One, on seeing something wonderful, often 
exclaims 2ci-£Z-^ /SLoAln glory to God/ When he wishes 
to commend another, he says ^Au^ ?**W » *1 may your soul 
be sound, equivalent to bravo. 

POETRY. 

We have made some attempts, and, as we think, not un- 
successfully) to introduce sacred poetry into the Modern 
Syriac. The language is sufficiently flexible and sufficiently 
imaginative, and we have already quite a collection of 
hymns, both original and translated. The following is a 
translation of Cowper's beautiful hymn, " There is a foun- 
tain filled with blood," which seems to have lost none of its 
beauty in this strange dress. 



177 

2 
: JsAas Z»a ^e **u2 iLx 

rffi.V.,, (A> ilaa Zocr fcsro 
■i l ltea oral,? ^ 

» 

i 1 i" i / * 

.jl*a i^oof erauao 

A, 

: lmJU. Z*2 i£o2 wOTOwS 4*2 
v « < 1 1 - ^ , 

: w-*b ^2 uff0w9 4*2 2ju2 
. %\ a£ ^o ^a'aJb Via 
a 
:«M>? : 2o£ia 2ai£ %1 

z K A a ia zLi Zioaocra ua2 

^* « i» t i m t 



23 



178 

er 
i^&tiaa t*a*»a laoa- ocra ^s 

It I m " 

: <ft l i««fll l ,xa }£S iA z£oc? 

o 
ZajLOa uax^ ohxk Via 

t t it ti ii 

ZllSJ* "ha uftL^AO 

:iaj»f ^nSkltmA uj^lL.2 

i' < 

John Chapter VII. 

As some who may read the preceding grammar will have 
no access to our books, it is not out of place to transcribe a 
few verses from the seventh Chapter of John. They are a 
simple and familiar translation of the corresponding verses 
in the Ancient Syriac. 

aa,o :J&AV, o£, Amsu iocr 2aL*a liia aViai 2 

t i it t> i 

ahm : aoof- o^ 2ak*A e£ jior y kna a iSa 
.astasia .l*»oop» ixiaaLaa 2a2X iaer iiLaa&JBia "? 

,i m i ' I t I i 

SxaS 2ai3tV» ;i«»S.& <ft>»ytVh w feU :aao^A 

« * • it i< « ^"/ tti ti 

iMdtaao iA*i-a «**» aoula jx*2 VuSa iuuo a 
w*~io r'xuoLi 2aJ3LS>a Z»2 »i .2aikxl3 iaera e£ 



179 

oocr iSfc Mora^Am*.! tdo2a ctaJo .ZaaiwiLN *>**&. W 
<±ci »»-a z&s* : iVai,, u£2 oj»1 .tXojua Z*aoocy a 

I t t m $ t II II I t* It I 

Zi^X tXaoi .jaaola lkaf Za-2 : Z*V° ZV^ zJ> zlai 
Ja2 Zv-2 : ^oaoIojqA ZaaA.£ 2^ iS .zki 2aaoer f 

tut m II Ai< »• i' # 

*hA9 jloaeu© hoJ zacjla Z*2a aaun :U» Za 
»ijaojo2 »i^w2 .jxi 2JU9 wer&L^kda wero-a <*. 

# i' t i it t i 

A3Jto : 2 jZX 2w2gJa dOJBl A zlal Z»2 .2aZX 2or2gA 4. 

Zix4o 2aW U2 -i)O»0Vl ik; A Z*W yyft Z*9f» 

:2auA wCToVu^o^I ^S.,Bm aj> zL>2 .ziLSk.1 oiL w 

-iAXi-a? «-2Z*2:jfaAXZ3Z£ zZlouca o'er ^o2z£-2 

/»" ^ i n i t* ii t * f 

w9J»ia :2aZ>J3 wcroaViaf oocr u.Aj»L Z-aoov zL2 Z* 
< i 1 < < ' i' < » 

ol. locr Vu*2 Zaa ^CsSLn i o'er zV; Z»-2 oocr ou 

**£*>? ©OCT t*9£»2^^U2^ OU3UO : «*«?**» VutSZXlA 

^ ;\ftV ,. \> Z*2 :l£ :oocr wa*2 Z*a-io :1^- 
woro-a Wa Zoer ^*»w Zx»2 z£ zL2 ^.VV 4k- 

