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243 

put to death by Artaxerxes. "With these circumstances the tenor of 
the inscription of Sidon coincides in two important particulars. In 
the first place, several lines of this inscription are occupied with an 
enumeration of buildings erected, and such buildings as could not 
well have been wanting except in consequence of some casualty. 
These public works evidently constituted a leading feature of the 
reiga of Eshmun'iyed II. But Sidon was rebuilt after its destruction 
in the time of Artaxerxes, and before Alexander's conquest of Phoe- 
nicia ; for the latter, about B. 0. 320, found a king reigning there, 
supported by Darius, and took the city (see Arrian, Exped. Alex. 
ii. 15, 6 ; Q. Curtius, Be Rebus Gestis Alex. iv. 1, 15 ff.). In the 
next place, the mother of Eshmun'iyed II. is spoken of in the inscrip- 
tion as a reigning queen, for it appears that the architectural works 
commemorated were executed under her and her son's joint direc- 
tion ; which implies that her husband was no longer living. These 
coincidences render it quite probable that the father of Eshmun'iyed 
IL, called Tabnith in the inscription, was no other than the Tennes 
of Diodorus. Another consideration, showing the inscription to be 
not later than Alexander's conquest of Phoenicia, is its frequent ref- 
erence to a confederacy of Phoenician kingdoms, which can scarcely 
have existed after Alexander's system of administration over con- 
quered countries had been established there. 

The question remains, from what era is the inscription dated. In 
view of the circumstances which have been alluded to, it seems most 
probable that the era of this inscription is the re-building of Sidon 
between B. G. 350 and 320 ; and, as it is dated in the year 14, it may 
be set down as very near the truth, that it belongs to the latter half 
of the generation intervening between the destruction of Sidon in 
the time of Artaxerxes and its surrender to Alexander. 

"We now give place to an independent interpretation by our highly 
esteemed co-laborer Mr. Turner. 

*• E. 3, 



VII. The Sidon Inscription, with a Translation and Notes. 
By "William W. Turner. 

This document is provocative of many remarks palaeographies!, 
philological, historical, and mythological, with which scholars will 
doubtless favor the world in due time. I however shall confine 
myself almost wholly to contributing my mite towards the reading 
and interpretation of the inscription itself, though taking occasion 
to add such observations on the topics connected with it as shall 
spontaneously suggest themselves. 



244 

TEXT. 



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246 



TRANSLATION. 

1. In the month Bui, in the year fourteen, the 13th anniversary of 
the king, King Ashmunyyer, king of the Sidonians, 

2. son of King Tabnith, king of the Sidonians, spake King Ash- 
munyyer, king of the Sidonians, saying : 

3. I, son of the molten sea-god, have received a wound from the 
hand of Mithumbenel ; I am dead, and am resting in my se- 
pulchre and in my grave, 

4. in the place which I built. My curse to every kingdom and 
to every man : Let him not open my resting-place, and 

5. let not a son of liars seek that I destroy a son of liars, and let 
him not remove the sepulchre of my resting-place, and let 
him not take 

6. the fruit of my resting-place [or] the cover of the resting-place 
where I sleep. Yea, if men speak to thee, hearken not to 
thine enticer. Any kingdom or 

1. any man who shall open the cover of my resting-place, or 
who shall remove the sepulchre of my resting-place, or who 
shall take the fruit of my 

8. resting-place, let them not have a resting-place with the shades, 
and let him not be buried in a grave, and let them not have 
a child, and let it go ill 

9. because of them, and let the holy gods terrify them, even the 
kingdom with the ruling prince ; wholly cutting 

10. them off, even the kingdom or that man who shall open the 
cover of my resting-place, or who shall remove 

11. my sepulchre. Neith shall know of that matter. Yea, a man 
that slayeth they shall have no dwelling in peace. Good is 

12. the judgment from on high ! Behold in life, as I was resting 
beneath the sun, I, son of the molten sea-god, received a wound 

13. from the hand of Mithumbenel ; I, the king, am dead. I Ash- 
munyyer, king of the Sidonians, son 

14. of King Tabnith, king of the Sidonians, grandson of King Ash- 
munyyer, king of the Sidonians, and my mother Emashtoreth, 

15. priestess of Ashtoreth, our lady the queen, daughter of King 
Imanyyer, king of the Sidonians, behold we built the temple 

16. of the gods, the temple of justice, by the sea — and justice is the 
support of the stars ! There shall they be worshipped ; and we 

1*7. who have built a temple for the peoples, behold our guilt shall 

be diminished thereby, and there shall my children worship. 

