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Proceedings at Boston, May, 1870. lxxiii 



Proceedings at Boston, May 18th, 1870. 



The Society assembled at 10 o'clock a. m., at the rooms of the 
American Academy. President Woolsey being absent, the chair 
was occupied alternately by Dr. Anderson and Dr. Parker, Vice- 
Presidents. 

The record of the preceding meeting was read by the Recording 
Secretary. It was arranged that there should be a recess of only 
one hour at noon, that the business of the meeting might be 
finished before evening. 

The Treasurer's Report was read, audited, and accepted. It 
was as follows : 

RECEIPTS. 

Balance on hand, May 19th, 1869, $357.53 

Annual assessments paid in, $515.00 

Life-membership, 75.00 

Sale of the Journal, --.--... 18.75 

Total receipts of the year, 608.75 

$966.28 
EXPENDITURES. 

Printing of Proceedings, etc., $43.24 

Expenses of Library and Correspondence, 40.64 

Paid for binding of books, 1.25 

Total expenditures of the year, $85.13 

Balance on hand, May 18th, 1870, 881.15 

$966.28 
The Treasurer also made a statement respecting the condition 
of the fund for the purchase of Chinese type, provided by the kind 
offices of the late Hon. Charles W. Bradley. The arrival of the 
font ordered from Shanghai was reported at the last meeting. Its 
cost was as follows : 

For type (180 lbs, small pica), .... $324.00 

Type-cases, 12.00 

Packing, freight, and insurance, .... 22.00 

Premium on $358 in Mexican dollars, - - - 136.79 

Expenses in New York, duty, cartage, etc., - 75.00 

Total expense, $569.79 

To meet this, the Treasurer had drawn on Messrs. Baring, 
Brothers, & Co., of London, with whom the fund was deposited 
by Mr. Bradley, for £100, which yielded in currency $670.08. 
The balance, about $100, is deposited in the Townsend Savings 
Bank at New Haven to the credit of the fund, and about £92 
still remains in the hands of Messrs. Barings. 

vol. rx. c 



Ixxiv American Oriental Society: 

The Librarian excused himself, on the score of other pressing 
occupations, for having come unprepared with a full Report of the 
condition of the Library, and gave a brief oral statement respect- 
ing the additions made to it during the year. The most important 
donations had come from the Vienna Academy of Sciences, and 
from Prof. Fitz-Edward Hall of London. 

The Committee of Publication reported that, as authorized by 
the Directors last fall, they had commenced the reprinting of Vol. 
ix., Part 1, of the Journal, as soon as the printing office had been 
restored to working order after the fire ; and that the work had 
since gone on without interruption, but was not yet quite finished. 
It was intended to proceed with the printing of Part 2, as soon as 
the other should be out of the way. 

The Directors notified the next meeting, as to be held in New 
Haven on the nineteenth of October, unless the Committee of 
Arrangements (Prof. Hadley of New Haven, with the Recording 
and Corresponding Secretaries) should alter the appointment — 
which they were authorized to do, if it appeared desirable. 

The following persons, on recommendation of the Directors, 
were elected members of the Society : namely, 

as Corporate Members, 

Mr. Erastus B. Bigelow, of Boston. 
Prof. Ferdinand Bocher, of Boston. 
Prof. J. Lewis Diman, of Providence, R. I. 
Mr. James B. Greenough, of Cambridge, Mass. 
Mr. Thomas S. Perry, of Cambridge, Mass. 
Mr. Charles T. Russell, of Cambridge, Mass. 
Rev. J. Herbert Senter, of Cambridge, Mass. 
Prof. Peter H. Steenstra, of Cambridge, Mass. 
Prof. Francis Wharton, D.D., of Brookline, Mass. 
Rev. Henry A. Yardley, of Middletown, Conn. 

as Corresponding Members, 

Rev. Albert L. Long, D.D., Missionary at Constantinople. 
Rev. Hyman A. Wilder, Missionary in South Africa. 

Mr. J. S. Ropes of Boston, Rev. W. H. Ward of New York, and 
Hon. J. D. Baldwin of Worcester, were appointed by the chair a 
Nominating Committee, to propose a ticket for officers for the 
ensuing year ; and the following gentlemen, nominated by them, 
were elected without dissent : 

President— Pres. T. D. Woolsey, D.D., LL.D., of New Haven. 

{ Rev. Rtjfus Anderson, D.D., " Boston. 

Vice-Presidents \ Hon. Peter Parker, M.D., " Washington. 

( Prof. Edw. E. Salisbury, LL.D., " New Haven. 

Corresp. Secretary — Prof. W. D. Whitney, Ph.D., " New Haven. 

Seer, of Glass. Section — Prof. James Hadley, LL.D., " New Haven. 

Recording Secretary — Mr. Ezra Abbot, LL.D., " Cambridge. 

Treasurer— Prof. D. C. Gilman, " New Haven. 

Librarian— Prof. W. D. Whitney, " New Haven. 



Proceedings at Boston, May, 1870. lxxv 

f Mr. J. W. Barrow, of New York. 

Mr. A. I. Cotheal, " New York. 

Prof. W. W. Goodwin, Ph.D., " Cambridge. 

Directors -J Prof. W. H. Green, D.D., " Princeton. 

Prof. A. P. Peabody, D.D., " Cambridge. 