' ' # ii t $ i^V \ 

.Z-"jj»oova J^>»oo# £• : laAxXa 
i' i i v • < 

4«OJL.2ktt»:2»Z^al&o^2£^lWaA*L2 a- 

Z&^oX oocr Zxlfl^o .Zoer k ^io ^LnS ov 
<* * < " a i 

rZsfoia 2e>2 ziLi ;lxa*s «a2a : waaaW :Z-ab"6v 

* "' I I I m ' I ,<' i 

:2a*»Zo Xax- tfaoox. £ ikA^ ]L }i u a, 
i 1 " i ■■ « > * » ,> ,i ■ , 

^» .Z&aaoxa o'era ^2 i^a ^ Za »s&>o~ »- 

I'n i a 1 1 ,i ,. , , 



180 
.uoJ Z*>o«»er v»sjka il*a pa Z*2 kl : zSj 2o&i £» ^2 

v " it ( II V . V » |i I v . II 

^oiAii^Utt 2&AL* s^ttaer ^craSJ—a Z-f's poa l*» mm 
i « n * it* a ^ • * ^ 

: oraa&xs ocra ixou, Z**jia o'er Z*-2 : Wka Z» 
Zocr Z^ .VlA wcros* o^zSoSlo : zi~ \ ?"-*?&-* 

Zau2 z£o i xmcvana uxaoVvir ^s»cp Zxam* 

* ■ i* ii ii i' i 

JjXaa waoMua -ZJtbaaaa iSJ 2>Vlii ^aalii) * 

I II I ,' ~ II m II ' 

Vu2 jiua : waaoZa Zxj* iiirool. < .AV^ftS ^C Za> 

f '$ I ii * ii t % I ' « 

>Vax,i zZaoftl, '■ »oS.Sl.fllS Z^ jJXaa uaaa : froA 

'»'"'* ' ' " l' tilt ' I 

XxlA ^AotLso : .A&AX ,7i»S.«* Z-- : u*2 2»J»io 

• $ii ii ii i* « 

.^aafrvir Zlaop Zxaa» 2cr2a Vlah .IsVoX ^cC oa 

» i* i* i* i* t t i* % i 

kioa Z& zZfr^ZXftao p»a aa<n ZacfZS rlLflftcuatt 
v . * « ii < v ■ * i" " i 1 1 

■ZxmjJAVuojbp ^jfruajtx Za ^autao .Z^ k-oaa >^a 
Xh : 3&itxa Zsoo*3 Vuojo 2>.3U. ju& Zsu&a «Z» 

t II t m II I * « 

Z»oJL&iL tAx zZacaima Zoojbu Z^a-x **& z£a 

i' # v ** * # (• / n it " 

zi> £ 3&*xa Z»o*a wAaaumoa Zuaii o£o>? „i>*C 

r * i / ii i i t* 

dttoi hiu»a Z*-2 :z3za rtiawi Zauaa .ifcuoqr && 

/ ^ / " # |» I m i t II I 



APPENDIX. 



It is stated on page 45 of this Grammar, that some effort 
had been made to note down as many verbal roots in com- 
mon use as possible, but that most, if not every one, of the 
lists of verbs given were probably still incomplete. During 
the past year more than a hundred new verbs have been 
collected, which will be found classified below. Many of 
these verbs we have hitherto been unacquainted with, and 
every succeeding year will of course add to their number. 
"We may thus hope to approximate in time to a complete 
catalogue of the verbal roots in the Modern Syriac. 

It would be a very interesting and profitable study to 
trace the roots already written down to their primitive 
source, so far as it can be ascertained, and I had intended 
to make such an examination. But want of leisure com- 
pels me to relinquish the idea. This I regret the less, as 
every oriental scholar has the means of making the examin- 
ation for himself. No doubt many of these roots have been 
employed in daily intercourse from remote antiquity, and 
yet, as intimated on page 8, may perhaps now be written 
down for the first time. 

An opportunity has been afforded me of reading eighty- 
eight printed pages of the Grammar and furnishing for them 
a table of errata. The printing is beautiful, and much ad- 
mired by us, as well as by the Nestorians, and the errors of 
the press are in general unimportant. The wonder is that, 
under the circumstances, they are not of a more serious 
character. 