And we who have built temples 
18. to the god of the Sidonians, in Sidon, the land of the sea, a 

temple to Baal-Sidon, and a temple to Ashtoreth the glory of 

Baal, to us Lord Milcom giveth a city 



247 

19. the desire and beauty of the earth, our glorious delight, which 
is in the dwelling of our deity, to stretch out the fortresses 
which I have made ; and they have been constructed 

20. on the border of the land, to strengthen all the Sidonians for 
ever. My curse to every kingdom and to every man : Let 
him not open my cover, 

21. and not remove my cover, and let him not take the fruit of 
my resting-place, and not remove the sepulchre of my resting- 
place. As for them, those 

22. holy gods shall humble them ; and they shall cut off that 
kingdom and the man that slayeth, that it may be ill with 
them for ever. 



Line 1. 

bi JTVS in the month Bui. What this means is shown in 1 Kings 
6, 38, where it is said, iqiaiprt lan'rifl Nil"! Via m?S in tfte 
month Bui, thai is, the eighth month. The occurrence of the 
term Bui in this place seems a sufficient refutation of the idea 
that this and some other ancient names applied to months in 
the Bible were rather appellatives than ordinary names. 

IDS is the Aramaic form for the Heb. "nicy . 

/\lll /*■*. The curved longitudinal stroke signifies 10, and the per- 
pendicular strokes are units (Gesen. Monn. Phoen. p. 85, sqq.) 
There are two coins published by Swinton (Philos. Trans. Vol. 
4, PL 31), but omitted by Gesenius, which bear the dates 

iiiiiiNrttiV (year cxxvi) and uimiiNn |?v (year cxxvm) . 

Under both of them occurs the character A (whose alphabet- 
ical value is that of a), of which Swinton offers no explana- 
tion. Perhaps it may be a contraction for Vt = Heb. Vs 
circle, cycle, age, but employed in the sense of annual revolution) 
year. In that case we may read "OVab i III — > the 13th anni- 
versary, or year, of my king or the king. For this use of the 

pronoun, comp. the Heb. is'lN , Syr. -.jlsO , Fr. monsieur. 
*"PJ>3;aii:N Ashmunyyer. On No. IT of the inscriptions found by 
Pococke at Citium is the name A Af 4 'V ^ ^ ' 
which Gesenius reads "py-jaajj* Eshmun-^yyed {quern Aescu- 
lapius restituit) (Monn. Phcen.'p. 145). He remarks, however, 
that it might also be read *v;»3»;dk Eshmuri'yyer (quern Aescu- 
lapius suscitavit), which likewise yields a good sense ; and this 
latter reading is adopted by Movers, who remarks that the 



248 

name is also found in another inscription of Citium since dis- 
covered by the Grecian archaeologist L. Ross (Art. Phcenizier, 
in Ersch u. Gruber's Encyclop. p. 424). In the Sidon inscrip- 
tion the forms of i and 1 are so confounded that, although the 
name occurs in it no less than four times (lines 1, 2, 13, 14), 
the proper reading cannot be determined from it. Supposing 
that the inscription of Ross (which I have not been able to see) 
is sufficiently clear to settle the question, I have followed the 
reading of Movers. The name \aV2H 'Eopovv, the Phoenician 
^Esculapius (Ges. Monn. Phoen., p. 136), occurs a number of 
times alone and in composition on inscriptions of Citium, Car- 
thage, Athens, and Marseilles (Ges. 1. c. p. 347, Movers 1. c. p. 
396) ; but this is the first time it has been found in Phoenicia 
proper. 
•WSaiCN ^b^ King Ashmunyyer. In the titles T^aiM* "|ba , 
nwn *fb» , TW^N 'jVa , the appellative "rb?3 king is placed 
before the name of the sovereign, in accordance with the best 
Hebrew usage ; but it has not as in Hebrew the article. 

Line 2. 

naan. Perhaps i. q. Heb. rpSSn form, image, and hence to be 

read Tabnith. 
rVbiJJ a thrust, wound, from ^M (whence Heb. 'bsa a sickle) = Arab. 

Jc? to pierce. This and the following words appear again in 

lines 12, 13. 

Line 3. 

"n»Va I suppose to be employed, like the Pers. ^jj^" , which also 
means literally to swallow, in the sense of to receive, to suffer, as 
U^._jj> i_jI^Xc to suffer torment, ^._y>- *£. to be afflicted; so 
that Tiylai nb^i will mean I received (or had inflicted upon 
me) a wound. It is difficult to reconcile this form of the 1st 
pers. pret. with the Aramaean form rOS (line 4), ribss (1. 19), 
unless we suppose it to be emphatic. 

b" 1 *}SB I at first proposed to read either d^SDia shelterers, protectors 
(Hiph. part, of -po), or perhaps better b^ssa anointed ones 
(Hoph. part, of Jpa ), in the sense of the passive of Kal, as in 
Ps. 2, 6. So that" the phrase fc"ODa }3 would signify the off- 
spring or descendant of crowned heads or princes. Both these 
readings are however untenable, as they suppose an anomaly 
in the orthography of the plural termination, which elsewhere 
throughout the inscription is written, in the Phoenician manner, 
defectively. The reading adopted assumes 'roa to be i. q. the 
Heb. rtaoa , and to mean a molten idol, a brazen god; and this 
may be either Baal (see 2 Chron. 28, 2) or Molech (see Ges. 



