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I. Letter from Rev. J. L. Porter of Damascus, containing 
Greek Inscriptions, with Pres. Woolset's Remarks on the 

Same. 

Damascus, 27th April, 1854. 

Dear Sir : — The following inscriptions were copied during a jour- 
ney made in the Hauran by the Rev. Mr. Barnett and myself, in 
February, 1853. We saw and copied many others ; but as some of 
them are unimportant, and others already printed, I do not consider 
it necessary to trouble you with them. So far as I know, those 
which I now send have never been taken, or at least have never been 
published. 

The following are from the village of Hiyat, on the north-western 
slope of the Jebel Hauran. The ruins on which No. 2 is found 
appear to be of an older date than the inscription. 



1. 
ABCBOCAT 
MOTKAIATMOC 
TIOICABAOT 
GIOTTO 
ONnOIHCAN 



nPOKAOCATMOT 

TweewTONrA 

NTMHAHNC3EIAI 

omrnePATMOT 

TIOTANeeHKCN 



MANOC0AIMOT 

KAITIOIATTOXe 

AWKANCKTHC 

OIKOAOMK A 

XVAACXfIA 

ACKATHNCT 

PANeTOCBOTN 

CKTOKTPIwN 



From Hit, an ancient town about one mile in circumference, half 
an hour S. E. of the former : 



AIAI aCMAZIMDCCriAPXOC 

THIIATPIAICKTICCNAIAHPWAOT 

HPWAOTIAIOYKAIAIA 

*IAinnOTMAAXOTKAI 

AAAOTAKPABANOT 

eniMCAHlwN 



184 





OABJCANAPW 


N 




*iAinn€AOTK 


INA 




PICTASCWCAOT 




KOC 


OCMNM ACXN 


HTAI (?) 


CK6 


cMCNwiveriP 


AC 


AM 


*CPAYACOCTN 


HAT 


IIA 


PAKOITIKAITE 


HN 


N 


OICKICKACOCA 


€1 



KAICAAAMANMC 

The following are in Bathanyeh, a ruined and now deserted town 
one hour N. 37 E. from Hit. This is the Arabic form of the Greek 
Batanaea. The whole of the Jebel Hauran, from the plain on the 
North to Sulkhad on the South, with the exception of a narrow strip 
along the western base, is called Ardh el-Bathanyeh (au*£*JI (_^s,l ). 
According to information received on the spot, I believe this district 
is much more extensive than is represented in the Appendix to your 
Biblical Researches. It is unquestionably the Batanaea of Josephus. 
The ruins of Bathanyeh are about a mile in circumference, and con- 
tain many large and substantial buildings, with massive stone doors. 
I think it has never been visited. 



6. 
A VCOCI AVJO v© e o 

pocnAci @ etvovNc 

NOCABIBOVANA 

MOCrAVTOVZOB€ 

AOCNATAMCAOVni 

— (?) 

CTVIANertlPAN 

TOTVXION6K 

TOTH ' 



"7. 
A1PHA 
OCOM 
AIMOT 

AWPO 

C€T 

WN 



8. 

KenpicKoce* ctato 

VKCH<]e<|P 



ArAQHTVXH 

AVSIAeBCAIIW 

AAAAAnANHKAA 

HTtuniCTwMAA 

xocKe ocHBeovKe 



NOV 

KwMC 

CNA 

xo 

X 



A€ITOCK€NeCTwPIC 



At the ruined town of Suleim, 1 h. 35 m. S. by W. from Shuhba, 
are the remains of a beautiful temple. The portico has fallen, but 
on a large stone among its ruins we succeeded after much difficulty 
in copying the following inscription. It appears from it that this is 
the site of the ancient JSfeapolis mentioned in the Notit. Eccles. in 
connexion with Canatha, Dionysias and others. (See C. a. S. Paulo, 
Geogr. Sac. p. 295.) The letters are well cut, but are now much 
defaced. 



185 

9. 
MNHMAMEOPAIEnEPIKAAAEEAOlAlMONAI 
ENOAITAIEEOIAEMOTKOTnEPBEIIEAEIACDN 
AOHOEEnXEPOT*INOCAEHETET SE BE 
OTAIOTHTITETArMAirHPAAEOTEAESAI 
BAIATAPNEONOTIIOTEIIANIIANEIMIA 
AATnOTATOEKAINTHPnANTEEINETOIHOE 
TIAElBTIwNOIETEnOATnPwTirHPAEIOT 
ENEAAOENEOnOAITHEOIKOAOMHEENETTTX 

On the right side of the entrance-gate of the Castle of Sulkhad, 
is the following inscription in rude characters, and now nearly 

illegible. 