It should have been stated in the "Introductory Ee- 
marks," that the matrices for the Syriac types with which 
the Grammar is printed were prepared by Mr. Breath, one 
of my missionary associates, who has from the first superin- 
tended our press, and cut with great taste and skill all our 
fonts of Syriac type, except in a single instance.* 

D. T. Stoddard. 

Oroomiah, Persia, May, 1855. 

* See note at the end of this Appendix. comm. of pdbl. 

vol. v. 23 A 



180 b 



to come to nought, fade m ^ f J to reduce to ruins, to be- 
come a ruin, 
to reduce to pulp. See 



VERBS INFLECTED LIKE J»9b3, 1ST CLASS. 

■ « C to come to nought, fade m ^ f J 

t^9»3 2 away (as stars before the „ " ( 

" C sun). t r._ .._ 

iVi 5 to reduce to pulp, become "~i** V < *; ll 

*zr\ puip. "(^r 3 

aail to abrade. ^A^ S tobe courageous, to as- 

A ^ 5 1° cave ' n > as a r00T °f < s 

^T*.} earth (also causative). w9 /\ to be 1 uiet ' to be falnt * 

* V ' J ^to split (tr. and intr.). *Jwi» to prick, to pierce. 

OSbi^ to starve (intr.). UQ»S.A to make to squint, to squint 

wlV $ t0 st0 P one ' s mouth (intr.), .* C to slip out of place, to dis- 

^Tv to become silent TT I charge a gun, to tear. 

\St* tocement(cracked vessels). ^Mt^ to suck in (as a leech). 

kSSf to floor (an antagonist). 'TJUti to blow 

" , , , «t • ' " 

Am.'' S equivalent to tSf9t*». ., t ; 

u X See p. 81. " ' '^"Vg t0 spllt ( tr * lntr *'* 

A ttU» to invert. u»!Xd to fade, bleach (intr.). 

.V«V * S equivalent to i >*1« > n . C to stick, adhere. Like 

*^~* Seep.82. » • af*U^,p.71. 

VERBS INFLECTED LIKE 1*133, 2ND CLASS. 

kJ^yOJkto hiccup. Jm9 to touch, feel of. 

i v ' < equivalent to Al\> . ._»^ 5 e< iuivalent to > n *SSB . 

„-,\ See p. 80. " "' '"T™ I See p. 82. " ' 

i_< ' . , 1 .„ , C to make damp, be damp. 

TUkOT to be still. .^ 1 , r 

f^ t~^ See'plsAau. 

fl>AV to incite (to a contest). i • '■ 

" . , . , ,.. ««.«Z. o »V.au89 to saddle. 

' ( equivalentto*fll*d. See \, 

"'*' P- oi - OkV,a to go on foot. 



BmSj to reprove. .^ , tQ forsake (m a bird for , 

• V , „ ) sakes her nest), 

i.a > to be courageous. , , ; . . , ' , 

v„ , & ttan ) to ma *e clean, become 

„ , i clean. 



180 c 



VEEBS INFLECTED LIKE (XlS , p. 64. 

W3 to fill to the brim. tV,Zib to dissolve (tr.). 

i^ip to perceive (by the eye). «ZJCD to stand on end (as the hair). 

^ < to snap, make to roll (as rf to be or become 

jml% 1 to thrust. See JQ3L—A, *£}£ ft to roost. 

■"■■■■■* J n n m $ 

"<& S to repent. See tSOX , 
a r\ p. 50. 



p. 51. 



like y ^ y , p. 66. 
4X1 to go out, be extinguished. 

VEEBS INFLECTED LIKE JM, p. 69. 

i' " 

i*<toindent,makeade P ressio, U*> \ ^^T^rootS." ° f 

j|*.» to castrate. }*JL to bound back (as a ball). 

I 

XtXX to stray, run away. 



ft*** to castrate. 

i 
%»1 to groan. 



VEEBS INFLECTED LIKE /tf«007, P. 80. 

tVx.32 to benumb, be benumbed. ȣf*0T to be pleased or gratified. 

fctLSaCF to button, be buttoned. 



>IH3iV\*1 to chev 



a^B mB 5 t0 ^ x i mra ovably (as a 
« -V"7 i nail), to be fixed. 

| to make small, to make 
round, to b 
or round. 