249 

Lex. art. !)Vn). The king may be supposed to call himself the 
son of his deity, either as his worshipper or as claiming descent 
from him in the style of Oriental sovereigns. As a counterpart 
to the expression idol or god of the sea, sea-god, to denote the 
god of a people bordering on the sea, we have the term d" 1 yiN 
land of the sea, applied (1. 18) to the Sidonian territory. 

At the beginning of line 13 in the lithograph is a mark which 
resembles b . If it were this letter, it would indicate that here 
probably are two nouns in the relation to each other of possessor 
and possessed, which relation in the former instance is indicated 
by their juxtaposition and in the latter by the prep. \ . But 
this does not appear to be the case ; for the character differs in 
form from the other Lameds, and likewise projects somewhat 
beyond the margin of the inscription, so that we are justified 
in concluding that it is not a letter at all, but a mere scratch or 
flaw in the marble. This conclusion is confirmed by the MS. 
copy of the inscription received from Dr. DeForest, which pre- 
sents no trace of the character in question. 
*P4M3. Here -p£< is supposed to be the word "p written with N 

prosthetic, like Syr. jjj] Aa«<2. 
Vst2SEIT!3 • Perhaps the first part of the word is that of the Plau- 

tinian name Muthumballes, which, however, Gesenius reads 

'bsiintt , and Quatremere 'bsa }na . May not its etymology 

be \N-'ta-tP)';— '» ? 
33i2J1 act. part. Kal. In the same sense Is. 14, 18 : all the kings of 

the nations irpaa U5" I N *tf SS!3 1S3ttJ lie in glory each in his own 

•• : • t : : it 

house. Comp. too the oft recurring phrase vniai* dJ> 33U!«1 
and he slept with his fathers. Gesenius remarks (Monn. Phoen. 
p. 438), that the act. part, is always written defectively in Phoe- 
nician. It should be observed, however, that both here and in 
the plural termination the Phoen. vowel may be a, in which 
case no mater lectionis is required. 
ViVFD in my sepulchre. The connexions in which the word t^pti 
occurs besides the present instance (lines 5, 1, 11, 21) show 
clearly that it signifies a coffin or sarcophagus. Accordingly 
we may regard it as meaning literally a hollme vessel, and com- 
pare Arab. (J»i* a bee-hive, a ship ; sbLs? a horse's nose-bag, a 
saddle-bag, wallet; from J^s- to be empty. Or we may sup- 
pose it to mean literally a polished vessel, from the root j-rbfl to 
polish; which last is singularly suitable to the description of 
the sarcophagus by the correspondent of the New York Journal 
of Commerce, who says : " The lid is a fine blue-black marble, 
intensely hard, and taking a very fine polish.' 1 '' 



250 



Line 4. 

n33 / built. Whether this is to be considered as written defectively 
and pronounced banti, or whether it is to be read in the Ara- 
maean manner beneth, it is not easy to say. The former opinion 
would seem the most probable from the fact that the verb 
"nsba above (if correctly interpreted) follows the Hebrew usage, 
as does also the verb siccarthi or sicorathi of Plautus, were it 
not that the omission of a sign for I at the end of a word is an 
anomaly unknown to the Shemitish languages. 

s aJp my prohibition or my curse. Buxtorf (Lex. Chald.) explains 
the Talmudical word daip as a vow of prohibition, and laaip 
as juramenta, vota cum execrationibus. True, he says E31p is 
corrupted from f 3"ip , and if so, it could hardly be a Phoenician 
word ; but it is difficult to see how this can be the case, as 
t3"lp has a very different meaning. 

rOVaa kingdom. The word also occurs in this form in lines 6, 10, 
20, 22, and only once (1. 9) in the form Nibaa ; and this agrees 
with the conclusions arrived at by Gesenius and Movers, who 
state that the fem. of Phoenician nouns is formed by far the 
most frequently in n , seldomer in N , and never in ft . Why the 
form Nlsbaa should be used in line 9 I cannot say. rD^aa 
is probably the true reading on the coins of the two Jubas 
(Gesen. Monn. Phcen. PI. 42). 