Dr. Charles Pickering, " Boston. 

Prof. Charles Short, LL.D., " New York. 

While the committee were deliberating, an interesting series of 
photographs from India and Farther India were exhibited to the 
members, and briefly commented on, by Rev. J. T. Gracey. 

The Corresponding Secretary then announced the losses which 
the Society had suffered by death during the year ; namely, two 
Corporate Members, Rev. E. Burgess and Rev. Dr. Proudfit (the 
latter during some years past a Director) ; and three Correspond- 
ing Members, Prof. Romeo Elton, late of Exeter, England, Rev. 
Dr. Justin Perkins, during many years a missionary in Orumiah, 
and Mr. William Winthrop, American consul at Malta. He said 
a few words with regard to each of these gentlemen, briefly setting 
forth the claims that they had upon the respectful and affectionate 
remembrance of the Society, as well as of scholars in America and 
through the world. He spoke especially of Mr. Burgess, who 
would be remembered in connection with the translation of the 
Surya-Siddhanta published some years since in the Society's Jour- 
nal, and with whom he had himself for some time been thrown into 
intimate relations while that work was in preparation and passing 
through the press. Mr. Burgess returned to this country in 1854, 
after more than fourteen years of service as a missionary in western 
India. He died of pneumonia, near Boston, on the first day of 
this year. 

Prof. Hadley gave a somewhat detailed account of the life and 
literary labors of Dr. Proudfit, and a view of his character as a 
scholar and as a man. 

The eminent services of the venerable Dr. Perkins in the cause 
of Christian philanthropy and of learning were set forth by Rev. 
Mr. Treat, Dr. Parker, and others. 

The correspondence of the past six months was presented, and 
read in part. The following are extracts : 

From Mr. Freeman A. Smith, Treasurer of the American Baptist 
Missionary Union, dated Boston, Nov. 9th, 1869: 

" Knowing you to be interested in such things, I send herewith a copy from an 
ancient metallic plate found by Mr. Bunker, one of our missionaries, among the Red 
Karens, together with a copy of our magazine, where you will see what he writes 
respecting it." 

Mr. Bunker says : 

"It has been long known that an ancient metal plate, having strange characters 
engraven on it, existed among the Red Karens. While at Kontie's village, we 
succeeded, after much difficulty, in obtaining a sight of the famous plate, and were 
also allowed to copy it. The plate is composed of copper, brass, and probably 
some gold. They regard it as very sacred, and guard it with most zealous care. 
It is supposed by them to possess life, and they say it requires to be " fed with 
metal.'' I fed it with a piece of silver of the value of ..bout fifty cents, but did not 



lxxvi American Oriental Society : 

see it eat while I was near. The common people fear its power greatly, and dare 
not look at it, as they say it has power to blind their eyes. The traditions of most 
of the Karen tribes point to this tablet, I think, and it may be of very ancient 
origin. The character in which it is written is quite different from any of the 
characters in which the languages of the Bast are written, so far as I have been 
able to learn." 

A copy of the inscription was exhibited to the members present, 
but no one could cast any light upon its strange characters. The 
Secretary said that he was hoping to obtain additional information 
upon the matter from Farther India, to be laid before the Society 
hereafter. The plate is one referred to in Mr. Cross's paper on the 
Karens and their langnage, read at the meeting in October, 1866, 
and reported in the Proceedings of that meeting (Journal, vol. ix., 
p. xii.). 

From Rev. C. H. A. Dall, dated Calcutta, Nov. 27th, 1869 : 

" In Bombay, lately, I had the pleasure of meeting Dr. Bhau Daji at the monthly 
meeting of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, and was surprised to 
hear him say that within a year or so, or as soon as his practice (as a physician) 
would permit, he expected to visit England and America. I am not very sorry 
that you are likely to see, yet sooner, Babu Keshub Chunder Sen ; of whom you 
have heard as the eloquent leader of the partly christianized Hindus, the Brahmo$. 
He does not feel settled as to the American part of his visit ; but, when calls reach 
him, as they are sure to do, he will yield to the pressure, and accomplish a visit 
which I am very desirous that he should make. The presence of these two cul- 
tured Oriental gentlemen will, I am sure, make Orientalism dawn on America as 
never before." 

From Mrs. S. J. Rhea, dated Jonesboro, Tennessee, Dec. 5th, 
1869; respecting her late husband's Kurdish papers, presented at 
the previous meeting, giving some explanations as to their char- 
acter, and expressing her desire to be helpful in any way toward 
their publication. 

From Dr. A. T. Pratt, dated Constantinople, March 16th, lS^O: 

". . . . I procured a fine copy of a Cufic inscription some time since and sent it, 
to you; but, together with a valuable lot of coins, it was lost on the way. I am 

now hoping to send you the stone itself in the course of the summer I have 

a grammar of the Turkish language of my own, which I hope to forward as soon 
as I can get an English translation to go with it. During nearly two years past I 
have been here, engaged on the revision of the version of the Bible made by Dr. 
Goodell. 

Dr. Paspati is getting out a large work on the Gypsy language, of which I pre- 
sume you will receive a copy." 