^XSOf tomakeorbecome muddy. 

i<. V a' V" ulaKe Hlmuj ' to lnaKe A A 5 equivalent to dBDOJCOO. 

i*^*V,< round, to become small £,„£, \ See p. 81. " ' 

" ' ( or round. < 

j£^\; 5 t0 cause to cave in (as fcOA-BO to bark, to croak. 



, ,\ a mine), to cave in. 
i 

JCSlXS to trample. 



tikO^C/ 5 t0 incite i to mortify (as „ f ) 

« i \ a diseased part). ' 



fcl !>fl U<f to embolden, be bold. 



to tear (cloth) (tr. and 
intr.). 



iXaaht 5 t0 make t0 hesitate, to *fl*Of to laugh immoderately. 
S 7 J hesitate. " ' 



180 d 

idi M 1 iji w.»«i $ to make damp, become 

J4±Xtf to dazzle. ^OViOi j damp _ 

-i ' < to put out (leaves); to ^ u U < to graft, to be or become 
k **" " ^ break out (as sores). ^„ \ , J grafted. 

mJl; . .„ ,, , ■ . . ^ _ . <i < to dam up and swell (as 

PfSf to spill (tr. and intr.). /"^-f J water). 

rt ..», ' < to dig into, to pick the .,«j.^cl 5 to breathe hard (through 
JK/V - ? 1 ( teetli. JrTiT J the nose). 

*?*-• J ^mixeY* COnfUSi ° n ' £»^ t0 wed g e in : be ™% ed - 



'"» 



; to tick (as a clock), to ring 5^5^ to snort . 



. , , 1 f to tick 

&M\r] (as metals). Also used' 

« ' J in a causative sense. t A ( to be or become consoli- 

m L , (to mix up, etc., as M?*—} dated. 

b X3 > 3 to pave (with stone, etc.). 
cause fair 'weather, to 



. , C to beat with a switch, to , , 

j.-AV ^ j smart (as if from such a »A*»w \ ? .. . 

" '■>■/ blow). " > ' become fair. 



>xaa^». 



>S.ffkS.^ to pant from heat, to sob. ' „" j; to have dartin ? P ains - 

U,:, , , . . ^xi' ( to place upright, to stand 

AmA to be curved or bent ," £ \ upright. 

^Vi^a to clank (as chains). HifirFirB to cackle. 

« A 1 ^ V w S to arch, bow down (with 

•S" 5 ** to make a hedge. *j ~"\ 7 } age ) (tr. and intr.). 

" m 1 ...>»»!% m i to reduce to powder, be 

S LA a >A to tickle, be tickled. "''' „ 7 1 reduced to powder. 

' u I t 

. <j^,^ J to interweave, be inter- iV*r>>,D to have colic. 

v7 .1 < woven. " J, 

\ V \, V to lick up. ^T - *? t0 heave With emotion - 

ft^. ff S f. J to loosen (as a pin in its w) ^3 to shiver with cold. 

„ . ) socket) (tr. and intr.). •>«■*< 

a a; ,. „w%^ J to make musty, become 

A^X^ to trample down. Vf™ , ( musty. 

" ! »%«lr ( to beautify, beeome 

>pYA.--w« t» ma te firm, confirm. *T^*T ( beautiful. 

±*1* to gather (as pus). 'V?** to beat with a switcb " 

"i «» « ' 

, Vfrj S to reconcile, unite in AD9>X tocrack(as an egg) (intr.). 



^7/ < i friendship. , 

Vr** to be a wa « derer - ^^7 t0 sag ' hang down - 

." ', .nkxaVSfL \ to snr mk up, wrinkle 

kdkSUO to pvick up (the ears). '™ „ -* , ( (tr. and intr.) 

' to make to pant, to pant. ^»n= ktt-^Cl. See p. 84. 

V,l\» i to be boiled to pieces, 
„ , I fall to pieces. 



180 e 



VERBS INFLECTED LIKE %SO%& , p. 86. 
yBUBm to be bold, to dare. ,7%^fl^ to soil, be soiled. 

Xh'xa \ t0 advance ( in a g e and , c t0 sna P ( M a board wnen 

^ A stature). *?^ 5 broken). See UA&, 

ZoivX = oEkV. to starve. '' *" ' P- 86. 

ff Sf to be affected or moved. 



.?\A* to run mad. 



VEBBS INFLECTED LIKE 1*0"*, p. 86. 
%3ah = l&eL& , See p. 80. XJBOJB to howl, as }f Of , p. 86. 