10. 

ArAOHTTXH BOPAOCCA 

0AMOCNACM emCKOIIOICKT 

CA0AOCCIXMO WNTOT0COT€KTICA 

BACCOCOTAniOT CTOTC PM 

The large and very ancient town of Kureiyeh is situated in the 
stony plain at the foot of the mountains, an hour and a half N. 84 
E. of Busrah. Few cities in the Hauran are of greater extent, and 
none of more remote antiquity. It is probably the Kerioth men- 
tioned by Jeremiah, with Bozrah and Beth-gamul (Jer. 48 : 23 and 
24). On an old tower I made out with much difficulty the follow- 
ing inscription. 

11. 
I*A0HCAMIM5O€OC gTeKNONCTXCSAXPir 

CTMBIOaANNAeKCAF NOK -f- CAAANOM 

TICATOM€MAPIN£CCArOA 

The following inscription we found on a large stone at an ancient 
temple, beside the village of Hebran. This village, or rather town, 
is finely situated on the summit of a lofty hill, S. 18 W. of the 
Kuleib, distant about an hour and a half. The stone now forms 
part of the roof of a large chamber of comparatively recent con- 
struction ; but wholly composed of the ruins of the temple. "We 
were informed by the old man who led us to the spot, that it was 
only lately brought to light by the removal of the clay and lime 
with which the roof had been covered. It is important as contain- 
ing a well known date, and celebrated names. 

vol. v. 24 



186 

12. 

1. rnEPEwTHPIAEKYPIOTKAIEAPOETITITAIAIOT 

AAPIANOTANT(WNEIN"T 

2. EEBAETOTETEEBOXEONAOEEKTWNIEPATIKWN 

EKTIE0HETOTEOKTWKAI 

3. AEKATOTANTWNEINOTKAIEAPOEIIPONOHEAMENftJN 

APIETEIAOTOAIM°TOAI0EAOT 

4. EMMEnA°TEMMErANHXAMENOTErAKUN0AIM°T 

ABX°P°TEN°TMAEEX°TEMMErANNAP°TIEP°TAMIUN 

This is one of the most beautiful inscriptions I have ever seen in 
this country. It is now as perfect as the day it was finished. 

Believe me, dear Sir, yours very truly and respectfully, 

J. L. Porter. 
Kev. Dr. Robinson, New York. 



Rev. Dr. Robinson: 

Bear Sir, — None of the inscriptions copied by Mr. Porter in 
the Hauran, are to be found in Boeckh's collection. Burckhardt 
visited the places called by Mr. Porter Hit, Sulkhad, Kureiyeh, He- 
bran, but did not notice these inscriptions. Most of them are intel- 
ligible ; but there are two or three of which I can make nothing. 
I send you back the letter of Mr. Porter, to be published, if you 
think fit, in the Journal of the Oriental Society, together with copies 
of the inscriptions, corrected to the best of my power. I am in- 
debted to Prof. Hadley for valuable suggestions. 

1. v ^4(9e(?os Afifiov xal Av/iog vlotg Zafiaov *&eiov to [ftprj/Ael^ov 
XShrolrjaav. 

The name Abebus is found in No. 5, — there spelt Abibus, and in 
Boeckh's C. I., n. 4560, where it is Ababus. Aumus occurs in No. 
3. I have written SafS&ov for 'Afiaov, because the former is else- 
where to be met with, and one of the sigmas may easily have been 
overlooked. See No. 10. 

2. Mavog Qaiftov xal viol airov edcuxav hx xijs olxoSofiixffi 1 * * 
Below" I seem to read Xedlag, i. e. XiXlag, and then follows what 
may be xal ity Siqav eiolfiovv . ixxo xvgitav suggests ex tav tav 
xvqlav. Comp. Zx t&v tov xvgtov, B. n. 4523. For Thaimus, see 

No. 10. 

3. Ilodxlo; Aii/iov t5 ©eiji tov JTavv(tr[d>]r ££ Idtwv tineg Aiifiov vlov 
avi&riXBV. 



187 
In B. n. 4596 there is mention of a Theophilus, who tov raw- 

[u\6r)v ix twv Idlmv avfflBiqsv. 

4. Ai'kutg M&^ijiog %nuq%og ttj naxqldi ixticrev di& 'Hqddov 'Hqddov 
idlov, xal di& 0iXlnnov Mulxov, xotl "ASdov ' Axqctpuvov £m[iE).t]T5)v. 