Communications being now in order, the following were pre- 
sented : 

1. On the Glagolitic Alphabet, by Rev. A. L. Long, of Constan- 
tinople ; presented by the Corresponding Secretary. 

This was an inquiry into the origin of the Glagolitic character, in which a part of 
the oldest Slavic literature is preserved, and into its relation to the more usual 
character, the Cyrillitic. Of the two, the Cyrillitic is usually ascribed to the Slavic 
apostle Cyril, who used it for his translation of the Scriptures (about A.D. 862); 
respecting the other, opinions have been much divided, some attributina: its inven- 
tion to Methodius, Cyril's brother, others to Clement, archbishop of Yelitsa in Bul- 
garia, and pupil of Cyril and Methodius ; while yet others regard it as some centu- 
ries older than Cyril, and many accept the Dalmatian traditions which would make 
St. Jerome its inventor. Dr. Long, now, differing from all these, maintains that 



Proceedings at Boston, May, 1870. lxxvii 

the Glagolitic was the alphabet devised by Cyril, and was exclusively used in his 
time, while the so-called Cyrillitic, which is no independent invention, but only an 
adaptation of the Greek alphabet to the Slavic language, was the work of Clement 
(who died A.D. 91 6). The various considerations which appear to support this view 
are detailed in the paper. At the end, the author acknowledges his obligations to 
P. J. Schaflfarik's work "On the Origin and Home of Glagolitism " (Prague, 1858). 

Remarks upon this paper, approving its conclusions, were made 
by Mr. J. S. Ropes. 

2. On the Moabite Inscription of King Mesha, by Rev. Wm. 
Hayes Ward, of New York. 

Mr. Ward first detailed the history of the securing of the inscription by M. Gan- 
neau, from the first discovery of the monument by the German Klein. After 
showing that it was undoubtedly genuine, and dated back to nearly nine hundred 
years before Christ, Mr. Ward laid before the meeting a transliterated copy of it in 
Hebrew characters, and the following translation : 

1 1 am Mesha son of Chemosh [nadab] King of Moab [the D-] - ibonite. | My 
father reigned over Moab thirty years and I reigned ''after my father. | Audi 
made this high place to Chemosh in Karhah and [this House of Sal-] 4 vation 
because he has saved me from all the attacks and because he has caused me to 
look on all my enemies. | [m r] i 6 was King of Israel, and he afflicted Moab 
many days, because Chemosh was angry with his [land]. | 6 And his sou suc- 
ceeded him, and he also said, "I will afflict Moab." | In my days lie spake thus, 
1 And I looked on him and on his house, | and Israel kept continually perishing. 
And Omri held possession of the land (?) of "Medeba. And there dwelt in it 
[Omri and his son and his grand-] son forty years. [But] 9 Chemosh [restored] 
it in my days. | And I built Baal-Meon and I made in it . And I 

[besieged] (?) '" Kirjathaim. | And the men of Gad had dwelt of old in the land 
of Kirjathaim]. And the King of Israel built "for him [Kirjathaim], | And I 
fought against the city and took it. | And I slew all the [men of] "the city, a 
spectacle to Chemosh and to Moab. | And I brought back from thence the 
[altar of Jehovah, and ,3 put] it before Chemosh in Kerioth. | And I caused to 

dwell therein the men of Shiran ; and the men of 14 Sharath. | And Chemosh 

said to me, " Go and take Nebo from Israel." | [And I ] 16 went in the night 

and I fought against it from the overspreading of the dawn till noon. | And I 

[took it and 1] l6 [utterly destroyed] it, and I slew all of it seven thousand— 

"for to Ashtor Chemosh had [I] devoted [them]; and I took from thence ,8 the 
vessels of Jehovah, and I presented them before Chemosh. | And the King of Israel 
[built] " Jahaz and dwelt in it while he was fighting against me. | And Chemosh 
drove him from [before me. 2n And] I took from Moab 200 men, all told; | and I 
attacked (?) Jahaz and took it, '" adding it to Dibon. | I built Karhah, the wall of the 
forests and the wall of -' 2 the hill (Ophel). | And I built its gates and I built its 
towers. | and ' 23 1 made a royal palace, and I made reservoirs for the collection of 
the waters in the midst of the city. | i4 And there was no cistern in the midst of 
the city in Karhah; and I said to all the people, "Make SB for you each a cistern 
in his house." And I dug ditches (?) for Karhah in [the road to] '-"'Israel. | I 
built [A]roer, and I made the high way to Arnon. I built *' Beth-Bamoth, for it 
was ruined, | and I built Bozrah, for it was deserted. And I 2 " set in Dibon gar- 
risons (?) ; for all Dibon was submissive. | And I filled (?) '•"> in the cities which 