JinD' 1 TsN let him not open. The negative particle \n, correspond- 
ing to the Greek pij and Lat. ne, is found in Phoenician for the 
first time in this inscription, where it occurs repeatedly. Va is 
used in the same sense in line 15 of the Marseilles inscription. 

n^N sign of the accusative, i. q. Heb. nit . This form favors Hup- 
feld's opinion that nN is from the Aram. rPN , rp i. q. ai' 1 . It 
agrees too with the Plautinian pronunciation yth. 

"251823 my resting-place. SSttJa is used in the sense of bier, coffin, 
in Is. 57, 2. 2 Chron. lV, 14. and in the Oxford inscription 
(Ges. Monn. Phcen. p. 130). 

Line 5. 

BaajMBlZTJOajasa IBpa^ V«. It is evident that this, however we 
may read it, must make a complete sense. The following is 
proposed : Baa-fa dtti^NS tiaa - Tja ttipa"; Tm* let not a son of 
liars seek that I destroy a son of liars. Here fa is considered 
as the act. part, of ft) a and i. q. Arab. qLo. The opprobrious 
term bsa J3 applied to whomsoever shall violate the defunct's 
tomb is thus opposed to the honorable one of h" 1 "fOa f3 as- 
sumed by himself. The threatened destruction will be through 
the curses which follow. 



251 

"3312)J3 33 D»JH !wi and let him not take the fruit of my resting- 
place, i. e. my body contained within it. The verb occurs also 
in the Marseilles inscription (1. 13), in the phrase (as read by 
Movers) b"btt f)3B 0233^ 1CN which one brings before tlie gods. 
It seems that the verb 0*3S> , like Ni2)3 , means primarily to lift 
or take up, and then to take, to bring. 33 i. q. Heb. a -1 3 (3"|3 
Is. 57, 19 in Cheth.), which is used in a similar figurative' man- 
ner in Mai. 1, 12, where the food on the Lord's table is called 
faiS its fruit. 

Line 6. 

rhs . We may derive it from the Aram. VVs to enter, and consider 
it to mean an entrance, opening, door; or from Heb. SiV3> to go 
up, to ascend, when it will signify the upper part, top, lid. Either 
of these meanings will suit the context, as in each of the subse- 
quent instances where it occurs it forms the complement of the 
verb tins to open. On account of the close connexion of the 
two languages it appears safer to adopt a Hebrew etymology 
when one offers. 

»31l) my sleep, from "juj" 1 , which is repeatedly used in Scripture of the 
sleep of death. Hence the phrase ■'310 3312)23 the resting-place 
where I sleep (lit. my resting-place of sleep) is closely analogous 
to the Tif13 3312)73 my quiet resting-place of the Oxford inscrip- 
tion (Ges. Monn. Phcen. p. 130). 

fiaiN men. To avoid assuming a plural form of this noun, which 
is unknown in Hebrew, I at first read *n "131 "^a DIN faN if any 
man should say, Strike. 1 i. e. break open the tomb ; but the 
objections to this are still greater. 

•p^T 1 3J31N 3N S)N yea, if men speak to thee, scil. urging thee to do 
this. In the verb the final Nun of the fut. 3d pers. plur. is re- 
tained, as occasionally in Hebrew and regularly in Aramaic ; and 
so in WnD^l (1. 9), rj33Stni (1. 19), 33'UD"' (1. 21 ), rt32jp">l (1. 22). 

*]233^3 . The only illustration that presents itself of this word is the 
Arab. *i) to sing, which is applied also to the cooing of doves, 
the stridulous noise of locusts, the twanging of a bow-string, &c. 
It may be considered as the act. part, (with prep, and suff.) 
signifying he who sings or mutters to thee, thine enticer. This 
seems forced, but it is the best I can do with it. 

Line 7. 
fiN or; and so in line 10. This use of 3N is found also in the Mar- 
seilles inscription. See Movers, Phoen. Texte, H, 110. 

Line 8. 
tib p" 1 ba let them not have. So repeatedly in the Marseilles in- 
scription ; comp. especially the phrase 33rt3V p" 1 V3 the priests 



252 

shall not have (1.15). The verb \>3 is i. q. the Arab. ^ , 
which means originally to stand, and then to exist, to be, like 
Ital. star and Span, estar. See Movers, Phoen. Texte II, 97 ; 
Ewald, Jahrbb. der bibl. Wiss. 1, 198 ; and Blau in the Zeitschr. 
der D. M. G. Ill, 441. 

Line 9. 
fiJnWn because of them, i. q. Heb. Sf-rntifi or EnlTR. The a may 
be considered as the plural termination retained before a suffix 
as in the verbs, or as the Nun demonstrative of the pronoun, 
the so-called Nun epenthetic. Comp. Ewald on the fia'tart of 
the Marseilles inscription, Jahrbb. der bibl. Wiss. p. 201. 