What does Idlov mean ? 

5. With the necessary corrections in the text, this inscription runs 
thus : 

" Oi.§ie &vdqii>v flHliTtne dovxyv&qie xi^eoig dovxdg, $g (ivrtfta air 
aii.^ (?) ix &SfieMwv iyelqag, a.[uptys\fiag avv ■fidelq. naoaxolxt xal 
xixvoig elg xteog del, xul Sai-afi&vrjg. 

The word writen rjvXi, in the original may be a proper name. As 
I read, the sense is that Philip, a ducenarius, reared the tomb with 
a court or open place about it from the foundations, and roofed it 
around together with his wife and children. The last words xal 
Salafi&vrjg seem to be added afterwards. Do they indicate that a 
person of that name became owner or was buried in the tomb ? 
Salamanes is the name of a Syrian deity in B. n. 4449, 4451. 

After reading what Gothofred (Cod. Theodos.), Ducange (Gloss. 
Med. et Inf. Grsec), and Rein in Pauly's Real-Encycl. have said about 
ducenarii, I cannot feel quite sure what the ducenarius cohortis ducis 
here spoken of was, and must leave the determination of the point 
to persons better acquainted with the institutions of the later Roman 
empire. The very rare word dfiyfyeyag (if that be the true reading), 
might easily be misspelt by the stone-cutter. 

6. Avoog raixov tfeiaqbg Tlaai&elvov, JVivog 'Afilftov, "Ava/tog 
Tairov, ZofieSog NarafiiXov Inioi&Tat (?) dv^yeiqav t6 rvxelor ix 
r&v xSj[s nuleaig'j. Oeiaqbg may be a proper name, perhaps mis- 
copied : if it is an official title we should read H&crig Qelvov. 
IVatafiiXov ought to be perhaps IVajavailov. ravtog occurs more 
than once in Syrian inscriptions, and the same is true of Zufcdog, 
spelt Zofi&idog. Comp. B. n. 4518, 4519, 4604, 4613, 4635 for the 
former, and n. 4560, 4573 for the latter. The name Sanamus, as 
read by Franz in B. n. 4567, 4658, must, I think, be identified with 
Anamus of this inscription. 

7. AXqr}Sog ' Ofialfiov tiuqog izHtv is. (or s. simply ; JV being for J or 
repeated by mistake). 

A name " Ovaivog is found in B. n. 4559, 4574, and is perhaps the 
true reading here. 

8. I can make next to nothing of this. At the top appears xal 
Ilqlaxog IcplmuTo, which is to be taken, perhaps, as following the 
last words xal "Asnog xal Mcmiqig. Below icyaS^ ttJpj the name of 
some one ioto xd/itjg may have been mentioned. 

9. This interesting and well preserved inscription in hexameters, 
with the necessary corrections, is as follows : 



188 

ftvr[(ta fi'dgcfs irsoixaXXig iolSiftov alkv uSlxaig • 
i'trit di fiov xaxHmsq&e TteXeiduov Sdfiog alnbg • 
Poixppvo; di ^'greufe, &eov S'idxrjxi xiiay/tat 
yrjoakiovg dOiixij&cu, dnip riov oiinoxe mx/inur • 
elfil d' &Xvn6xaxog xXtvxty, n&vxeaaiv hxdlfiog 
vl&ai ■&' vlmvolg xs noXii nooxl yr^ag lovatv. 

Alviadog NeonoXltrjg olxoddfiquev. eixv/Zg. 

In line 1, fie is unelided and ogaig is owing to the stone-cutter's 
making the straight mark of E twice. In 1. 2, it seems necessary 
to read ECTI for EOI, and in KOTIIEPBE, A must have been 
overlooked by the copyist, and O and B read wrong for ©, which is 
the easier mistake in the second instance, as its square form in the 
rest of the inscription resembles B. For this form, the oldest speci- 
mens of which belong to the century before our era, comp. Franz, 
Elem. Epigraph. Graec. p. 281. For M in lines 3 and 6 resembling 
H, see the same work, p. 245. EnT.2, in 1. 2, is a common mis- 
spelling of the stone-cutter for AinTS. So perhaps in the name 
Alviadog, which is unique. IIPfiTI in 1. 6 is another mistake of 
the stone-cutter. In the same line 2IN must be supplied. JVeo- 
noUxrig is singular. 