I added to the land. | And I built and :lo the temple of Diblathaim, | and the 

temple of Baal-Meon, and I raised up there " the land. | And there 

dwelt in Honoraim 3S Chemosh said to me, "Go, fight against Honoraim." | 

And I *> Chemosh in my days . . . . u * * * * * 

* * * # * 

Mr. Ward explained that in most points he agrees with either Ganneau, Schlott- 
mann, Derenbourg, Noldeke, or Neubnuer in their versions and corrections of the 
defective text. He drew, however, more especial attention to certain matters with 
regard to which he differed from previous commentators. The latter have made 
the perpendicular stroke near the end of the third line a mark of division between 
the sentences. This it cannot be, as the dot which divides the words also appears 



lxxviii American Oriental Society : 

here, and in no other case are both found together. The stroke can be either 1 or 
p, and is no doubt the former. This puts a repetition of nD3 out of the question. 
The reading suggested, y v[i n? n]ai, seems plausible. The doubtful character at 
the beginning of the eighth line must be either y or p. The feminine form riypa is 
often used for plain, which is just what we want. The masculine is put in the 
text. Still in Capt. Warren's impression the letter looks more like y, which would 
allow fix. The suggested emendations for the end of the fifteenth and the beginning 
of the sixteenth line, and for the seventeenth Hue, are new. The facsimile of Gan- 
neau seems to show in line twenty-three a flaw in the stone. The fact that the 
letters as they stand hardly make sense is an indication that the flaw did not exist 
when the inscription was made, in which case the scribe would have continued the 
unfinished word on the other side of the flaw, as is the case in the ninth line of the 
great Sidonian inscription of king Eshmunezer. But the letters which we have, 
f v Wi 'Sto, cannot be translated, the last word being neither plural of e>N, : man,' nor 
anything else imaginable. Schlottmann and others have suggested [mliPN, ' out- 
pouring ' This word and its masculine form are only used in the Bible in connec- 
tion with the geography of the region of Moab, and DiVrun "ffi>N of the old song of 
which we have a fragment in Num. xxi. 15 compares well with the pDmiW or 
pen -\v>x, which even may be preferable, which I would suggest. Such expressions 
as "troughs of the waters," Gen. xxx. 38, "brook of the waters," 2 Sam. xvii. 20, 
"well of the waters," "well" or "fountain of waters," "storm of waters," Hab. 
iii. 10, are frequent in the Bible. The third word in the eighteenth line I read 
DroipNi from Capt. "Warren's photographs, which he has misread. The first word 
in the twenty-second line is read from the photographs as Sfljn, giving us exactly 
the biblical phrase "wall of Ophel." 

The language of the inscription is almost pure Hebrew, but with an approach 
toward the southern Semitic tongues. This appears in the comparative scarcity of 
quiescent letters, in the plural in Nun, and especially in the Hiphtael conjunction, 
onrrn, which has its correspondences in Arabic, Ethiopic, and Assyrian. Another 
evident example of this is the use of verbs I" 1 ? instead of ri\ Thus we have uy« 
and w for ruyN and ruy. In these cases Noldeke assumes that the final l is a 
personal suffix, and that thus a double object is expressed, as is common in Syriac. 
But the language shows little assimilation to Aramaic peculiarities, and it is more 
probable that the root is preserved in these forms in a more archaic shape than in 
Hebrew. 

The form of the characters proves the correctness of de Vogue's assertion that 
the oldest Canaanite alphabet was distinguished by its sharp angles. Among the 
more interesting forms are the i, which is for the first time found as a simple tri- 
angle, like the Greek A; d. which we first find here as a perpendicular crossed by 
three horizontal lines, which suggest the Greek S ; l, which suggests the Greek T ; 
p, which is precisely the Greek Kappa ; and n, which is an oblique cross, or X- 

The separation of words is found in some other very ancient inscriptions, as in 
the second inscription of Citium, that of Tncca, and two others. 

The lacuna in the eighth line is very unfortunate, as it leaves the chronology in 
some doubt. Schlottmann is certainly wrong in supposing it possible to make forty 
years out of the Bible chronology of the reigus of Omri, Ahab, and Ahaziah, which 
occupied only thirty-one years. If these scriptural figures are correct, and they 
appear to be, it must be supposed either that Omri began to afflict Moab before he 
became king while general of Baasha's army, or that the successes of Mesha occur- 
red after the campaigns mentioned in Scripture, and during the latter years of Je- 
horam. The " round number," which Noldeke, Schlottmann, and others have sug- 
gested, would have been thirty instead of forty, if this campaign be referred to the 
first rebellion of Mesha — even if a round number is assumable on such a monument. 

3. Remarks on the Discovery of a second " Rosetta Stone," at 
Tanis in Lower Egypt, by Hon. J. D. Baldwin, of Worcester. 

In this very brief paper, Mr. Baldwin called attention once more to the inscrip- 
tion of Tanis, brought to light by Lepsius in 1866, and published as a "bilingual 
decree " in the same year, the existence of its third, or Demotic, text being not 
then known. He rj-ij from a letter received by him from Lepsius, to the effect 
that " the original is now in the Museum of Bulaq. Its complete disinterment, 



Proceedings at Boston, May. lS^O. lxxix 

which I was not able to effect, brought to light the demotic text on the edge of the 
stone. Each character, and the whole inscription, is completely preserved ; and it 
is therefore far superior to the Rosetta inscription, of which, as is well known, a 
large part, especially of the hieroglyphic inscription, is broken off. For this reason, 
the Decree of Canopus is peculiarly adapted to aid the beginning of hieroglypnical 
studies. I have not yet prepared the second part of the publication, because the 
demotic text is not yet made public." 