7 

E3T"lO' , i and let them terrify them, "no i. q. Syr. r t so to fear; 

Pah., to terrify. 
CaVNfl the gods. The Phoen. f}H appears to be the Arab. *)! ilahon 

with the He elided. We have here a gratifying confirmation 
of the genuineness of the Plautinian Punic text, this being 
clearly the alonim of the Pcenulus, on which the scholiast 
Sisenna remarks, " alon lingua Punica esse deum ;" although 
nearly all interpreters have agreed in transcribing it fi'ailas or 
CJT'Vs i. e. most high ones, superi. Comp. Abdalonimus ("D3> 
fi;bN) the name of a king of Sidon under Alexander the Great 
(Justin xi, 10). This word occurs again in lines 16 and 22, 
and in the singular in 1. 1 8. 

ViJft u5iO a ruling head, i.e. chief, prince; comp. Vtthft XD*& , 
" 2 Chron. 7, 18. 

"*yiyi2 with cutting off, abscission. Used to give emphasis to the 
following verb. 

fiinlSp cutting them off (shall be). Infin. of J-jjjp or yisp with 3 
demonstr. and suff., the verb governing the suffix and the follow- 
ing nouns in the accusative. I at first assumed here a root 
nsp , and supposed the pret. to be used emphatically for the 
future. 

Line 10. 

Nfl dlN that man; and with a fern, noun, iXn rhiyn that thing Q.. 11), 
NP! robtta that kingdom (1. 22). We have here the primitive 
demonstrative iXn (see Hupfeld in Zeitschr. f. K. d. Morgenl. II, 
147), which Gesenius finds in the fourth line of the Sardinian 
inscription. Its plural *MJ , which occurs several times in the 
Pentateuch, appears in the expression 'bm biaipri hsba those 
holy gods (1. 22). 



253 



Line 11. 

Tibf! . So in the MS. copy of the inscription. The lithograph edi- 
tion has TlSfl . 

fPNJ . If it be correct to read this as a proper name, it is probably 
that of the goddess Neith (Nrjlii), the Egyptian Athene wor- 
shipped at Sai's. (See Plat. Tim., quoted by Parthey in his 
Vocab. Copt. p. 567, and Plut. Isis et Osiris, cap. 9). The Egyp- 
tian orthography of the name was -^J* or ^* or^!,i. e. NeT 
(Is. et Osir., Parthey's edit, p. 176). Gesenius thinks that he 
finds the name in certain Athenian and Carthaginian inscrip- 
tions under the form nsn Tanith or ta-Neith, the first letter being 
the article, and that consequently Nrjt&, Tavahig, and Avaixig 
are but different forms of the same name (see Monn. Phoen. 
pp. 115-118, 171, 172) ; but this is left for others to decide. 

3>Ti . Whether we regard this as a pret., fut., or part, it is of the 
masc. form ; so that the gender of the preceding noun (suppos- 
ing it to be feminine) is neglected. Comp. Ges. Monn. Phosn. 
p. 216, and Blau in Ztschr. der D. M. G. p. 442. 

nbaa appears to be i. q. Syr. Jl^iaio, Chald. Vbaa , used like !i>» 
in the sense of thing. 

naha that slayeth, part. Hiph. of n-ia to die, with the preformative 
M retained. Judas considers that he has found this form of the 
Hiphil in the fut. Jpsfti (Etude Demonstr. p. 135). The word 
natia occurs also with d^Nfl in line 22. This phrase dlNfl 
nana occurs in line 17 of the Marseilles inscription, which 
unfortunately is a broken one, so that the sense is left doubtful. 
Various explanations of the word nana are proposed by Mo- 
vers and Ewald ; but neither of them would suit the context of 
our inscription. 

fiV to them. The change from the singular to the plural and vice 
versa in propositions of a general nature, where the subject is 
indeterminate and may be regarded at the will of the writer as 
consisting of one or many, is so common in Hebrew that we 
feel no surprise at meeting with it here. 

SIB dwelling. Supposed to be formed by apocope from Siiji . 

mTjsa }T 51B good is the judgment from on high, i. e. from the 
places above, the sky, heaven, ni?» being a fem. used as a neu- 
ter. The allusion is to the punishments decreed and executed 
by Heaven against the wicked for their misdeeds. We might 
also read IN mbsa from above the sky, taking in as i. q. Heb. 
IN vapor, and hence cloud, sky; like Heb. prriD , dust, cloud, 
and then sky, heaven, as in Ps. 89, 7. 38. It must be remarked 
however that the MS. copy of the inscription, which in general 
appears to be the most entitled to confidence, has bl instead of f *j . 