Was the cote for wild pigeons built to keep them from tenanting 
and defiling the tomb \ For the conceit expressive of a wish that all 
the posterity of the proprietor may die old, comp. another Syrian 
inscr. in B. n. 4598, where we read 

fiovXaioi d' &sitfk>u> ■Ssolo 
yrjoaXiovg n&yxag (i&Xa di^ofiav, six' &v ixaaxog 
x&Qfia noxl o<pixBQOv jStoiijj nenQtafiivov ilfh}. 

10. 'Aya&ij xi%T] ©dfYJuof lVtti(i[ov], Sifaog Slxfwv, B&aaog 
OiXnlov, BdgOog Satpdov f\ Inlaxonoi \x tw* xov &eov IxTtaaM. 

"Exovg Qfi. 

I read Hdflaog for Sd&aog. The former name is found in B. n. 
4626, and may easily be derived from a Semitic root, while B can 
with equal ease be confounded with B • (See the last inscr.) A 
Bassus son of Ulpius occurs in an inscription found by Burckhardt 
at Kefr el-Loehha. Comp. B. n. 4585. It is strange that that dis- 
tinguished traveller should have overlooked the present inscription 
over the castle-gate of Sulkhad, which he visited, and where he 
found the same name Bassus (B. n. 4641). The year, if of the 
Pompeian era, answers to A. D. 1 7 8 ; if of the era of Bostra, to A. D. 
243. See Franz, in the Addenda to B. vol. 3, p. 1182, who there 
decides in the case of a neighboring town in favor of the latter era. 

11. I make nothing out of this inscription. A few words, as 
aifi^iov, hxxMTa xb ft,vr\jjia and xlxvov, may be traced. 



189 

12. tinty attn-qqlug xvolov Kaloagog Tltov Aiklov 'Adgidrov 'ArThi- 
vetvov Seft&oTov Fiaefiovg 6 vaoj ex i!hv Iequiixuv ixiiotir) %iov$ ixtai- 
xaidex&rov ' Avvavslvov KaluaQog, nqovorjaafiiviav 'Agtoreldov, Oatfjov, 
' OaixUXov (?), 'Efifiinlov,' ' E^Eyaiirjjiaftivov (?) ixSixcov, ©oeijuou, '^(?- 
%6(mv, "Evov, Maoi%ov, 'E/tfieyavr&gov leqoTu/j.iwv. 

This inscription belongs to A. D. 155 or 156. The fifth name is 
so portentously long as to excite suspicion that two names may be 
contained in it, as 'E/i/ieyavvAgov Xafiirov. The letters following 
this name seem to belong to ixdixmv, a word used by Cicero to de- 
note the syndics or counsellors of towns in Asia Minor. (Epist. in 
Fam. 13, 71.) 

We find in these inscriptions a number of Syrian proper names 
which are to be met with upon other monuments, and some nine- 
teen which are new. To the former class belong Abebus, Sabaus, 
Thaimus, Malchus, Salamanes, Gautus, Zobedus, Natanaelus, Onai- 
nus. To the latter, so far as I have examined, belong Aumus, Ma- 
nus, Addus, Acrabanus, Ausus, Pasitheinus (?), Nenus, Anamus, 
Airedus, Naemus, Sichmus, Bordus, Oaithelus (?), Emmeplus, Emme- 
gannarus, Abchorus, Enus, Masechus. Some of these are readily 
traceable to Semitic roots, and even have equivalents in the Scrip- 
tures. Thus with Naemus we may compare Naam (1 Chron. 4 : 15), 
from b»j to be sweet; with Bordus, Bered (1 Chron. 7 : 20); with 
Sichmus, Shechem (1 Chron. 7:19). Would it not repay some one 
skilled in the Semitic dialects to make a collection of the Syrian 
names found upon the monuments and trace them to their roots ? 

T. D. Woolsey. 



II. Armenian Traditions about Mt. Ararat. 

We have before us a communication from Rev. H. G. 0. Dwight, 
American Missionary at Constantinople, on Mount Masis, as the 
resting-place of the ark after the deluge. We extract from it some 
Armenian traditionary notices concerning places in the neighbour- 
hood of that locality. 

The mountain on which, according to ancient Armenian tradition, 
and the general opinion of the learned in Europe, the ark of Noah 
rested after the deluge, is called in Armenian \\^uiufiu , Masis, and 
in Turkish jib yM Aghur Dagh, i. e. Heavy Mountain. This moun- 
tain is situated almost in the centre of ancient Armenia, in the valley 
of the river Araxes, bearing North 57° East from Nakhichevan, and 
South 25° West from Erivan. 

COMM. OF PTJBL.