4. On the Golden Rule in the Chinese Classics, by Mr. Ezra 
Abbot, of Cambridge, Mass. 

After referring to an example of the golden rule in a negative form in the Book 
of Tobit (iv.15), and to the story of the great Jewish Rabbi Hillel — who, when 
asked by a Gentile to teach him the whole Law while he stood on one foot, 
replied, " What thou hatest thyself, do not thou to another: this is the whole Law ; 
all the rest is only commentary " — Mr. Abbot remarked that it was well known 
that the golden rule occurs in this negative form among the maxims of Confucius, 
but that it had been often asserted that it was nowhere given by him as a positive 
precept. As the result, however, of such an investigation of this point as he had 
been able to make without a knowledge of the Chinese language, he had been led 
to a different conclusion. The principal passages bearing on this subject are to be 
found in the Lun Yu (a sort of Memorabilia of Confucius — designated as " Confucian 
Analects " in Legge's translation), Book iv., c. 15, §2 ; v.ll ; xii.2; xv.23 ; the Chung 
Yung (" Doctrine of the Mean," i. e. the golden mean), ch. xiii., §3 ; and the Works 
of Mencius, Book vii., c. 4, §3. With these passages may be also compared ch. ix., §4 
and ch. x. of the Ta Hio, or " Great Study," where the duties of rulers are spoken 
of. In the Lun Tu v.ll and xii.2 the maxim appears only in the negative form, 
"not to do to others what you would not wish done to yourself"— in the latter 
passage as one of the characteristics of " perfect virtue." But the point to which 
Mr. Abbot called special attention was the fact that the Chinese appear to have in 
their language a single word which distinctly expresses the duty of doing to others 
as we would have them do to us; involving the notion, not merely of abstaining 
from injury to our fellow-men, but of active sympathy and benevolence. This 
word occurs in a remarkable passage in the Lun Yu (iv.15, §2), in which the 
whole moral doctrine of Confucius is summed up in two terms — chung and shu, 
translated by Pauthier (Confucius et Mencius. Paris, 1858, p. 122) 'avoir la droiture 
du cceur" (chung), and 'aimer son prochain comme soi-meme' (shu). He remarks 
in a note, " On croira difficilement que notre traduction soit exacte; cependant nous 
ne pensons pas que Ton puisse en faire une plus fidele." Legge renders the words 
somewhat more vaguely — "to be true to the principles of our nature and the 
benevolent exercise of them to others" (Chinese Classics, I., p. 34). Collie (The 
Pour Books, Malacca, 1828) translates them ' consummate faithfulness and benevo- 
lence,' observing in a note, apparently by way of fuller explanation of the force of 
the Chinese words, "To perform our duty to the utmost, is faithfulness— to do to 
others as we wish them to do to us, is benevolence." The character for the 
second word here used, shu, is compounded of the 61st radical, sin, 'heart,' 
and ju, 'as, like,' and it would seem from the Lexicons that a kind regard for 
the feelings of others, a practical recognition of the fact that their hearts are like 
our own, belongs to the primary and essential meaning of the term. Thus it is 
defined by De Guignes, or rather Glemona (Diet, chinois, No. 2823), ' misericors, 
alios sicut se ipsum tractare ;'— by Morrison (Chinese Diet., No. 9343), 'benevolent; 
.... considerate; .... to treat others as one would like one's self;' — by Medhurst, 
' to excuse, to feel for others as we do for ourselves, to do as we would be done by, 
to be kind, sympathetic, indulgent' (Chinese Diet., Batavia, 1842; and similarly in 
his Diet, of the Hok-kei-n Dialect, p. 569);— by S. Wells Williams, 'benevolent; 
. . . . merciful, treating others as one wishes to be treated, sympathizing ' (Tonic 
Diet, of the Chin. Lang, in the Canton Dialect, 1856, pp. 453, 454);— by Legge, 
' the principle of reciprocity, making our own feelings the rule for dealings with 
others ' (Glossary in his Chinese Classics, I. 336, col. 2, and similarly II. 434, col. 2) ; 
'the judging of others by ourselves and acting accordingly' (Note on Mencius vii'. 
4, §3, Chin. Classics, II. 321). The translation of Pauthier in one passage has 
already been given; in another (Chung Yung, xiii 3) he renders the word 'qui 



lxxx American Oriental Society : 

porte aux autres les mSmes sentimens qu'il a pour lui-meme,' and again, 'agir en vers 
les autres comme on voudrait les voir agir envers nous ' (Mencius, vii. 4). Further, 
according to Pauthier, "Le Choue-wen [the oldest Chinese dictionary, belonging 
to the first century] definit ce caractere par celui de jin, 'humanite, amour du 
prochain.' Le Commentaire de cet ancien Dictionnaire ajoute: 'Celui qui est 
humain, bienveillant envers les autres, doit etre a leurs regards comme il voudrait 
que l'on fut envers lui, et agir ensuite conformement a ces principes.' " (Le Ta Hio, 
Paris, 1837, pp. 66, 67, note.) 

From these statements and definitions Mr. Abbot drew the inference that the 
word shu, which in four of the passages of the Chinese Classics referred to above 
is used either alone (Lun Yu, xv.23; Mencius, vii. 4, §3) or with chung, 'faithful- 
ness, sincerity, uprightness' (Lun Yu, iv.15, §2; Chung Yung, xiii.3), to express the 
sum of moral duty in reference to others, must be regarded as not merely a precept 
to abstain from acts of wrong-doing, but as enjoining the exercise of active benevo- 
lence, according to the measure of the golden rule. 