254 



Line 12. 
IN behold, like Arab. J! . The same word seems to have stood in 

line 17, although the {* has disappeared. 

tTlTD in life, or among the living, an expression found in several in- 
scriptions of Athens and Citium (see Ges. Monn. Phoen. p. 349 b). 

7D3 ""J3JO as I was resting (sleeping ?). )tn act. part, of til 3 with 
sutf. 1 pers. sing, in the Aramaean manner (Hoffm. Gf. Syr. p. 
177), which is also used in the Syriac with a preceding pro- 
noun (Hoffm. p. 345). 

Line 14. 
rHniZWMN Emashtoreth (i. e. mother of Astarte). In line 3 of the Ox- 
ford inscription we have also the name of a woman niniMViJaN 
Amalashtoreth (handmaid of Astarte). 

Line 15. 

Jn3i"D priestess. The masc. )fO priest and &3hS priests occur re- 
peatedly in the Marseilles inscription. Movers shows (Die Phce- 
nizier, III, 512 sq. 547 sq.) that Astarte was the highest national 
goddess of the Sidonians, and especially of their ruling race : so 
that the high priest of the goddess was the high priest of the 
land, and the office was the prerogative of the metropolis and 
was filled by the nearest relative of the king. 

}nS*l our lady. The term n3"\ is found repeatedly in inscriptions 
applied both to deities and to mortals. See Blau in Ztschr. der 
D. M. G. Ill, 434. 

Line 16. 

)"t fD temple of justice. It would appear that among the Phoeni- 
cians the temple of worship was used also as a hall of justice, 
as among the Hebrews, whose \"nz?t J"H n">S or great court of 
justice was held in the temple at Jerusalem. 

mt» . Supposed to be i. q. Heb. nilitt, and to mean around, about, 
by. I at first read &•> riz iHSl nS a temple of justice, a temple 
of the sea, i. e. by the sea. 

•WN . Supposed to be i. q. Heb. "in* peg, and then used figura- 
tively, as in Heb. and Arab., in the sense of support. See 
Bosenmuller on Zech. 10, 4, where it stands parallel with rtss 
corner-stone. As for the N prosth., comp. VN (1. 3, 13) i. ql 
Heb. r>. 

n'irim stars* We may suppose this word to be chosen by way of 
allusion to the meaning of the name rnnil)5>. 

QTlNa magnified, honored, worshipped; part. Pual of ^"jH . The 

Piel part, occurs in the following line. 



255 

}n3N1 . Here we are presented for the first time with the Phoen. 
pron. of the 1st pers. plur., which agrees in its termination with 
the frequently occurring suffix ) . It is used in the nominative 
absolute both here and in the following line. 
Line 17. 

tiaab rD a temple of the peoples. &"vaNb plur. of dfcV, in Hebrew 
a poetical term. The meaning seems to be that this is a temple 
to which the nations should come to worship (comp. 1 Kings 8, 
41-43). Blau thinks that he has found this same noun in the 
third line of the Eryx inscription in a contracted form in the 
word ftab^J to her people (Ztschr. der D. M. G. Ill, 441). 

Vsi" 1 . From \bn 'Jo be thin, slight, small; like Syr. ^ij . 

"l!"D thereby, nfi is here taken to be i. q. Chald. N*in , Heb. STtrt . 
Buxtorf shows (Lex. Chald. col. 489) that tn corresponds in 
the Targum to the Heb. n&!T , which is used absolutely without 
reference to any particular noun. The meaning will then be 
that those who worship in this temple shall in consequence 
receive pardon for their sins. Comp. 1 Kings 8, 30-53. 

Line 18. 

&" 1 y*iN the land of the sea, i. e. lying on the sea-coast. 

)1X. VjO lit. the Lord of Sidon; like ms bsa the Lord of Tyre, in 
the first Maltese inscription. 

n^niB?l> na a temple to Ashtoreth. According to Movers (Die 
Phoenizier I, 602, 605) a large temple of Astarte in Sidon is 
spoken of both by Achilles Tatius and by Lucian. 

Vs>i DID the glory (lit. name, renown) of Baal. Baal is the sun, or 
king of the heavens, and Astarte the moon, or queen of the 
heavens ; hence it appears she is called his glory, his bright and 
beautiful counterpart. 

tolas JIN Lord Milcom. So J»fi Two J*TN Lord Baal Hamman, 
Numid. inscrr. 1-3. Milcom, or Moloch, in his character of the 
Phoenician Mars, is here said to have given the Sidonians their 
city ; meaning that they had obtained it originally, or (which is 
more probable) that they had recently regained it, from other 
possessors by force of arms. 

Line 19. 