[Note. — To Mr. Stoddard's acknowledgments to Mr. Breath, with 
which we are happy to unite our own, it is proper to add a word of re- 
cognition of the labor and skill bestowed by Mr. S. S. Kilburn, type- 
cutter attached to the Type and Stereotype Foundry of Messrs. J. K. 
Rogers & Co., Boston, in recutting several of the letters and points, and 
making some important additions to the font 

COMM. OP PUBL.] 



180 f 



CORRECTIONS. 



Page 5, 
" 7, 
« 12, 

tt it 


lines 21-22, for modern language, read written character. 
" 6, for Scripture Tracts " Scripture Facts. 
" 15, " pp. 10, 11 " p. 13, Note 3. 

« 17, « \g± « \£±. 


it a 


last line 




Cf 


25k».* 


" 13, line 


i, 


t t 


it 




« 17, 


a 


9, 




it 


iJWuJH. 


« «< 


a. 


13, 


" 2&4. 


it 


2&i.. 


« 18, 


it 


8, 


" %lbJB 


11 


^Lxo. 


it tt 


a 


15, 


" XjL'ikOJa 


it 


^SObO. 


" 21, 


a 


1, 


" %L 


a 


M*. 


" 23, 


it 


14, 


« la&il 


it 


2of*»2. 


« 24, 

« «« 


lines 20-21, for what to me, " what may be, etc. 
line 23, place a period after what. 
" 28, for that may, read that may be. 


« 25, 

U 11 


u 


6, 
10, 


a 07 


tt 
a 


^7- 


« 27, 


it 


11, 


" J*v&„ 


it 


wVljj^. 


" 29, 


a 


24, 


" zixia 


tt 


^A.13. 


. » 32, 
" 35, 


tt 


12, 
3,4, 


" weta 


" weta. 

read %XX&$>, iOSkAs. 


" 39, 


u 


17, 


" M&2 read 




u»2. 


* The vowel — should never be placed on final 2 , and wherever printed 
thus in the Grammar, it must be understood to be a slip, and the _*_ must be 



placed on the preceding consonant. 



180g 

Page 39, line 22, for coming before read coming upon. 

48, " 19, " f9b3 " f5b3.* 

// ff 

49, " 20, " Jtl^,p.63, " hk&iL p. 66. 

50, " 5, " to string, as peppers, read to sting (as pepper 
does the mouth). 

54, " 25, " may replied, read may he replied. 

55, " 16, « wftCf " wOOT. 

I I 

" " 22, erase the comma after as well as — . 
58, " 15, for *iati^ read JfckSi^ . 

61, « 15, « 2f " 2f. 

63, « 20, " Oti^ » tXji^. 

64, " 19, " " " " 
" near the bottom, after S2*» , insert tS.i^L to be worth. 

67, line 1, for &XZ read t&LL 

75, « 7, » ilsola » ilsoia. 
« " 16, » zikla « il&ia. 

76, near the middle, for XkS, V,3 re«rf V 4 - V*T . 

78, line 3, /or llji^ read i^ii^. 

" " 7, « t9ep « atfrL. 

• I ml 

79, « 26, " lSO«OOOr « Z*>*S8O07. 

81, « 18, « L33f « L9»f. 

* ' *■ a ' 

" last line but one, for *AXXA read **l\% 1 5 . 

82, line 16, for u*Aa> « uAdO. 

83, « 3, « ^9bX « ^aX. 

" " 20, « ao ujp « abiu-jo. 



* In a number of cases 3 appears without its point, it having been broken 
off, probably, in printing. This, however, is of little consequence, unless it 
lead to a confusion of iandS. The former seems always to have its point. 



180 h 

Page 84, line 6, for &Si^V read bSlik. 

II t II $ 

85, « 22, " ^aarvofriA « ^g.ao.'wa.fr. 

86, « 4, " ixocJo » ^n&jo. 

I> < l> 

" " 11, " iXx&£9 " »X»A*>. 

" last line, " dk*BO£0 " &SO&SB. 

i' « 

" at the bottom, add to the list of verbs : 

2*Of to howl. 



*°*f 



to howl ; also, as used in Koordistan, 
to glitter. 



88, first line, for ]A3 read 1SJ3. 

" line 17, " The future, " The 1st pers. future.