To the objection to this view, that in two of these examples (Lun Yu, xv.23 ; and 
Chung Yung, xiii.3) the word shu is explained and restricted by the negative pre- 
cept which immediately follows, "Do not to others" etc., it was replied that this 
negative precept may be regarded merely as an application of the principle expressed 
by the word shu, put, in the form of a prohibition because so often violated by 
positive acts of injury to others; but that such an application afforded no ground 
for supposing that Confucius intended to confine the duty signified by this word to 
mere abstinence from wrong-doing; on the contrary, we find in the Chung Yung, 
xiii.4, immediately after the negative precept, four distinctly positive applications 
of the principle, so that even Legge admits that here " we have the rule virtually 
in its positive form" — that Confucius "rises for a moment to the full apprehension 
of it, and recognizes the duty of taking the initiative " (Chinese Classics, Prolegom. 
to vol. i., p. 49; to vol. ii., p. 123). 

It was remarked, however, by Mr. Abbot, that, though we appear to have found 
the golden rule in Confucius in something more than a merely negative form, he 
did not rise to the sublime height of the Christian principle of returning good for 
evil. According to the Lun Yu (Book xiv., e. 36), some one asked Confucius, 
" ' What do you say concerning the principle that injury should be recompensed 
with kindness ?' The Master said, ' With what then will you recompense kindness ? 
Recompense injury with justice, and recompense kindness with kindness.' " 
(Legge's Chinese Classics, i.152.) 

5. On the Byzantine Pronunciation of Greek in the Tenth Cen- 
tury, as illustrated hy a MS. in the Bodleian Library, by Prof. J. 
Hadley, of New Haven. 

The manuscript referred to consists of a few leaves, containing passages from the 
Greek text of the Septuagint, written in Anglo-Saxon characters. They are found 
in a codex made up of various pieces, which was described by H. Wanley in the 
second volume of Hickes's Thesaurus, published in 1705. Hickes himself in his 
preface called attention to the transliterations of the Septuagint, and gave some 
specimens, twenty-five verses in all. These specimens have been reprinted in a 
corrected form by Mr. A. J. Ellis, in the first volume of his " Early English Pronun- 
ciation " (pp. 516-527), where they are used to throw light on the sounds of the 
Anglo-Saxon. They throw light also on the current Greek pronunciation of the time 
when they were written. Mr. G. Waring, writing to Mr. Ellis, refers them to the 
latter part of the tenth century: they arose, he thinks, from the communication of 
Greeks and English at the court of Otho II. of Germany, whose wife was Greek and 
whose mother English. The proof is not strong ; but the manuscript is probably not 
more recent than that date. 

That the scribe aimed to represent the pronunciation, is shown especially by his 
treatment of ot, of the rough breathing, of at, and of f He is generally independ- 
ent of the Latin transliteration, though occasionally influenced by it: thus ot is 
never represented by ce; the rough breathing is represented (by h) only six times 
out of seventy-nine; at by ce only eleven times out of eighty-eight; <p by ph only 
twice out of fifteen times. Inconsistencies and inaccuracies are frequent; but the 
scribe has his system, which he generally adheres to. Only as to n, he vacillates 



Proceedings at Boston, May, 1870. lxxxi 

between e and i, using i fifty-five times and e sixty-two ; the same word is written 
now with e and again with i; variations are sometimes found in the same line. To 
account for this vacillation by the influence of the Latin orthography is contrary to 
the analogy of the manuscript. It shows that q had a sound intermediate between 
Anglo-Saxon e and i, closer than the first, but less close than the second, nearly the 
same as (or perhaps a little closer than) the vowel-sound of Eng. they, ail. 

That the scribe always writes v as y, never confounding it with (, shows that v 
still retained its old (not oldest) sound, that of French « and German ii. The diph- 
thong 01 he regularly gives in the same way, as y. That 01 had this sound as far 
back as the fourth century has been shown by R. F. A. Schmidt (Beitrage zur Ge- 
schichte der Grammatik, pp. 73 ff.), who explains the name v if>iX6v as meaning 
' sim-ple v ' in distinction from the diphthong (ot) of the same sound. The similar 
name e ipMv is opposed to the diphthong at, which in this manuscript is regularly 
confounded with e, both being written as e. 

The diphthongs av, tv (sounded in modern Greek as af, ef, before surds, and wo, 
ev, before sonants) are written here as mi, em, which shows at least that they did 
not then have the sounds af, ef. The modern Greek sounds of fm as rnb, vt as nd, 
yn as ng, find no support here, where these combinations are written mp, nt, nc, 
respectively. The middle mutes (/?, y, <S) are written 6, g, d; but there is room to 
doubt whether the scribe would have written differently, even if he heard the spi- 
rant sounds which the modern Greek gives to these letters. 

In conclusion, Prof. Hadley remarked how widely the pronunciation indicated in 
this manuscript was still removed from that of the modern Greeks. The leading 
peculiarity of the modern pronunciation, the ilacism which confounds (, v, r], it, y, 
ot, vt, in one vowel sound, extends as yet only to the it; the other five (v, >;, ij, ot, 
vt) were still more or less different in sound from i. 

It was observed also that the codex in which this manuscript is found contains 
three other pieces remarkable for the "Welsh glosses which they show ; glosses 
which Zeuss. in his Grammatica Celtica, regards as the oldest monuments of the 
Welsh language, referring them to the close of the eighth or opening of the ninth 
century. Possibly, these transliterations of the Septuagint may have been written 
by a Welsh hand. But that supposition would require little change in the infer- 
ences before drawn from the manuscript. 