Itn desire, i. q. Heb. I'm. If the context would permit, we might 
read isn (in the O. Test, also written Tn) Bora, the southern- 
most town of the Phoenicians ; and so we might find in this 
and the following line the names rvn)2 Marathus and Isaa Qebal. 

yiN "©"n and beauty of the earth. So the Tyrians applied to their 
city the appellation IB 1 ' T\\^3 perfect in beauty, or perfectly 
beautiful, Ezek. 27, 3 ; comp. 27, 4. 11. 28, 12. 17. 



256 

nTjKft linn our glorious delight. We regard j'ln as an abstract 
noun formed, by prefixing n , from the Aramaic root zy-\ , and 
corresponding to the Heb. J-nafl lit. desire, delight] ! comp. 

the phrase !"nftf! y~\& • Michaelis quotes the phrase 

|.j|.£iO k^*vO I- 1 *J -' pulchra et splendida cedificia (Lex. Syr. 

p. 847). If the context permitted, we might translate Tarragon 

the great. 
JYiD 5U33 U5S* wA«cA is in the dwelling of our deity, i. e. which is 

situated in the land of Phoenicia, the peculiar dwelling-place of 

the national god ?jbb or bsba . The MS. copy has "W2 or *uoa . 
r>aS4J> rnab to stretch out (or' stretching out) the fortresses, i. e. 

enabling us to erect the long line of fortifications. 
flbs>D 1DN wAicA I have made, i. e. reared, constructed. So the MS. 

copy. The form of the third letter in the lithograph edition 

would allow us to read nb^S UJfit of which thou art Lord; but 

the sense is not so good. 
D35DD V ) and they have constructed them, the plur. used impersonally, 

i. q. they have been constructed. 'jbD to cover with boards, and 

hence to build, construct. 

Line 20. 

nbi> on, upon. Either a fern. sing, or plur. abstract noun, lit. top, 
used as a preposition. See on mb»!0 1. 12. 

bi3 border, boundary, Heb. bias . 

psb to set firm, establish, strengthen, Polel infin. of }=o. The de- 
ceased king claims not only to have assisted in erecting temples 
to secure to his people the favor of their gods, but also to have 
constructed fortresses to defend them against the assaults of 
their human enemies. 

Line 21. 

IS" 1 bft"l and let him not remove, "js" 1 fut. apoc. Hiph. of !i"l5> . 

bb as for them, used absolutely. See Ges. Lex. under b 14. c. 

tH'TAD"' shall humble them ; taking the verb as the Piel or Hiphil of 
"DO to fall down, to prostrate oneself. Comp. iinili!l . I at 
first read dSTlO" 1 , as in line 9, supposing that the copyist had 
omitted a portion of the third letter, which made it resemble a 
3, ; but as the reading of the MS. copy supports that of the litho- 
graph, it is safer to yield to their joint authority. 

Line 22. 
Nil fDboto WlSp" 1 ! and they shall cut it off, that kingdom. This 
pleonastic use of the pronominal suffix before the noun forming 
the object of a verb is found in Hebrew (Nord. Heb. Gram. II, 
109). 



257 



CONCLUSION. 



The reader who has perused the foregoing attempt at explaining 
the inscription will scarcely need to be reminded that in it some 
things are certain, others doubtful, and others little better than 
guesses. Error and imperfection are the usual fate of first essays of 
the sort ; but a beginning must be made, and it will be compara- 
tively easy for minds coming fresh to the subject and applied directly 
to the doubtful passages to make a nearer approximation to the 
truth. 

Dr. Movers (Art. PMnizten in Ersch. u. Gruber's Encyklopadie, p. 
425) divides Phoenician inscriptions, as respects the forms of their 
letters, their language, and their age, into two classes. The older, to 
which belong those of Marseilles, Carthage, Citium, Malta, Athens, and 
most of the coins of Phoenicia and the neighboring regions to the 
north, exhibit the old Phoenician type of letters, a regular orthogra- 
phy, and a language still free from foreign influences and later de- 
generacies. These advantages, especially the graphic ones, are found 
in their greatest completeness in the inscription of Marseilles, which 
is demonstrably the oldest, belonging to the first half of the 4th cen- 
tury B. C, while the monuments of northern Phoenicia and Cilicia 
belong to the latter half of this century. The second class of monu- 
ments proceed from times and regions where the culture and the 
language of the Phoenicians were considerably affected by foreign 
elements : these are the so-called Numidian inscriptions, and also 
those found in Sardinia and in other Liby-Phoenician countries, 
together with the Punic coins, which belong to the Liby-Phcenician 
cities on the coast of Africa, to the islands of Cossura and Iviea, and 
to several Turditanian cities. In this latter class both the form of 
the letters and the orthography are equally degenerate. There is 
hardly one of these numerous inscriptions that does not present doubt- 
ful characters, and the guttural and vowel letters are confounded 
in them in a manner without parallel in the Shemitish languages. 