In remarking upon this paper, Dr. Abbot referred to another transliterated Greek 
text, the Codex Veronensis, published by Bianchini as an appendix to his Vindiciae 
Oanonicarum Scripturarum, Romae, 1740, fol. It contains the Greek text of the 
Psalms written in Latin characters, with the Old Latin version, in parallel columns. 
He spoke also of the confusion of at and e in manuscripts of the New Testament 

Prof. Goodwin observed that critics had been ready to assume a confusion 
of ti and ■>) in the manuscripts of classical authors. Accordingly they had given 
indicatives or subjunctives in many places according to their ideas of Greek idiom, 
with little regard to manuscript authority. He had himself inspected the two Ve- 
netian MSS. of Aristophanes and ten Paris MSS. of that author, to obtain data for 
deciding the question of ov fir; in prohibition with the future indicative or the sub- 
junctive. In all the passages of the Clouds and the Frogs which show this con- 
struction, he had found a great preponderance of manuscript authority for the sub- 
junctive. That the copyists did not in these cases confound ei and n was evident 
from the fact that they rarely confound them where only one can be right. He 
regarded this as a further proof that the two diphthongs were not sounded alike 
until a pretty late period. 

6. On Institutions of Western Learning in the East, by Prof. D. 
C. Oilman, of New Haven. 

Prof. Gilman had gathered, and laid before the Society, from private letters to 
himself and others, newspaper notices, published reports, and so on, the most recent 
intelligence obtainable respecting the Robert College near Constantinople, the 
Syrian College at Beirut, a proposed institution of a like character at Jaffna in 
Ceylon, and the school of western science and literature in Peking. The first has 
been temporarily established for some time at Bebek, but is about removing to its 
own grounds at Roumelie Hissar. on the Bosphorus, where the corner-stone of its 



lxxxii American Oriental /Society : 

new building was laid last July. Its buildings, apparatus, etc., being finished, it is 
intended to meet its own running expenses by the income from students. 

The Beirut College has five or six professors, and about seventy-five students. 
Its funds and property are near $150,000 ; it has recently succeeded in securing an 
eligible location in the western part of the city. To its medical department, to 
which belong about a half of the students, are attached a hospital and ophthalmic 
institution, which are crowded with interesting cases, and in every way exceed- 
ingly successful. 

The plan for a College at Jaffna is set on foot by the native community there, 
who propose to raise in Ceylon a sum sufficient to endow the native professorships 
and meet the ordinary expenses, appealing to America for a further sum of S50,000, 
to support an American load and manager for the institution, procure apparatus, 
and the like. 

Respecting the Peking College, the most interesting information was contained 
in a private letter from Dr. Martin to Prof. Gilman, from which extracts are here 
given: 

". . . . Our embryo University, launched three years ago under the patronage of 
Prince Kung, and favored with something like an imperial charter, created a panic 
in the ranks of the orthodox Confucianists, who assailed it with every available 
weapon. The call issued by imperial command for graduates of the native schools 
to come forward as candidates for scholarships was denounced as a national humil- 
iation ; and one of the Censors, in an address to the throne, charged the prevalence 
of a severe dearth in the northern provinces on the heresy of establishing such a 
school, and prayed that it might be abolished without delay. These are but speci- 
mens of the multiform opposition which it has had to encounter from Chinese con- 
servatism. Then came the ignorance of the Chinese language on the part of the 
new professors, and the unfortunate attempt to compel the students to acquire all 
their science through the medium of English and French. Some of the students, 
possessing high degrees and finished scholarship according to the native standard, 
were not less than forty or fifty years of age. As might have been anticipated, 
they failed utterly to acquire the first rudiments of a foreign tongue, and twenty of 
them were dismissed at one time. The mandarins were disheartened at the pros- 
pect, and threatened to disband the institution altogether, or rather to degrade it 
from the position of a seminary of science, the future pharos of the empire, to the 
condition of a small school, for the training of interpreters in foreign languages. 

"This was the posture of affairs which hastened last year my return from 
America to China by the shortest route. On arriving. I found the newspapers filled 
with accounts of the " failure of the Peking college," and almost abandoned the 
hope which till then I had cherished of doing something to revive it. 

" Contrary to my expectations, the mandarins met me with great cordiality, and 
assured me that they were now ready to take in fresh scholars and to prosecute 
the enterprise with renewed energy. At the instance of Mr. Hart, inspector- 
general of maritime customs (the original projector and hitherto de facto director of 
the institution), its conduct was formally committed to my hands by Prince Kung 
and his counsellors. I enclose an extract from their despatch." 

Dr. Martin goes on to describe the ceremony of his installation, consisting of a 
public dinner at the Board of Foreign Affairs, the salutation of their new head on 
the part of the students (forty in number, and divided into four classes — English, 
French, Russian, and mathematical), and an inaugural address ; and continues, 

" Our externals are little like those of a western institution of learning. Our 
grounds are unadorned by a single tree ; and our buildings, six in number, though 
neat, and altogether acceptable to Chinese taste, are only one story in height. 
There are three professors of foreign languages, three of Chinese, one of chemistry, 
and one of mathematics ; while the chair of political economy and international law 
belongs to me, as heretofore. Our faculty, you perceive, is very incomplete; and 
it is not unlikely that, as soon as we get our machinery into running order, we shall 
apply to America for more experts in science. 

" Our students are few, and not likely for a long time to count more than a 
hundred, even if they reach that number. But their selection from the ranks of 
the native scholars, the fact that they are all in training for the service of the gov- 
ernment, and especially that they are the first students in modern times who have 



Proceedings at Boston, May, 1870. lxxxiii 

been appointed by the emperor to pursue the study of science, conspire to give 
them something more than their numerical value. 

" Unlike the University of Cairo, we are free to teach modern science without 
restraint ; but we are not at liberty to introduce any form of religion. Still, the 
institution must prove auxiliary to the cause of religious reform, by helping to 
undermine the foundations of superstition in high places. 

" This embryo University, as I call it, is certainly very inadequate to the wants 
of the country, but it shows that the Chinese themselves are beginning to feel those 
wants. They are not charing with impatience to enter into competition with 
western nations, but they are beginning to be ashamed at finding themselves in 
the rear of other countries." 

The Rev. Mr. Sanders, of Ceylon, charged with presenting in 
this country the cause of the Jaffna College, being present, made 
some additional statements respecting its needs and plans, which 
were approved and urged by the Secretaries of the American 
Board, and other members of the Society, who heard them. 

1. On Comparative Grammars, by Prof. W. D. Whitney, of New 
Haven. 

This communication was a summary description and criticism of the works on 
Indo-European comparative grammar which lay now before the English public, and 
especially of two or three which had been recently published. He first referred 
very briefly to Bopp's master work, the editions it had gone through and the trans- 
lations that had been made of it, speaking especially of the one now appearing (and 
nearly completed) in French under the care of M. Break and enriched by him with 
valuable prefaces; also to Schleicher's "Compendium," of which a properly executed 
translation into English is much to be desired. These two great and comprehensive 
works, along with such more special treatises as Leo Meyer's comparative grammar 
of Greek and Latin, Curtius's Greek Etymologies, and Corssen's Latin Pronuncia- 
tion, are the storehouses whence have been recently drawn several works of a 
lighter character, intended as introductions to the study. A Rev. Mr Clark put 
forth in London, as long ago as 1862, a brief volume (12mo) on the comparison 
of the two Aryan, the two classical, and some of the more important Germanic 
tongues. It repels the student at the outset by a great blunder — the separation of 
the High-German from the rest of the Germanic, as an independent primary branch 
of the Indo-European family ; while, as if to preserve the old number of seven 
branches, the Greek and Latin ai e rim together into one — and, though it may be 
found by some a convenient manual, it has no independent authority or value. 
More extended and more pretentious is a comparative grammar of Sanskrit, Greek, 
and Latin, begun last year by Mr. W. H. Eerrar, of Trinity College, Dublin, and of 
which the second and concluding volume is promised at the beginning of 1872. 
This work was pronounced defective in its plan, as not including the Germanic 
branch; untrue to its plan, as introducing without apology an account of the phe- 
nomena falling under ;1 Grimm's Law," and other irrelevant matter; inconvenient 
to use, having neither table of contents, index, nor running headings; and put 
together by its author without that full mastery of its subject which we have a 
right to expect and demand. A French work of somewhat similar scope has been 
begun by M. Baudry (Paris, 1868), and is to comprise three volumes, of which only 
the first, on Phonetics, has appeared. It is less open to unfavorable criticism than 
Mr. Perrar's, but does not exhibit any striking ability, or real penetrating insight 
into its subject. Of decidedly higher character is Mr. J. .hn Peile's Introduction to 
Greek and Latin Etymology, in a series of fourteen lectures. Than this, nothing 
better has been produced in the English language upon its special subject. It is 
confessedly founded upon the labors of the great German masters of the science, 
but they have been studied in a free and independent spirit, and assimilated ; and 
Mr, Peile's exposition of the subject is not put together out of their works, but pro- 
duced from within himself, by a proper and organic process. It is excellently well 
adapted to its purpose, the introduction of classical scholars to the methods and 
results of modern scientific etymology. The author is less strong in phonetic 
theory than in the exhibition of phonetic phenomena — as is shown, for example, 



lxxxiv American Oriental Society : 

by his treatment of surd and sonant letters, which he styles " hards " and •' softs,'' 
and then lets those names determine his view of the historical relation of the two 
classes. His admission of the increment of vowels, as being a primary or organic 
process of word-formation in Indo-European speech, and having a " symbolic " sig- 
nificance, was objected to; the tendency, it was claimed, of the best linguistic 
science is to the clearer recognition of those processes of vowel-variation as at first 
euphonic merely, though afterwards more or less converted to the uses of radical or 
grammatical distinction. 

8. How are the Traditions of the Earliest Ages of our Race to 
be studied ? by Prof. J. W. Jenks, of Newtonville, Mass. 

Prof. Jenks claimed that we needed to sympathize with the condition and char- 
acter of childhood, in order to understand the formation of language, and the other 
features of the development of mankind, in the earliest ages of human history. 

After the reading of this paper, a vote of thanks was passed to 
the American Academy for the use of its rooms for the meeting, 
and the Society adjourned, to meet in New Haven in October next.