It is to the former class, as was to be expected, that our inscrip- 
tion belongs. Its interest is greater both on this account and as 
being the first inscription properly so-called that has yet been found 
in Phoenicia proper, which had previously furnished only some coins 
and an inscribed gem. It is also the longest inscription hitherto 
discovered, that of Marseilles — which approaches it the nearest in 
the form of its characters, the purity of its language, and its extent — 
consisting of but 21 lines and fragments of lines. 

The corrupt orthography and style of many of the inscriptions 

found in Africa and elsewhere which first attracted the attention of 

scholars, together with the inaccurate manner in which they were 

copied, and which enhanced the difficulty of reading them correctly, 

vol. v. 38 



258 

naturally caused the Phoenician language to be regarded as differing 
much more widely from the Hebrew than it does in reality ; but the 
inscription before us confirms the opinion held since the discovery of 
that of Marseilles, that the Phoenician language in its purity, besides 
a slight tinge of Aramaism, differs but little from the Biblical He- 
brew. This is a gratifying discovery for two reasons : first, because 
it facilitates the correct reading and interpretation of the inscriptions 
themselves, and secondly because each document in it that is brought 
to light will prove a direct contribution towards elucidating the lan- 
guage of the Hebrew Scriptures. 

The forms of the letters in the Sidon inscription and that of Mar- 
seilles are very similar, the principal difference being that, as a general 
rule, the characters of the former have a slightly more rounded and 
consequently less antique contour. The 'Ain, however, of the former 
is always a complete circle ; whereas in the latter it has the modern 
characteristic of an opening at the top. In the Sidon inscription the 
Yod runs through many different forms, from the oldest to the most 
recent ; and the forms of T and *i , to which is sometimes to be added 
5 (which in that of Marseilles are accurately distinguished) are 
utterly confounded together, so that there is no distinction that holds 
between them, either in the form of the head, the degree of inclina- 
tion from the perpendicular, or the length of the stem. Our copies 
of it are certainly much better executed than those of the generality 
of the inscriptions we possess ; yet under the circumstances nothing 
but a plaster cast or other fac-simile can be regarded as a satisfactory 
basis for a final interpretation of the monument. 

The orthography of this as of other Phoenician inscriptions is 
characterized by a more systematic omission of the matres lectionis 
than is found even in the oldest Hebrew writings. 

As for the language of the inscription it bears marks of antiquity 
which are obsolescent in the Biblical Hebrew : such as the use in 
plain prose of primitive words which in Hebrew are found not at all 
or only as poetical archaisms ; the retention of the fem. afformative 
n , of the 1 of the plural of verbs, and perhaps of the Tt preformative 
of the Hiphil ; the non-employment of the definite article in repeated 
instances where it would be used in Hebrew, &c. 

As a contribution to Phoenician history we have the names of the 
defunct ruler and his ancestors to the third degree both on the pater- 
nal and maternal side, thus : 

Ashmunyyer Imanyyer 

! I 

Tabnith Emashtoreth 

v / 

Ashmunyyer. 



259 

Not only the father and paternal grandfather of the deceased king 
are said to have been kings of Sidon, but also his maternal grand- 
father. What was the order of succession between them, or indeed 
where they are to be placed at all, we have not the means of decid- 
ing ; but the ancient form of the characters and the purity of the 
language of the inscription (as far as it can be made out with cer- 
tainty), with the fact that Sidon appears to have been ruled by native 
independent sovereigns (though their independence may be ques- 
tioned), induce us to place it before the conquest of Alexander, 
namely as early as the middle of the 4th century B. C. 

It however by no means follows that because we are now without 
the means of answering these questions definitively, we shall always 
remain so. The fondness of the Phoenicians for commemorating in 
this durable manner public and private events, the fact that no sys- 
tematic exploration of the sites of towns in Phoenicia and most of 
her colonies has ever been undertaken, the extensive ruins that are 
known to exist (above all those of Tyre herself), and the number of 
educated men now in northern Africa and the Levant, lead naturally 
to the hope and expectation that many more extensive and more 
interesting monuments of this people will ere long be discovered than 
have yet been brought to light. 



Vin. ExTBACTS FROM CORRESPONDENCE. 

1. From a Letter from Rev. D. T. Stoddard, of Or&miah. 

Seir, Oroomiah, Jan. 16, 1854. 
Since writing you, I have made a pretty thorough examination of 
the Jews' language, as spoken in this vicinity, and have now the 
materials for drawing up a paper on that subject. When you see 
Dr. Kobinson, will you be good enough to consult with him as to 
the question whether it is worth while to give the details of that lan- 
guage, or only a few outlines of the grammar. 

When I shall get time to attend to the subject again is quite un- 
certain. Our missionary labors demand most of our strength and 
thoughts.